A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes plays. The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old English plæġ, pleġa, plæġa ("play, exercise; the word "wright" is an archaic English term for a builder. The words combine to indicate a person who has "wrought" words and other elements into a dramatic form—a play; the first recorded use of the term "playwright" is from 1605, 73 years before the first written record of the term "dramatist". It appears to have been first used in a pejorative sense by Ben Jonson to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson uses the word in his Epigram 49, thought to refer to John Marston: Epigram LXVIII — On Playwright PLAYWRIGHT me reads, still my verses damns, He says I want the tongue of epigrams. Playwright, I loath to have thy manners known In my chaste book. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and so were regarded as the province of poets; this view was held as late as the early 19th century.
The term "playwright" again lost this negative connotation. The earliest playwright in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks; these early plays were for annual Athenian competitions among play writers held around the 5th century BC. Such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts. For the ancient Greeks, playwriting involved poïesis, "the act of making"; this is the source of the English word poet. In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, in which he analyzed the principle of action or praxis as the basis for tragedy, he considered elements of drama: plot, thought, diction and spectacle. Since the myths, on which Greek tragedy were based, were known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was determined by action. Tragedy is mimesis—"the imitation of an action, serious", he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist, which provides the basis for the "conflict-driven" play.
The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century. The neoclassical ideal, to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action and time; this meant that the playwright had to construct the play so that its "virtual" time would not exceed 24 hours, that it would be restricted to a single setting, that there would be no subplots. Other terms, such as verisimilitude and decorum, circumscribed the subject matter significantly. For example, verisimilitude limits of the unities. Decorum fitted proper protocols for language on stage. In France, contained too many events and actions, violating the 24-hour restriction of the unity of time. Neoclassicism never had as much traction in England, Shakespeare's plays are directly opposed to these models, while in Italy and bawdy commedia dell'arte and opera were more popular forms. In England, after the Interregnum, restoration of the monarchy in 1660, there was a move toward neoclassical dramaturgy.
One structural unit, still useful to playwrights today, is the "French scene", a scene in a play where the beginning and end are marked by a change in the makeup of the group of characters onstage, rather than by the lights going up or down or the set being changed. Popularized in the nineteenth century by the French playwrights Eugène Scribe and Victorien Sardou, the most schematic of all formats, the "well-made play" relies on a series of coincidences that determined the action; this plot driven format is reliant on a prop device, such as a glass of water, or letter that reveals some secret information. In most cases, the character receiving the secret information misinterprets its contents, thus setting off a chain of events. Well-made plays are thus motivated by various plot devices which lead to "discoveries" and "reversals of action," rather than being character motivated. Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House is an example of a well-made structure that began to integrate a more realistic approach to character.
The character Nora's leaving is as much motivated by "the letter" and disclosure of a "past secret" as it is by her own determination to strike out on her own. The well-made play infiltrated other forms of writing and is still seen in popular formats such as the mystery, or "whodunit." Full-length play: Generally, two or three acts with an act break that marks some kind of scene change or time shift. These acts are divided into scenes, which are defined by shifts in time and place; this type of structure is called episodic. Episodic plays contain scene changes and require careful attention to transitions, so as to maintain entails a more causal relationship between units and is defined by the unity of time, and/or action. Short play: A more popular format the short play does not have an intermission and runs over an hour, but less than an hour-and-a-half. One-act play: A useful form for experimental work with less reliance on character development and arc; these remain under an hour in length.
In the US the 10-minute play
Sturm und Drang
Sturm und Drang was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements; the period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. French neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early Baroque, with its emphasis on the rational, was the principal target of rebellion for adherents of the Sturm und Drang movement. For them, sentimentality and an objective view of life gave way to emotional turbulence and individuality, enlightenment ideals such as rationalism and universalism no longer captured the human condition.
The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title of a play by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, written for Abel Seyler's Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft and published in 1776. The setting of the play is the unfolding American Revolution, in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and extols individuality and subjectivity over the prevailing order of rationalism. Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it was from this point that German artists became distinctly self-conscious of a new aesthetic; this spontaneous movement became associated with a wide array of German authors and composers of the mid-to-late Classical period. Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aimed at shocking the audience or imbuing them with extremes of emotion; the movement soon gave way to Weimar Classicism and early Romanticism, whereupon a socio-political concern for greater human freedom from despotism was incorporated along with a religious treatment of all things natural.
There is much debate regarding whose work should or should not be included in the canon of Sturm und Drang. One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s; the alternative perspective is that of a literary movement inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose and drama, extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the 18th century. The originators of the movement came to view it as a time of premature exuberance, abandoned in favor of conflicting artistic pursuits; the literary topos of the "Kraftmensch" existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F. M. Klinger, the expression of, seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside authority save the self nor be tempered by rationalism; these ideals are identical to those of Sturm und Drang, it can be argued that the name exists to catalog a number of parallel, co-influential movements in German literature rather than express anything different from what German dramatists were achieving in the violent plays attributed to the Kraftmensch movement.
