Kraljevica is a town in the Kvarner region of Croatia, located between Rijeka and Crikvenica thirty kilometers from Opatija and near the entrance to the bridge to the island of Krk. Its population is 2,857 and a total of 4,618 in the municipality, it is administratively governed under the Rijeka civil authority; the town is known for its shipyard. Kraljevica is a town, written about as early as the 13th century. Today, in addition to having the oldest shipyard on the Adriatic, Kraljevica's skyline is dominated by two medieval castles and a church of the Croatian nobles Zrinski and Frankopan. Kraljevica's shipyard employed Josip Broz Tito, the former leader of Yugoslavia, during the first half of the 20th century in his early years of organizing for the Communist Party. After he became marshal of Yugoslavia following World War II the shipyard took his name, until democratic changes in the 1990s. Kraljevica was the site of an Italian-run concentration camp during WW II. Today Kraljevica is a popular tourist destination on the Adriatic coast.
The Krk Bridge is located nearby, in the southeast part of the city
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia. It is located in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,624 inhabitants; because of its strategic position and its excellent deep-water port, the city was fiercely contested among Italy and Croatia, changing hands and demographics many times over centuries. According to the 2011 census data, the overwhelming majority of its citizens are Croats, along with small numbers of Bosniaks and Serbs; the city has a strong sense of identity and the autochthonous inhabitants of Rijeka are referred to as Fiumans. Rijeka is the main city of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County; the city's economy depends on shipbuilding and maritime transport. Rijeka hosts the Croatian National Theatre Ivan pl. Zajc, first built in 1765, as well as the University of Rijeka, founded in 1973 but with roots dating back to 1632 School of Theology. Apart from Croatian and Italian, linguistically the city is home to its own unique dialect of the Venetian language, with an estimated 20,000 speakers among the autochthonous Italians and other minorities.
Fiuman served as the main lingua franca between the many ethnicities inhabiting the multiethnic port-town. In certain suburbs of the modern extended municipality the autochthonous population still speaks the Chakavian tongue, a dialect of the Croatian language. In 2016, Rijeka was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2020, alongside Galway, Republic of Ireland. Rijeka was called Tharsatica, Vitopolis, or Flumen in Latin; the city is called Rijeka in Croatian, Reka in Slovene, Reka or Rika in the local dialects of the Chakavian language. It is called Fiume in Italian. All these names mean "river" in their respective languages. Meanwhile, Hungarian has adopted the Italian name while in German the city has been called Sankt Veit am Flaum—St Vito on the river Flaum—or Pflaum. Rijeka is located in western Croatia, 131 kilometres southwest of the capital, Zagreb, on the northern coast of Rijeka Bay, as part of a larger Kvarner Gulf of the Adriatic Sea, a large bay Mediterranean Sea most indented to the European mainland.
The Bay of Rijeka, bordered by Vela Vrata, Srednja Vrata and Mala Vrata is connected to the Bay of Kvarner and is deep enough for the biggest sailing ships. The City of Rijeka lies at the mouth of river Rječina and in the Vinodol micro-region of the Croatian coast. Two important land transport routes start in Rijeka due to its location; the first route is to the Pannonian Basin given that Rijeka is located alongside the narrowest point of the Dinaric Alps. The other route, across Postojna Gate connects Rijeka with Slovenia and beyond. Though traces of Neolithic settlements can be found in the region, the earliest modern settlements on the site were Celtic Tharsatica on the hill, the tribe of mariners, the Liburni, in the natural harbour below; the city long retained its dual character. Pliny mentioned Tarsatica in his Natural History. In the time of Augustus, the Romans rebuilt Tharsatica as a municipium Flumen, situated on the right bank of small river Rječina, it became a city within the Roman Province of Dalmatia until the 6th century.
After the 4th century Rijeka was rededicated to St. Vitus, the city's patron saint, as Terra Fluminis sancti Sancti Viti or in German Sankt Veit am Pflaum. From the 5th century onwards, the town was ruled successively by the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines, the Lombards, the Avars. Croats settled the city starting in the 7th century giving it Rika svetoga Vida. At the time, Rijeka was a feudal stronghold surrounded by a wall. At the center of the city, its highest point, was a fortress. In 799 Rijeka was attacked by the Frankish troops of Charlemagne, their Siege of Trsat was at first repulsed, during which the Frankish commander Duke Eric of Friuli was killed. However, the Frankish forces occupied and devastated the castle, while the Duchy of Croatia passed under the overlordship of the Carolingian Empire. From about 925, the town was part of the Kingdom of Croatia, from 1102 in personal union with Hungary. Trsat Castle and the town was rebuilt under the rule of the House of Frankopan. In 1288 the Rijeka citizens signed the Law codex of Vinodol, one of the oldest codes of law in Europe.
