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Ba'ath Party

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi. The party espoused Ba'athism, an ideology mixing Arab nationalist, pan-Arabism, Arab socialist, anti-imperialist interests. Ba'athism calls for unification of the Arab world into a single state, its motto, "Unity, Socialism", refers to Arab unity, freedom from non-Arab control and interference. The party was founded by the merger of the Arab Ba'ath Movement, led by Aflaq and al-Bitar, the Arab Ba'ath, led by al-Arsuzi, on 7 April 1947 as the Arab Ba'ath Party; the party established branches in other Arab countries, although it would only hold power in Iraq and Syria. The Arab Ba'ath Party merged with the Arab Socialist Movement, led by Akram al-Hawrani, in 1952 to form the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party; the newly formed party was a relative success, became the second-largest party in the Syrian parliament in the 1954 election. This, coupled with the increasing strength of the Syrian Communist Party, led to the establishment of the United Arab Republic, a union of Egypt and Syria.

The union would prove unsuccessful, a Syrian coup in 1961 dissolved it. Following the break-up of the UAR, the Ba'ath Party was reconstituted. However, during the UAR, military activists had established the Military Committee to take control of the Ba'ath Party from civilian hands. In the meantime, in Iraq, the local Ba'ath Party branch had taken power by orchestrating and leading the Ramadan Revolution, only to lose power a couple of months later; the Military Committee, with Aflaq's consent, took power in Syria in the 8th of March Revolution of 1963. A power struggle developed between the civilian faction led by Aflaq, al-Bitar, Munif al-Razzaz and the Military Committee led by Salah Jadid and Hafez al-Assad; as relations between the two factions deteriorated, the Military Committee initiated the 1966 Syrian coup d'état, which ousted the National Command led by al-Razzaz and their supporters. The 1966 coup split the Ba'ath Party between the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath movement and the Syrian-dominated Ba'ath movement.

The party was founded on 7 April 1947 as the Arab Ba'ath Party by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, the followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi in Damascus, leading to the establishment of the Syrian Regional Branch. Other regional branches were established throughout the Arab world in the 1940s and early 1950s, in, among others, Iraq and Jordan. Throughout its existence, the National Command, gave most attention to Syrian affairs; the 2nd National Congress was convened in June 1954, elected a seven-man National Command. The congress is notable for sanctioning the merger of the Arab Socialist Movement and the Ba'ath Party, which took place in 1952; the Syrian Regional Branch rose to prominence in the 1950s. 90 percent of Ba'ath Party members who stood for elections were elected to parliament. The failure of the traditional parties represented by the People's Party and the National Party, strengthened the Ba'ath Party's public credibility. Through this position, the party was able to get two of its members into the cabinet.

Its new, strengthened position, was used to garner support for Syria's merger with Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egypt, which led to the establishment of the United Arab Republic in 1958. On 24 June 1959, Fuad al-Rikabi, the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch, accused the National Command of betraying Arab nationalist principles by conspiring against the UAR. In light of these criticisms, the Ba'ath convened the 3rd National Congress, attended by delegates from "Iraq, Jordan, South Arabia, the Gulf, Arab South, Arab Maghreb and Party student organisations in Arab and other universities outside the homeland"; the congress is notable for endorsing the dissolution of the Syrian Regional Branch, decided by Aflaq and Bitar without inner-party consultation in 1958, for expelling Rimawi, the Regional Secretary of the Jordanian Regional Branch. Rimawi reacted to his expulsion by forming his own party, the Arab Socialist Revolutionary Ba'ath Party, which established a rival National Command to compete with the original.

The National Command responded to the problems in Iraq by appointing a Temporary Regional Command on 2 February 1960, which appointed Talib El-Shibib as Regional Secretary, on 15 June 1961 the National Command expelled Rikabi from the party. In Iraq, the Iraqi Regional Branch had supported Abd al-Karim Qasim's seizure of power and its ensuing abolishment of the Iraqi Monarchy; the Iraqi Ba'athists supported Qasim on the ground that they believed he would enter Iraq into the UAR, enlarging the Arab nationalist republic. However, this was proven to be a ruse, after taking power Qasim launched an Iraq first policy. In retaliation, the Ba'ath Party tried to assassinate Qasim in February 1959, but the operation failed. Qasim was overthrown in the Ramadan Revolution led by youn

