Rumenka is a suburban settlement of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The village has a population of 5,729 people. In Serbian, the village is known as Rumenka or Руменка, in Hungarian as Piros or Piross, in Croatian as Rumenka; the story about origin of the name of Rumenka claim that in the early years of existence of the village, the land contained many red flowers and when looked upon from a distance Rumenka looked like a red field. Therefore, it was named "Piros" in Hungarian, it was first mentioned in 1237. During the Ottoman rule, in 1590, the population of the village numbered 20 houses. In this time, Rumenka was populated by Serbs. There is a Serbian Orthodox Church of Saints Peter and Paul, built after 1849 uprising, because the old one dating way back was destroyed, a Reformate Church was built in 1836 and a Parish house in the village. 1961: 2,546 1971: 2,906 1981: 3,629 1991: 4,361 Rumenka is located near the Danube-Tisa-Danube channel. Although Rumenka is located near Novi Sad, the largest city in Vojvodina, the main branch of industry in the village is farming.
List of places in Serbia List of cities and villages in Vojvodina Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996. RUMENKA
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central and Eastern Europe. Once, it was called "the most Hungarian river" because it flowed within the Kingdom of Hungary. Today, it crosses several national borders; the Tisza begins at the confluence of the White Tisa and Black Tisa. From there, the Tisza flows west following Ukraine's borders with Romania and Hungary into Hungary, into Serbia, it enters Hungary at Tiszabecs. It traverses Hungary from north to south. A few kilometers south of the Hungarian city of Szeged, it enters Serbia, it joins the Danube near the village of Stari Slankamen in Vojvodina, Serbia. The Tisza drains an area of about 156,087 km2 and has a length of 1,419 km — seco Its mean annual discharge is 792 m3/s, it contributes about 13% of the Danube's total runoff. Attila the Hun is said to have been buried under a diverted section of the river Tisza; the river was known as the Tisia in antiquity. It may be referred to as the Theiss in older English references, after the German name for the river, Theiß.
It is known as the Tibisco in Italian, in older French references it is referred to as the Tibisque. Modern names for the Tisza in the languages of the countries it flows through include: Romanian: Tisa; the length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1,419 km. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area. After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the "regulation of the Tisza" which started on August 27, 1846, ended in 1880; the new length of the river in Hungary was 1,419 km, 1,358 km total, with 589 km of dead channels and 136 km of new riverbed. The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km out of 4,220 km of all Hungarian protected rivers. In the 1970s, the building of the Tisza Dam at Kisköre started with the purpose of helping to control floods as well as storing water for drought seasons.
However, the resulting Lake Tisza became one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary since it had similar features to Lake Balaton at drastically cheaper prices and was not crowded. The Tisza is navigable over much of its course; the river opened up for international navigation only recently. After Hungary joined the European Union, this distinction was lifted and vessels were allowed on the Tisza. Conditions of navigation differ with the circumstances: when the river is in flood, it is unnavigable, just as it is at times of extreme drought; the Tisza has a rich and varied wildlife. Over 200 species of birds reside in the bird reserve of Tiszafüred; the flood plains along the river boast large amounts of diverse animal life. In particular, the yearly "flowering" of the Tisza is considered a local natural wonder; the flowering attracts vast numbers of mayflies, a well known spectacle. In early 2000, there was a sequence of serious pollution incidents originating from accidental industrial discharges in Romania.