Rijeka rivalled with Venice when it was purchased by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III, Archduke of Austria in 1466. It would remain under Habsburg overlordship for over 450 years, except for French rule between 1805 and 1813, until its occupation by Croatian and subsequently Italian irregulars at the end of World War I. After coming under Habsburg rule in 1466, the town was attacked and plundered by Venetian forces in 1509. While Ottoman forces attacked the town several times, they never occupied it. From the 16th century onwards, Rijeka was rebuilt in its present Renaissance and Baroque style. Emperor Charles VI declared the Port of Rijeka a free port in 1719 and had the trade route to Vienna expanded in 1725. By order of Empress Maria Theresa in
Ravna Gora, Croatia
Ravna Gora is a village in western Croatia, located between Delnice and Vrbovsko in the mountainous region of Gorski Kotar. It is the seat of a municipality whose total population is 2,430, with 1,709 in Ravna gora itself and the rest in five smaller villages
The town of Kastav was built on a 365 m high hill overlooking the Kvarner Bay in the northern part of the Adriatic coast. It is in close vicinity of Rijeka, the largest port in Croatia, the Opatija Riviera, one of the popular tourist destinations in Croatia. Rising above towns teeming with activity, Kastav has managed to preserve its rich history, its valuable architectural monuments, its culture and its untouched nature over many centuries. At the same time, keeping up with the times, it developed an up to date entrepreneurial spirit reflected in both attractive and unique tourist offers as well as in traditional industries. Kastav can offer an exquisite blend of business opportunities to every visitor. Kastav has it all - from high quality music and stage performances to folk festivals and carnival parties, from recreation in nature to visits to museums and landmarks, always accompanied with first class gastronomic and oenological delights; the total population of Kastav is 10,472. The census of 2001 had recorded the following settlements: Brnčići, population 677 Ćikovići, population 3,089 Kastav, population 2,037 Rubeši, population 1,722 Spinčići, population 876 Trinajstići, population 490In the 2011 census, there was only one settlement, Kastav.
Kastav, history is everywhere. It is impossible to speak about the ancient town made of stone, situated on the top of the hill and encircled with the town’s wall, without mentioning its indisputable historical significance preserved throughout the ages; the history of Kastav dates back to prehistoric times, borne out by numerous archaeological finds. A valuable archaeological site is the Illyrian necropolis found in the Mišinci karst valley at the foot of the town, it is where one of the Illyrian tribes, buried their deceased. Pieces of jewellery and needle pins were found, it is not known for sure. Some claim the name is derived from the Celtic word kast while others say it is derived from the Latin word castellum. Valuable monuments preserved to this day witness the medieval liveliness of the Kastav area. Among them are the town's Kaštel, the Municipal Loggia, the Volta, The Parish Church of Saint Jelena Križarica, Lokvina square, the remains of the Crekvina and the Church of the Holy Trinity and a number of ornaments embedded in the nucleus of the town.
Writings in various books witness the town's rich history. Kastav is mentioned in all the important editions that deal with the history of Croatia as well as in those that deal with the history of this part of Europe; because of its unusual but good position Kastav has hot summers and cold winters. In summer evenings Kastav is crowded with walkers who come for the fresh air in the forest and for sport, athletes who have their summer break but want to stay in good shape. In winter Kastav is one of the first places in the Kvarner region to become white with snow. Gastronomy: Restaurant "Kukuriku"; the Kastav region has always been known for its high-quality craftsmanship. Today, the town's economy is marked by small and medium scaled enterprises and just a few larger firms. Besides the fact that those kinds of businesses have good prospects in present day economic conditions, with such an economic structure the Kastav region is preserving its natural and cultural heritage persisting on the development of ecologically acceptable activities in accordance with sustainable development trends.
