Openreach manages the connections between the MDF and the BT Wholesale/local-loop unbundling termination points located in the exchange, often referred to as jumper connections. In March 2017, BT Group agreed to Ofcoms demand to make Openreach a separate company, with its own staff, the resulting organisation, opened for business in January 2006 and reports directly into the BT chief executive. The functional separation of Openreach from BT has had mixed results, in July 2010 Openreach signed an £800 million contract with ECI Telecom to help it service and create a fibre-optic network serving 18 million households in the UK. The deal was the largest in ECIs history, Openreach has received a high number of customer complaints relating to poor service, although it rarely communicates directly with its customers. In 2009, BT announced Openreach would connect 2.5 million British homes to the higher speed FTTP network service by 2012, however, by the end of September 2015 only 250,000 homes were connected.
Around 3.5 million of the customers affected lived in rural areas, in March 2017 an investigation by Ofcom concluded that there were regulatory breaches at Openreach regarding the delivery of high-speed Ethernet cable services between January 2013 and December 2014. Contracts required compensation payments to be paid to other telecoms providers if the services were not delivered on time, Ofcom found that there had been a misuse of the terms of contracts allowing the compensation payments to be reduced. BT was fined £42 million and agreed to pay the telecoms providers involved as much as £300 million in compensation, telecoms provider customers who have problems cannot directly contact Openreach and have to go indirectly through their service provider. Openreach are accountable to each of the providers, as well as Ofcom. In July 2014, Ofcom completed a review of Openreachs service, in August 2015, Labour MP Chris Bryant called for Openreach to be split from BT, criticising the infrastructure and stating that it is too slow to fix faults and install new lines.
BT Groups merger with mobile phone operator EE, which received approval in October 2015, was partly funded using £1. 7bn of Openreach’s revenues. An investigation by the Competition and Markets Authority said it was not an issue but a matter for Ofcom. Keeping the status quo was said to be unlikely, the initial conclusions of Ofcoms investigation, which were published in February 2016, did not require BT to sell Openreach. In January 2016, a backed by 121 cross-party MPs stated Ofcom should force BT to sell off its Openreach service to open up competition. Nevertheless, Ofcoms decision, published in July 2016, did not require BT to sell Openreach, primarily due to the required and costs involved in addressing pension. On 29 November 2016 Ofcom ordered BT to legally separate from its Openreach division, Ofcom said that the competition concerns that it had identified in July had not been voluntarily addressed by BT in the interim. Ofcom further announced that it was preparing a formal notification to the European Commission to start the separation process, in March 2017, BT Group agreed to make Openreach a separate company, with its own staff and management.
Subsequently, BTs Infinity programme and other projects underwent urgent review, ministers discovered that the agency with responsibility to ensure Chinese equipment and code was threat-free was entirely staffed by Huawei employees
A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the systems of a mobile phone operator. Most modern mobile telephone services use a network architecture, therefore. Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to seven billion, penetrating 100% of the global population. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone manufacturers were Samsung, Apple, a handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone.
Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships, the race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and this was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology, in 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard.
This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators, ten years later, in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3. 5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have data transfer speeds. By 2009, it had become clear that, at point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology and it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is used in its plural form, telecommunications. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth, the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, and the Latin communicare, meaning to share.
Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, in the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could pass a single bit of information. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, in 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres, as a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Homing pigeons have occasionally used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post is thought to have Persians roots and was used by the Romans to aid their military, frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul.
The Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons, in the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the telegraph in 1837. Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke. Both inventors viewed their device as an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph not as a new device, samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837
Parental controls are features which may be included in digital television services and video games, mobile devices and software. Another feature of parental controls is the ability to blocking rating, such as Parental Advisory, TV-MA for TV, R and NC-17 for MPAA, content Filters were the first popular type of parental controls to limit access to Internet content. Television stations began to introduce V-Chip technology to access to television content. Modern usage controls are able to restrict a range of content such as explicit songs. Several techniques exist aimed at creating parental controls for blocking websites, virtually all parental control software includes a password or other form of authentication to prevent unauthorized users from disabling it Techniques involving a proxy server are used. A web browser is set to send requests for web content to the proxy rather than directly to the web server intended. The proxy server fetches the web page from the web server on the web browsers behalf, proxy servers themselves may be used to circumvent parental controls.
There are other techniques used to bypass parental controls, computer usage management method, unlike content filters, is focused on empowering the parents to balance the computing environment for children by regulating gaming. Lately network based parental control devices have emerged and these devices working as a firewall router use packet filtering, DNS Response Policy Zone and Deep packet inspection methods to block inappropriate web content. These methods have used in commercial and governmental communication networks. The increased use of devices that include full featured internet browsers and downloadable applications has created a demand for parental controls on these mobile. Several methods of bypassing parental controls can be used, using external proxy servers or other servers. The user sends requests to the server which retrieves content on the users behalf. To counter this, filtering software may access to popular proxies. Additionally, filtering systems which only permit access to a set of allowed URLs will not permit access anything outside this list, modifying the softwares files, and Brute-force attacks on software passwords.