The first, in January 2000, occurred when there was a release of sludge containing cyanide from a Romanian mine and killed 2,000 tonnes of fish. The second, from a mine pond at Baia Borsa, northern Romania, resulted in the release of 20,000 cubic metres of sludge containing zinc and copper occurred in early March 2000. A week the third spill occurred at the same mining site at Baia Borsa, staining the river black including heavy metals; this series of incidents were described at the time as the most serious environmental disaster to hit central Europe since the Chernobyl disaster. Use of river water for any purpose was temporarily banned and the Hungarian government pressed the Romanians and the European Union to close all installations that could lead to further pollution. Examination of river sediments indicates that pollution incidents from mines have occurred for over a century; the following rivers are tributaries to the river Tisza: Vișeu Kosivska Shopurka Iza Sarasău Bic Săpânța Șaroș Teresva Baia Tereblia Rika Batar Borzhava Tur Someș Someșul Mare Șieu Bistrița Someșul Mic Someșul Cald Someșul Rece Crasna Bodrog Ondava Latorica Laborec Uzh Cirocha Stara Vicha Kerepets Sajó Hernád Zagyva Körös Sebes-Körös Berettyó Crișul Alb Crișul Negru Mureș (entering near S
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Futog is a suburban settlement of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The name Futog derives from Old Church Slavonic term for “on the mouth” - vo utok. In Serbian, the town is known as Futog, in Croatian as Futog, in Hungarian as Futak, in German as Alt-Futok; the town has a population of 18,582. Ethnic groups include: Serbs = 16,828 Hungarians = 279 Yugoslavs = 226 othersThe population of the village includes a quarter under 15 years old, 66% work-capable people, 10% farmers. Historical population: 1948: 5,366 1953: 6,049 1961: 8,256 1971: 10,614 1981: 14,664 1991: 16,048 2002: 18,582 2011: 18,641 It is situated in the southern Bačka, 14 km far from Novi Sad, on the middle of the Danube stream. Neighbouring settlements are Begeč in the west and Rumenka in the north. Danube river is located in the south of the town. Futog is divided into Novi Futog; the town is 8 km long in west–east direction around the main street. Its area is 8,561 ha. Futog area outspreads on alluvial plain and inductional plane. Near Futog are two river isles, an effluent pulped in pond.
Climate is medium-continental, influenced by the Danube. Winds are Košava and Breeze. Precipitation is 700 mm a year. Hydrography include the Danube river and the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal. Plants are corn, industrial plants and well-known cabbage. Animals are ducks, rabbits, pheasant, etc. Archeological localities in the area include: Sesije, Gornje Šume, Bokternica and Pašnjak. Although there are traces of Slavs in Bačka from old antic period, Slavic presence in this area is confirmed by the data from 9th century, when the area was part of the Bulgarian Empire and Bulgarian voivod Salan ruled in Bačka. Presence of Hungarians is dated in the 10th century, after Salan was defeated by the Hungarian forces. Futog was first time mentioned in 1224. Before the Tatar invasion, settlement was known as Batkay. In the 15th century it was an important market town. During the Hungarian administration, Futog was part of the Bacsensis County and was a possession of the Futaky family in the 14th century, possession of the Jób Garai in the middle 15th century.
In 1526-1527 it was part of the state of Emperor Jovan Nenad, between 1528 and 1686 it was part of the Ottoman Empire. During the Ottoman administration, Futog was part of the Sanjak of Segedin and was populated by Serbs and Muslims. According to the Ottoman traveler from the 17th century, Evliya Çelebi, the town of Vutok had a fortress, 4 Muslim religious buildings, including mosque of Sulejman-han and 3 masjids, as well as about 180 houses. After 1686, it was part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1715, the population of Futog was composed of 130 Serbian and 7 Hungarian houses, while in 1720, it was composed of 126 Serbian and 14 Hungarian houses; the area was colonized by Germans. Near the Serb-populated Old Futog, Germans founded new settlement known as the New Futog. Sizable number of Germans settled in Old Futog as well. Colonization of Germans was ended in 1774. Between 1696 and 1868, Futog had annual princes; the prince had a symbolical function. The Estate of Futog was a possession of the King's Chamber 1686-1703, of General Baron Josef Nechem 1703-1721, of Josef Odwyer 1721-1731, of Count Friedrich Lorenz Caurian 1731-1744, of Mihailo Čarnojević 1744-1769, of Count András Hadik 1769-1801, of Count Brunszvik 1801-1852, of Count Rudolf Chotek 1852-1921.