Major philosophical/theoretical influences on the literary Sturm und Drang movement were Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, both from Königsberg, both in contact with Immanuel Kant. Significant theoretical statements of Sturm und Drang aesthetics by the movement's central dramatists themselves include Lenz' Anmerkungen übers Theater and Goethe's Von deutscher Baukunst and Zum Schäkespears Tag; the most important contemporary document was the 1773 volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Einige fliegende Blätter, a collection of essays that included commentaries by Herder on Ossian and Shakespeare, along with contributions by Goethe, Paolo Frisi, Justus Möser; the protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem, or novel is driven to action—often violent action—not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
The literature of Sturm und Drang features an anti-aristocratic slant while seeking to elevate all things humble, natural, or intensely real. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber, provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form; the plot portrays a conflict between two aristocratic brothers and Karl Moor. Franz is cast as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are comp
Oscar Homolka was an Austrian film and theatre actor, who went on to work in Germany and America. Both his voice and his appearance fitted him for roles as communist spies or Soviet officials, for which he was in regular demand. By the age of 30, he had appeared in more than 400 plays. After serving in the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War, Homolka attended the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts in Vienna, the city of his birth, began his career on the Austrian stage. In 1924 he played Mortimer in the premiere of Brecht's play The Life of Edward II of England at the Munich Kammerspiele, since 1925 in Berlin where he worked under Max Reinhardt. Other stage plays in which Homolka performed during this period include: The first German performance of Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones, 1924, Anna Christie, 1924, Boubouroche, 1925, Juarez and Maximilian, 1925–26, Her Young Boyfriend, 1925, The Jewish Widow, 1925, Stir, 1925, Mérimée and Courteline, 1926, Periphery, 1926, Neidhardt von Gneisenau, 1926, Dorothea Angermann, 1926–27, Der Revisor, 1926, Androcles and the Lion, 1926, Bonaparte, 1927, The Ringer and The Squeaker by Edgar Wallace, both 1927, Underworld, 1930, Today's Sensation, 1931, The Last Equipage, 1931, The Waterloo Bridge, 1931, Faust, 1932, Karl and Anna, Doctor's Dilemma, Pygmalion and the Paycock, many Shakespearean plays including: A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1925, Troilus and Cressida, 1927, Richard III, King Lear, Macbeth.
After his arrival in London, he continued to star on stage, including with Flora Robson in the play Close Quarters. His first films were Die Abenteuer eines Zehnmarkscheines and Dreyfus, Zwischen Nacht und Morgen, Junge Liebe, Nachtkolonne. According to Homolka's own account, he made at least thirty silent films in Germany and starred in the first talking picture made there. After the arrival of National Socialism in Germany, Homolka – although not Jewish, but Siegbert Salomon Prawer claims he was – moved to Britain, where he starred in the films Rhodes of Africa, with Walter Huston, 1936, he was one of the many Austrian and Viennese actors and theatrical people who left Europe for the US. In 1936, he appeared opposite Sylvia Sidney in Alfred Hitchcock's thriller Sabotage. Although he played villains such as Communist spies and Soviet-bloc military officers or scientists, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of the crusty beloved uncle in I Remember Mama.
He acted with Ingrid Bergman in Rage in Heaven, with Marilyn Monroe in The Seven Year Itch, with Ronald Reagan in Prisoner of War and with Katharine Hepburn in The Madwoman of Chaillot. He returned to England in the mid-1960s, to play the Soviet KGB Colonel Stok in Funeral in Berlin and Billion Dollar Brain, opposite Michael Caine, his last film was the Blake Edwards' romantic drama The Tamarind Seed in 1974. In 1967 Homolka was awarded the Filmband in Gold of the Deutscher Filmpreis for outstanding contributions to German cinema, his career in television included appearances in three episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents in 1957 and 1960, a 1964 episode of Hazel. In 1973, he appeared in "Border Line", an episode of The Protectors, filmed in Austria. Homolka married four times: His first wife was Grete Mosheim, a German actress of Jewish ancestry on her father's side, they married in Berlin on 28 June 1928 but divorced in 1937. She married Howard Gould, his second wife, Baroness Vally Hatvany, was a Hungarian actress.
They married in December 1937. In 1939, Homolka married socialite and photographer Florence Meyer, a daughter of The Washington Post owner Eugene Meyer, they had two sons and Laurence, but divorced after nine years of marriage. His last wife was actress Joan Tetzel, whom he married in 1949; the marriage lasted until Tetzel's death in 1977. Homolka made his home in Britain after 1966, he died of pneumonia in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, on 27 January 1978, three months after the death of his fourth wife, actress Joan Tetzel. He was 79 years old, he and Tetzel are buried in Christ Church churchyard, East Sussex, England. Their gravestone is notable for having a pair of theatrical masks carved into the surface. List of German-speaking Academy Award winners and nominees Oskar Homolka on IMDb Oscar Homolka at BFI Oscar Homolka at the TCM Movie Database Oscar Homolka at AllMovie Oscar Homolka at Find a Grave Photographs of Oskar Homolka Oscar Homolka on Filmreference.com
Mahagonny-Songspiel known as The Little Mahagonny, is a "small-scale'scenic cantata'" written by the composer Kurt Weill and the dramatist Bertolt Brecht in 1927. Weill was commissioned in the spring to write one of a series of short operas for performance that summer, he chose to use the opportunity to create a "stylistic exercise" as preparation for a larger-scale project that they had begun to develop together, their experimental'epic opera' The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny; the Little Mahagonny was based on five'Mahagonny Songs', published earlier in the year in Brecht's collection of poetry, Devotions for the Home, together with tunes by Brecht. To these five was added a new poem, "Poem on a Dead Man", to form the finale. Two of the songs were English-language parodies written by Elisabeth Hauptmann: the "Alabama Song" and "Benares Song". Using one or two of Brecht's melodies as a starting-point, Weill began in May to set the songs to music and to compose orchestral interludes along the following pattern: Song One | Little March | Alabama Song | Vivace | Song Two | Vivace assai | Benares Song | Sostenuto | Song Three | Vivace assai | Finale: Poem on a Dead Man The Little Mahagonny was first produced at the new German chamber music festival at Baden-Baden on 17 July 1927.