Incognito/InPrivate modes with the tab, parental control software. See below for router based considerations and solutions, filtering that occurs outside of the individuals computer cannot be bypassed using the above methods. However, The major search engines cache and serve content on their own servers, as a result, domain filters such as many third party DNS servers, fail to filter the Incognito/InPrivate with image tab
Dabs. com was an e-commerce retailer in the United Kingdom and a subsidiary of BT Group. It was one of the UKs largest internet retailers of IT, originally Dabs Press, from 1987 to 1990, and Dabs Direct, it primarily sold its products via advertisements in IT related magazine. Dabs. com was founded in Bolton by David Atherton and Bruce Smith in 1987 and it subsequently grew to employ more than 200 people, with annual revenue of £200m from 5000 transactions daily. In April 2016 the dabs. com was phased out in favour of the BT Shop brand, Dabs operated in Ireland under dabs. ie and previously operated in France, but this closed at the end of May 2006
Ribbit (telecommunications company)
Ribbit was a telecommunications company based in Mountain View, California. It was acquired by BT Group on July 29,2008 for $105 million, on August 10,2011, Ribbit announced it was closing most of its external-facing operations and developer program within a couple of months. The company was integrated into BTs Technology and Operations division. The company’s goal was to voice communications a programmable feature, one that can be easily added to Web pages. Its competitors included IntelePeer and Jajah, Ribbit was founded on February 23,2006 by Ted Griggs, Crick Waters, Peter Leong, and Ramani Narayan. The company received a total $13 million in funding from venture capitalists Alsop-Louie Partners, Allegis Capital, Ribbit officially launched on December 17,2007. BT Group acquired the company on July 29,2008 for $105 million, the company made its platform for application developers public in November 2008. Ribbit offered a platform that allowed application developers to interact with telephone networks, through its APIs and soft switch technology, developers could add voice communications and text messaging capabilities to Web pages and software applications using familiar programming tools.
Ribbits soft switch supported many voice protocols, such as SIP, Ribbit Platform was a multiprotocol, cloud-based environment for programmable communications. Developers, ISVs, and carriers could use Ribbit Platform tools and APIs to add voice, SMS text messaging, developers could directly access Ribbit’s global phone network using Flex, Java, PHP. Net and other familiar programming tools. Voicemail messages were automatically transcribed and sent to users as email, Ribbit Mobile worked with users’ existing phone numbers. Ribbit Mobile allowed users to make calls directly from their computers, Ribbit for Salesforce was a software service built on the Ribbit Platform that linked mobile voice communications to email, SMS text messaging, and Salesforce CRM. Ribbit for Salesforce was voted “Best Mobile App of 2008” by Salesforce customers, voicemail messages were automatically transcribed so they could be easily read, saved and forwarded. Bring Your Own Network was a program that allowed telecommunications carriers to offer Ribbit Mobile, in addition, the program enabled carriers to use Ribbit Platform tools and APIs to develop new consumer services based on Ribbit’s global phone network.
Carriers could use Ribbit to avoid long development lead times and equipment costs associated with rolling out new services
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition to devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars. Variants of Android are used on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, beginning with the first commercial Android device in September 2008, the operating system has gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 7.0 Nougat, released in August 2016. Android applications can be downloaded from the Google Play store, which features over 2.7 million apps as of February 2017, Android has been the best-selling OS on tablets since 2013, and runs on the vast majority of smartphones. In September 2015, Android had 1.4 billion monthly active users, Android is popular with technology companies that require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. The success of Android has made it a target for patent, Android Inc.
was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are aware of its owners location. The early intentions of the company were to develop an operating system for digital cameras. Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly and that same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope. In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million and its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about Android at the time, with Rubin having only stated that they were making software for mobile phones, at Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system, Google had lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation.
Speculation about Googles intention to enter the communications market continued to build through December 2006. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony, the first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23,2008. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have improved the operating system, adding new features. Each major release is named in order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called Cupcake, Eclair. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices, a lineup in which Google partnered with different device manufacturers to produce new devices and introduce new Android versions
The term is used more broadly to denote any system of conveying a stored telecommunications voice messages, including using an answering machine. The term Voicemail was coined by Televoice International for their introduction of the first US-wide Voicemail service in 1980, although VMI trademarked the term, it eventually became a generic term used for referring to virtually all automated voice services employing a telephone. They became popular in the early 1980s when they were available on PC-based boards. In September 2012 a report from USA Today and Vonage claimed that Voice mail was in decline, the report said that the number of voicemail messages declined 8 percent compared to 2011. Voicemail systems are designed to convey a callers recorded audio message to a recipient, most systems use phone networks, either cellular- or landline-based, as the conduit for all of these functions. Some systems may use multiple methods, permitting recipients and callers to retrieve or leave messages through multiple methods such as PCs, PDA.