In the 18th and the first half of the 19th century, Futog was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 Futog was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb autonomous region within Austrian Empire, while between 1849 and 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Austrian province. After the abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, Futog was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County. In 1910, population of the Old Futog was ethnically mixed, while population of the New Futog was German. Other smaller ethnic groups in the town included Slovaks. In 1918, Futog, as part of the Banat, Bačka and Baranja region, became part of the Kingdom of Serbia. Since December 1, 1918, it was part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. From 1918 to 1922, Futog was part of the Novi Sad County, from 1922 to 1929 part of the Bačka Oblast, from 1929 to 1941 part of the Danube Banovina. During World War II, after Axis Powers invaded and partitioned Yugoslavia, the town came under Axis occupation and was attached to Bács-Bodrog County of Horthy's Hungary.
After the defeat of Axis Powers, in 1944, one part of local German population left from the area, together with defeated German army. The antifascist council for the liberation of Yugoslavia declared the remaining German population as public enemies and sent them to communist prison camps. After the abolishment of the camps in 1948, the remaining German population left from Yugoslavia because of economical reasons. Since 1944, the town is part of Yugoslav Vojvodina, a part of socialist Serbia within new socialist Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Futog was settled by Serb families which originated from Bosnia and Srem. Population censuses conducted. After decades of population increase, 2011 census recorded decreasing population tendency. A baroque Serbian Orthodox Church “Sveti Vrači Ko
Bečej is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The town has a population of 23,895, it is a multiethnic town, predominantly inhabited by Hungarians. Bečej was mentioned first during the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1091 under Latin name Bechey and in 1238 under Hungarian name Becse. Name originated from Bechey family that had possessions in this area. In the 15th century the town was a possession of the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. In the end of the 15th century, army of the Kingdom of Hungary led by Serbian despot Vuk Grgurević defeated the Ottoman army near Bečej. In 1551, an Ottoman army led by Mehmed paša Sokolović conquered the town. Bečej was administered by the Ottomans between 1551 and 1687 and was part of the Sanjak of Segedin, in Budin eyalet, latterly in Eğri Eyalet. In Ottoman Turkish it was known as "Beçe". In the end of the 17th century the Ottoman administration was replaced by Habsburg one and settlement was populated by ethnic Serbs from Banat who ran away from the Ottoman Empire.
Between 1702 and 1751, the town belonged to the Tisza-Maros section of the Habsburg Military Frontier. After the abolishment of this part of the Frontier in 1751, many Serbs that lived in the town emigrated to Russia, they founded a new settlement with name Bečej in New Serbia. To prevent this emigration, the Habsburg authorities formed autonomous District of Potisje with seat in Becse. District of Potisje existed between 1751 and 1848; the three privileges were given to the district in 1759, 1774 and 1800. First privilege of the District defined its autonomous status, while the second one allowed ethnic Hungarians to settle in the district. In the following period many Hungarians settled in Becse and they replaced Serbs as a dominant nation in the town. In 1751, the entire population of the town was composed of Serbs, while in 1774 half of the population was composed of Serbs and another half was composed of Hungarians. According to the 1910 census, the population of Becse municipality numbered 54,275 people, of whom 30,465 spoke Hungarian and 22,821 Serbian.
The town of Becse had 19,372 inhabitants in 1910, of which 12,488 spoke Hungarian, 6,582 Serbian and 193 German. Serb elementary school in Becse was opened in 1703 and it is one of the oldest schools in Vojvodina as well as the first elementary school among Serbs. Hungarian elementary school was opened in Bečej in 1765, while Jewish elementary school was opened in 1882. Serb reading house was opened in 1862, while Hungarian reading house was opened in 1869. Since 1918, Bečej was part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes and subsequent South Slavic states. During the Hungarian Axis occupation, in the 1942 raid, 215 inhabitants of the town were murdered by Hungarian forces, of whom 111 were men, 72 women, 13 children, 19 old people. By nationality, victims included 110 Jews, 102 Serbs, 1 Hungarian. Bečej municipality includes the town of Bečej and the following villages: Bačko Gradište Bačko Petrovo Selo Mileševo Radičević Note: for settlements with absolute or relative Hungarian majority names are given in Hungarian.