Minimum-cost flow problem

The minimum-cost flow problem is an optimization and decision problem to find the cheapest possible way of sending a certain amount of flow through a flow network. A typical application of this problem involves finding the best delivery route from a factory to a warehouse where the road network has some capacity and cost associated; the minimum cost flow problem is one of the most fundamental among all flow and circulation problems because most other such problems can be cast as a minimum cost flow problem and that it can be solved efficiently using the network simplex algorithm. A flow network is a directed graph G = with a source vertex s ∈ V and a sink vertex t ∈ V, where each edge ∈ E has capacity c > 0, flow f ≥ 0 and cost a, with most minimum-cost flow algorithms supporting edges with negative costs. The cost of sending this flow along an edge is f ⋅ a; the problem requires an amount of flow d to be sent from source s to sink t. The definition of the problem is to minimize the total cost of the flow over all edges: ∑ ∈ E a ⋅ f with the constraints A variation of this problem is to find a flow, maximum, but has the lowest cost among the maximum flow solutions.

This could be called a minimum-cost maximum-flow problem and is useful for finding minimum cost maximum matchings. With some solutions, finding the minimum cost maximum flow instead is straightforward. If not, one can find the maximum flow by performing a binary search on d. A related problem is the minimum cost circulation problem, which can be used for solving minimum cost flow; this is achieved by setting the lower bound on all edges to zero, making an extra edge from the sink t to the source s, with capacity c = d and lower bound l = d, forcing the total flow from s to t to be d. The following problems are special cases of the minimum cost flow problem: Shortest path problem. Require that a feasible solution to the minimum cost flow problem sends one unit of flow from a designated source s to a designated sink t. Give all edges infinite capacity. Maximum flow problem. Let all nodes have zero demand, let the cost associated with traversing any edge be zero. Now, introduce a new edge from the current sink t to the current source s.

Stipulate that the per-unit cost of sending flow across edge equals − 1, permit infinite capacity.. Assignment problem. Suppose that each partite set in the bipartition has n vertices, denote the bipartition by. Give each x ∈ X supply 1 / n and give each y ∈ Y demand 1 / n; each edge is to have unit capacity. The minimum cost flow problem can be solved by linear programming, since we optimize a linear function, all constraints are linear. Apart from that, many combinatorial algorithms exist, for a comprehensive survey; some of them are generalizations of maximum flow algorithms, others use different approaches. Well-known fundamental algorithms: Cycle canceling: a general primal method. Minimum mean cycle canceling: a simple polynomial algorithm. Successive shortest path and capacity scaling: dual methods, which can be viewed as the generalization of the Ford–Fulkerson algorithm. Cost scaling: a primal-dual approach, which can be viewed as the generalization of the push-relabel algorithm. Network simplex algorithm: a specialized version of the linear programming simplex m

La Voleuse

La Voleuse, meaning'the thief', is the French title of a 1966 Franco-German film directed by Jean Chapot, with dialogue by Marguerite Duras, called Schornstein Nr. 4 in German. Set in Germany, it tells the story of a childless couple where the wife steals back a little boy she gave away in her teens and the husband persuades her that the childless couple who lovingly raised the child have the better claim. Werner and Julia, a childless middle-class couple in Berlin, face a crisis. Unable to conceive, Julia wants to reclaim a child she gave away at birth when she was single in her teens; the little boy is now six and lives in Essen with a childless working-class couple, a Polish immigrant called Radek and his wife. Despite Werner's efforts to dissuade her, she starts stalking the child; as there was no formal adoption, she feels she has a legal as well as a moral right to the boy and one day at the swimming pool she abducts him. Tracing his beloved little boy to Berlin, Radek seizes him back. Werner regains possession of the lad.

It becomes apparent that not only is Julia's mental balance precarious but she lacks parenting skills. Radek, inconsolable at his loss, climbs a factory chimney and says he will throw himself off if the child is not returned; the media take up the case, with most of the country on the side of the honest couple who raised the boy and against the selfish mother. Shortly before Radek's deadline, Werner persuades Julia to give the boy back, but it is doubtful what kind of marriage is left for the pair. Romy Scheider – Julia Michel Piccoli – Werner Hans-Christian Blech – Radek Sonja Schwarz – Radek's wife Mario Huth – The little boy La Voleuse on IMDb