Simple voicemail systems function as an answering machine using touch-tones as the user interface. More complicated systems may use other input such as voice or a computer interface. Almost all modern systems use digital storage and are typically stored on computer data storage. Notification methods based on the voice-mail system. Simple systems may not provide active notification at all, instead requiring the recipient to check with the system, the conventional solution to efficient handling of telephone communication in businesses was the message center. A message center or message desk was a centralized, manual answering service inside a company staffed by a few operators who answered all incoming phone calls, extensions that were busy or rang no answer would forward to the message center using a device called a call director. The call director had a button for each extension in the company which would flash when that persons extension forwarded to the message center, a little label next to the button told the operator the person being called.
While it was an improvement over basic multi-line systems, the center had many disadvantages. Many calls would come in simultaneously at peak periods, such as lunch time and this left message attendants with little time to take each message accurately. Often, they were not familiar with names and buzzwords. Tape-based telephone answering machines had come into the telephone market. Further, the manufacturers of PBXs used proprietary digital phone sets in order to increase the functionality and these phone sets were, by design, incompatible with answering machines
Users typically connected via dial-up connections or dedicated asynchronous connections. The private networks were connected via gateways to the public network to reach locations not on the private network. Tymnet was connected to dozens of public networks in the United States. However the value of these continued to decrease, and Tymnet shut down in 2004. Tymnet offered local dial-up modem access in most cities in the United States and to a degree in Canada. Users would dial into Tymnet and interact with a simple interface to establish a connection with a remote system. Once connected, data was passed to and from the user as if connected directly to a modem on the distant system. For various technical reasons, the connection was not entirely invisible, in its original implementation, the network supervisor contained most of the routing intelligence in the network. Unlike the TCP/IP protocol underlying the internet, Tymnet used a circuit switching layout which allowed the supervisors to be aware of every possible end-point.
In its original incarnation, the connected to nodes built using Varian minicomputers. Circuits were character oriented and the network was oriented towards interactive character-by-character full-duplex communications circuits, the nodes handled character translation between various character sets, which were numerous at that time. This did have the effect of making data transfers quite difficult. Tymnet developed their own hardware, the Tymnet Engine. Tymnet II was developed in response to this challenge, a Tymnet II node would set up its own permuter tables, eliminating the need for the supervisor to keep copies of them, and had greater flexibility in handling its inter-node links. Data transfers were possible via auxiliary circuits. Tymshare was founded in 1964 as a time sharing company, selling computer time and it had two SDS/XDS940 computers, access was via direct dial-up to the computers. In 1968, it purchased Dial Data, another time-sharing service bureau, in 1968, Norm Hardy and LaRoy Tymes developed the idea of using remote sites with minicomputers to communicate with the mainframes.
The minicomputers would serve as the nodes, running a program to route data
The iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The devices are part of the series and were announced on September 9,2014. The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus received positive reviews, with critics regarding their improved design, camera, pre-orders of the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus exceeded four million within its first 24 hours of availability—an Apple record. More than ten million iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus devices were sold in the first three days, another Apple record, the iPhone 6 Plus was the subject of camera issues, including some devices with malfunctioning optical image stabilization or otherwise defects on rear cameras. The iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus were moved to the spot in Apples iPhone lineup when the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus were released in September 2015. The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus were discontinued on September 7,2016 when Apple announced the iPhone 7 and their spot as the entry-level iPhone was replaced by the iPhone SE, which was released earlier on March 31,2016.
From the launch of the original iPhone to the iPhone 4S, the iPhone 5 and its immediate successors featured a display that was taller, but the same width as prior models, measuring at 4 inches diagonally. 7-inch and 5. 5-inch displays. In August 2015, Apple admitted that some iPhone 6 Plus may have faulty cameras that could be causing photos to look blurry and initiated a replacement program. On September 9,2015, with the release of the iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus, the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus were moved to the mid-range of the iPhone lineup. In June 2016, Apple faced a potential sales ban in China, as Shenzhen Baili, both models come in gold and space gray finishes. The displays use a multiple-domain LCD panel, dubbed dual-domain pixels and this technique helps improve the viewing angles of the display. To accommodate the physical size of the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. The iPhone 6 features a 6.91 Wh battery, while the iPhone 6 Plus features an 11.1 Wh battery, unlike the previous model, the rear-facing camera is not flush with the rear of the device, and has a slight bulge around the lens.
Both models include an Apple A8 system-on-chip, and an M8 motion co-processor—an update of the M7 chip from the iPhone 5s, the primary difference between the M8 and the original M7 coprocessor is that the M8 includes a barometer to measure altitude changes. Phil Schiller touted that the A8 chip would provide, in comparison to the 5s, a 25% increase in CPU performance, a 50% increase in graphics performance, and less heat output. The expanded LTE connectivity on the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus is improved to LTE Advanced, with support for over 20 LTE bands, for up to 150 Mbit/s download speed, NFC support is restricted to Apple Pay only, and cannot be used for any other purposes. The iPhone 6s rear-facing camera now has the ability to shoot 1080p video at either 30 or 60 frames per second, the camera includes phase detection autofocus. The iPhone 6 Plus camera is identical, but includes optical image stabilization