The town of Kastav has signed The Aalbor Charter – a charter for the sustainable development of European cities in the 21st century joining around 400 cities from 35 European countries. The city of Kastav has always and with every right took pride in its cultural heritage, its cultural events are the city's most recognisable feature to this day. During the centuries, the town has preserved a substantial part of its cultural-historical monuments and traditions; each new generation of Kastav people adds another piece to the complex mosaic of the town's culture. One of the oldest and best preserved Kastav legacies is the tradition of carnival, so-called Pust. From Saint Anthony’s Day on 17 January until Ash Wednesday there are carnival dances every Saturday named pusni tanci. Carnival ends on Ash Wednesday with the burning of the straw effigy who serves as the culprit blamed for all the misfortunes that had happened in the past year; as along with many other towns situated at the meeting point of Central Europe and the Mediterranean, Kastav has a rich tradition and a recognisable identity.
Throughout its history, Kastav has been an administrative and cultural hub of Istria and Primorje. It has been and it still is the centre of the Croatian national question, which enabled the town to retain its autonomy and customs when other larger towns started to emerge in its surroundings. In ancient times, the Kastav region stretched all the way to Mount Učka’s slopes and many feudalists fought for the town. Kastav’s town nucleus was fortified with a medieval wall with nine towers situated on a 365m high hill served, it still serves as the centre of the area, it still witnesses the greatness and importance of Kastav from the old days; the town of Kastav successfull
Opatija is a town in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County in western Croatia. The traditional seaside resort on the Kvarner Gulf is known for its Mediterranean climate and its historic buildings reminiscent of the Austrian Riviera. Opatija is located 18 km southwest of the regional capital Rijeka, about 90 km from Trieste by rail and 82 km from Pula by road; the city is geographically on the Istrian peninsula. The tourist resort is situated on the Kvarner Gulf, part of the Adriatic coast, in a sheltered position at the foot of Učka massif, with the Vojak peak reaching at a height of 1,401 m; as of 2011, the town had 11,659 inhabitants in total. The town is a popular summer and winter resort, with average high temperatures of 10 °C in winter, 32 °C in summer. Opatija is surrounded by beautiful woods of bay laurel; the whole sea-coast to the north and south of Opatija is rocky and picturesque, contains several smaller winter resorts. Opatija was included in the territory of a pre-Roman Illyrian tribe. In Roman times, the area was home to several patrician villas connected to the nearby town of Castrum Laureana, the modern Lovran.
Croats settled in the region from about 700 AD onwards. Conquered by King Pepin of Italy, son of Charlemagne, in 789, the Istrian peninsula up to the Kvarner Gulf was incorporated into the Carolingian March of Friuli by 803. In the east, it bordered on the medieval Kingdom of Croatia established by King Tomislav about 925. Having invaded Italy, King Otto of Germany made the Istrian lands part of the vast March of Verona and Aquileia. In the Middle Ages the current town's territory was divided between Veprinac and Kastav, where the fisherman village of Veprinac; the small hamlet of Opatija itself developed around a Benedictine abbey dedicated to Saint Jacob, first mentioned in 1453. While western Istria was conquered by the Republic of Venice by 1420, the remaining territory up to Opatija fell to the House of Habsburg and was incorporated into the Austrian Littoral; the town's modern history began in 1844, when Iginio Scarpa, a wealthy merchant from Rijeka, had the Villa Angiolina manor built in an extended park, where he received notable guests such as Ban Josip Jelačić.
In 1873 the Austrian Southern Railway company from Vienna opened the branch line from Pivka to Rijeka via nearby Matulji and thus opened the path for the development of tourism in Opatija and neighbouring Lovran. In 1882, the railway company purchased the Villa Angiolina, where it accommodated the crown prince couple Rudolf and Stéphanie. At the time, Friedrich Julius Schüler, the Managing Director of the Southern Railways, started the construction of the Hotel Quarnero and the Hotel Kronprinzessin Stephanie, was responsible for the unique lungomare and parks; the Villa Angiolina was run by the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits. In the Angiolina Park today stands Schüler's bust, a work of the sculptor Hans Rathausky. In 1887, Heinrich von Littrow established the "Union Yacht Club Quarnero" in Opatija. In 1889 the Cisleithanian government declared Abbazia the first climatic seaside resort on the Austrian Riviera, rivalled by Brioni, Duino and Portorož. After the hotels, the building of villas started, for the needs of more demanding noble guests.