There are several sub-settlements in the municipality, including: Poljanice Novo Selo Drljan Bečej is an ethnically mixed town and municipality. Settlements with a Hungarian ethnic majority are: Mileševo. There is one settlement with a Serb ethnic majority: Radičević. Two settlements: Bečej and Bačko Gradište are ethnically mixed; the ethnic composition of the municipality: The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Janika Balaž, Romani tamburica musician. Dejan Perić, Serbian handball player Aleksandar Popović Sandor, first Serb geologist. Roland Peter, Serbian bodybuilder. Carl von Than, Austro-Hungarian chemist. Mór Than, Hungarian painter. Aleksandar Maćašev, Serbian artist and designer. Emeric Feher, French photographer. Marko Tomićević, Serbian sprint canoer, Olympic silver medalist and European champion Marko Novaković, Serbian sprint canoer and European champion Dejan Terzić, Serbian sprint canoer Borislava Perić, Serbian table tennis player, Paralympic champion and three-time silver medalist Slobodan Kalinić, Serbian basketball coach,U-16 Romanian National basketball team Bečej is twinned with: Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania Szekszárd, Hungary Csongrád, Hungary Bečej is famous for its water polo club VK Bečej which won LEN Champions League in 2000.
When the city of Bečej was the host of Final Four. List of cities and villages in Vojvodina Fantast Castle, 19th-century castle in the vicinity of Bečej Sojaprotein, agribusiness company based in Bečej Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996. Zvonimir Golubović, Racija u južnoj Bačkoj 1942. Godine, Novi Sad, 1991. Jovan Mirosavljević, Brevijar ulica Novog Sada 1745-2001, Novi Sad, 2002. Municipality of Bečej Basic Court of Bečej Bečejski mozaik - The oldest Newspaper and Magazine Public media of Bečej Youth association of Bečej History of the town
Stepanovićevo is a suburban settlement of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. It has a population of 2,214 people. Stepanovićevo is situated about 20 km north-west from Novi Sad, between the villages of Kisač and Zmajevo; the village was named after Serbian Voivode Stepa Stepanović who distinguished himself in Serbia's wars from 1876 to 1918. In Serbian Cyrillic, the village is known as Степановићево, in Serbian Latin and Croatian as Stepanovićevo, in Hungarian as Bácshadikfalva, it was founded after World War I. 1961: 2,169 1971: 2,188 1981: 2,096 1991: 2,020 The village is located on the main rail tracks in Serbia, which connect Subotica, Novi Sad, Belgrade. Stepanovićevo, like most settlements close to Novi Sad, is connected to Novi Sad by the city's bus service JGSP Novi Sad - bus line 43. Many buses on route Vrbas-Novi Sad pass through the village. List of places in Serbia List of cities and villages in Vojvodina Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996. Stepanovićevo
Hungarians known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture and language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries Slovakia, Romania, Croatia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; the Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from Oghur-Turkic On-Ogur. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra".
It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881; the Magyars/Hungarians belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, it is possible that they became its ethnic majority. In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy", "Ungherese", "Ungar", "Hungarus"; the "H-" prefix is a addition of Medieval Latin. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian". "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer".
The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. "Magyar" may derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel". The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars; this was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up; some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous.
Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241; the Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds; the names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate; as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River.
The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin against the Eastern Frankish Empire and Great Moravia, but against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin; the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and by their old enemies the Pechenegs; the Bulgarians won the decisive b