The first Villa Amalia, in the immediate vicinity of the Hotel Quarnero, was built in 1890 as the hotel's annex. Opatija's first guide was published in 1883 in Vienna with Idylle von der Adria; the same year saw the publication of Abbazia und seine Umgebung by Heinrich Noe, who in 1884 published his Tagebuch aus Abbazia. Joseph Rable printed Curort und Seebad Abbazia, Peter von Radics wrote a guidebook titled Abbazia. In 1908 a tramway line was opened, running from Matulji station along the coast via Opatija down to Lovran in the south. Opatija is best known nowadays as the venue for a 1912 chess tournament devoted to the King’s Gambit; the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I used to spend several months there during the winter. He met there with the German emperor Wilhelm II on 29 March 1894. Many of the late 19th-century luxury hotels and villas have survived to present times. During World War I the Hotel Icicii was converted to a military hospital; the accompanying pictures show the nursing staff and wounded at lunch, on the grounds, receiving care.
In 1920 Opatija was assigned to Italy. Two years with the advent of Fascism, the Italian government started a program of forced italianization of the population, most of the public positions were assigned to Italian-speaking citizens; the upper floor of Villa Amalia was built in 1930, the building was renovated to become the summer residence of the House of Savoy. In 1947 Opatija was given to Yugoslavia as part of the peace treaty with Italy.
Krk is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. Traditionally, Krk had been thought to be the largest Adriatic island, with an area of 405.78 km2, until geographical survey and remeasurements done in 2011 determined that the neighboring island of Cres has an equal surface area. Krk is the most populous island in the Adriatic Sea, with multiple towns and villages that contain a total of 19,383 inhabitants. Archeological finds show that the island has been inhabited without interruption since the Neolithic age although not much about the earliest people is known. In periods and Latin sources refer to Κύριστα or Curicta as one of the Apsyrtidian or Electridian islands held by the Liburnians, an Illyrian tribe; the Liburnians called the island "Curicum,", assumed to be an illyrized name given the island by its original inhabitants. There are the remains of prehistoric settlements near Draga Bašćanska and Bronze Age and Iron age earthworks near Malinska, Vrbnik and Baška.
Krk came under Roman rule. The Town of Krk became a town with Italic law whose status evolved to give it the rights of a municipality. Nothing is known about the internal organizations of the town of Krk during this time. Near the present day Franciscan monastery, the remains of thermal baths have been found; the defensive walls of Roman Curicum were among the most secure of all the towns on the Eastern Adriatic fortified by the Romans. Work began on their construction during the Civil War in Rome and they were further strengthened in the 60s of the 2nd century CE, to enable them to withstand attacks by the Quadi and the Marcamanni who were at that time threatening the Adriatic. Not far from Krk in 49 BCE there was a decisive sea battle between Caesar and Pompey, described impressively by the Roman writer Lucan in his work Pharsalia; when the Empire was divided, Krk came under the Eastern Roman Empire. The walls of the town of Krk could not withstand attacks by the Avars, but in contrast to Salona and Aeona, life in Krk returned to normal.
The Croats penetrated into the town on several occasions. They retained many of the Roman names they found there and so it is said that Krk has a "mosaic dialect". Following the Treaty of Aachen the entire island was ceded to the Byzantine Empire and was governed according to the norms of that Empire. During the reign of Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Krk was known as Vekla, of which the Romanized variant used by the Venetians, was "Veglia". There are no extant documents showing, it is known that from around 875 the Byzantine town paid the Croatian rulers 110 gold pieces a year to be able peacefully to keep their hold there. While the Croatian state was being established, Krk found itself on the Venetians' route to the Mediterranean; the Venetians conquered the town for the first time in 1001, from Krk's history was linked with the history of the Republic of Venice for seven centuries. During the reign of Peter Krešimir IV the Croatian rulers regained their power, but the Venetians took Krk for the second time in 1118.
When the Venetians conquered Krk for the second time in 1118, the local noble family, the unknown Dujams, received Krk as part of a pact with Venice, they became Counts. When Dujam died in 1163, Venice allowed his sons to make their position hereditary, after a payment of 350 Byzantine gold pieces as tax. In a short time the Krk Counts became so strong that at one time from 1244 to 1260, Venice rescinded their authority; this failed to impede their rise however. They increased economic exploitation, but they endeavoured to strengthen old traditions and rights with various statutes. Dujam's youngest son, who died in 1209, succeeded in extending his authority to the mainland, began to serve the Croatian-Hungarian King and received the district of Modruš. Due to his economic strength and social standing, his opponents fought each other for his favour; the Counts became so strong. Members of his family were leaders in Split and Senj, from 1392 one of them, became a Croatian-Dalmatian Ban. In 1430 they took the surname Frankopan.
That year they adopted a coat of arms showing two lions breaking a piece of bread. From 1449, the descendants of Nikola IV founded eight branches of his family, together with the Zrinski Counts were the ruling feudal family in the whole of Croatia right up to 1671; the Frankopans produced seven Croatian Bans, many of them were patrons of Croatian artists. Krk was the last Adriatic island to become part of the Venetian Empire. Due to its location, closest to the Uskoks of Senj, it served as a lookout point and the first line of defence against the Uskoks. From that time the ruler was a Venetian noble, but the Small and the Large Councils both had a certain autonomy; the doge controlled the clergy but public documents were written in Glagolitic, adopted here more than anywhere else. At the beginning of the 16th century the inhabitants of inland Croatia began to settle on Krk in their flight from the Turks, but Krk suffered a decline like all other Venetian property. In 1527 the town had 10,461 inhabitants and in 1527 it had 8,000.
Austrian rule began with the fall of Venice in 1797 and was interrupted by Napoleon's Illyr
Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practicing and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all of which takes place on private property. The term may refer to a lifestyle based on personal, family, or social nudism. Naturism may take a number of forms, it may be practiced individually, within a family or in public. Additionally, there is militant naturism, including campaigning, extreme naturism is sometimes considered a separate category; the XIV Congress of the International Naturist Federation defined naturism as: a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the practice of communal nudity with the intention of encouraging self-respect, respect for others and for the environment. Several other terms have been proposed as alternative terms for naturism, but none has found the same widespread public acceptance as the older terms "naturism" and "nudism". People interested in social nudity can attend clothes-free beaches and other types of ad-hoc nudist events.
At these venues, participants need not belong to a nudist club. Many contemporary naturists and naturist organisations feel that the practice of social nudity should be asexual. For various social and historical reasons the lay public, the media, many contemporary naturists and their organisations oversimplify the relationship between naturism and sexuality. Current research has begun to explore this complex relationship; the International Naturist Federation explains: "Each country has its own kind of naturism, each club has its own special character, for we too, human beings, have each our own character, reflected in our surroundings."The usage and definition of these terms varies geographically and historically. Though in the United States and nudism have the same meaning, in Britain there is a clear distinction. Nudism is the act of being naked, while naturism is a lifestyle which at various times embraced nature, respect for others, self-respect, healthy eating, teetotalism, non-smoking, physical exercise and pacifism as well as nudity.
In naturist parlance, textile or textilist is a non-naturist person, non-naturist behaviour or non-naturist facilities. E.g. the textile beach starts at the flag, they are a mixed couple – he is naturist, she is textile. Textile is the predominant term used in the UK, although some naturists avoid it due to perceived negative or derogatory connotations. Textilist is said to be used interchangeably, but no dictionary definition to this effect exists, nor are there any equivalent examples of use in mainstream literature such as those for textile. Clothing optional and nude optional describe a policy or a venue that allows or encourages nudity but tolerates the wearing of clothes; the opposite is clothing compulsory. Adjectival phrases clothes free and clothing free prescribe where naturism is permitted in an otherwise textile environment, or define the preferred state of a naturist; the social nudity movement includes a large range of variants including "naturism", "nudism", "Freikörperkultur", the "free beach movement" as well as generalized "public lands/public nudity" advocacy.
There is a large amount of shared history and common themes and philosophy, but differences between these separate movements remain contentious. See also: labels and terminology for an extended discussion and disambiguation. Many people are nude in the privacy of their home or garden, either alone or with members of the family; this may be occasional nudity or as a naturist lifestyle. There are differences of opinion as to whether, if so to what extent, parents should appear naked in front of their children, whether children should be nude within the home in the view of their family as well as visitors; this has attracted a great deal of academic study. A United States study by Alfred Kinsey found that 75% of the participants stated that there was never nudity in the home when they were growing up, 5% of the participants said that there was "seldom" nudity in the home, 3% said "often", 17% said that it was "usual"; the study found that there was no significant difference between what was reported by men and by women with respect to frequency of nudity in the home.
Gordon and Schroeder in 1995 reported that parental nudity varies from family to family. They say that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information, they note that by ages 5 to 6 children begin to develop a sense of modesty, recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards. Barbara Bonner in 1999 cautioned against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type, considered problematic. In a 1995 review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect. Three years his team finished an 18-year longitudinal study that showed that, if anything, such exposure was associated with slight beneficial effects for boys. Smith and Sparks in their study on the effects of social nudity on children conclude that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from being destructive to the psyche, seems to be either benign and harmless or to actually