Brecht directed, Lotte Lenya played Jessie, the set-design was by Caspar Neher, who placed the scene in a boxing-ring before background projections that interjected scene-titles at the start of each section. According to a sketch published years they read: The great cities in our day are full of people who do not like it there. So get away to Mahagonny, the gold town situated on the shores of consolation far from the rush of the world. Here in Mahagonny life is lovely, but in Mahagonny there are moments of nausea and despair. The men of Mahagonny are heard replying to God's inquiries as to the cause of their sinful life. Lovely Mahagonny crumbles to nothing before your eyes. A programme note for the performance stated: Mahagonny is a short epic play which draws conclusions from the irresistible decline of our existing social classes, it is turning towards a public which goes to the theatre naïvely and for fun." The production lasted about forty-five minutes and was a great success, although there were no immediate plans for a revival.
Stephen Sondheim declined. He said of this event, "But, I'm not a Brecht/Weill fan and that's all there is to it. I'm an apostate: I like Weill's music when he came to America better than I do his stuff before... I love The Threepenny Opera but, outside of The Threepenny Opera, the music of his I like is the stuff he wrote in America—when he was not writing with Brecht, when he was writing for Broadway." After its first performance in 1927 with the Deutsches Kammermusikfest under the direction of Walter Brügmann and conducted by Ernst Mehlich, it was presented on 11 December 1932 in Paris at the Salle Gaveau. Hans Curjel directed and Maurice Abravanel was conductor. Years The Little Mahagonny was produced, in a much adapted version, by the Berliner Ensemble at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in East Berlin, it was directed by Matthias Langhoff and Manfred Karge. On 20 January 1971 the Yale Repertory Theater in New Haven presented the work directed by Michael Posnick and conducted by Thomas Fay in a double-bill with Brecht & Weill's The Seven Deadly Sins.
Other notable productions included one by the English National Opera on 8 September 1984, conducted by Lionel Friend. Twenty-first century productions took place on 25 March 2000 in New York by the Enesmble Weil directed by Ari Benjamin Meyers and on 5 and 7 June 2008, the Seattle Symphony under Gerard Schwarz performed the piece. London Sinfonietta, conducted by David Atherton, with Mary Thomas, Meriel Dickinson, Philip Langridge, Ian Partridge, Benjamin Luxon, Michael Rippon on Deutsche Grammophon West Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Lukas Foss RIAS Berlin Sinfonietta, conducted by John Mauceri, with Ute Lemper, Susanne Tremper, Helmut Wildhaber, Peter Haage, Thomas Mohr, Manfred Jungwirth on Decca Records, doubled with The Seven Deadly Sins König Ensemble, conducted by Jan Latham-König, with Gabriele Ramm, Trudeliese Schmidt, Hans Franzen, Walter Raffeiner, Peter Nikolaus Kante, Horst Hiestermann on Capriccio, doubled with The Seven Deadly Sins Notes Cited sourcesSacks, Glendyr.
1994. "A Brecht Calendar". In Thomson and Sacks. Thomson and Glendyr Sacks, eds. 1994. The Cambridge Companion to Brecht.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41446-6. Willett, John. 1967. The Theatre of Bertolt Brecht: A Study from Eight Aspects. Third revised edition. London: Methuen, 1977. ISBN 0-413-34360-X. Willett and Ralph Manheim, eds. 1994. Introduction and Editorial Notes in Collected Plays: Two by Bertolt Brecht.. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-68560-8
Max Reinhardt was an Austrian-born theatre and film director and theatrical producer. With his innovative stage productions, he is regarded as one of the most prominent directors of German-language theatre in the early 20th century. In 1920, he established the Salzburg Festival with the performance of Hofmannsthal's Jedermann. Reinhardt was born Maximilian Goldmann in the spa town of Baden near Vienna, the son of Wilhelm Goldmann, a Jewish merchant from Stomfa and his wife Rosa née Wengraf. Having finished school, he began an apprenticeship at a bank, but took acting lessons. In 1890, he gave his debut on a private stage in Vienna with the artist's name Max Reinhardt. In 1893 he performed at the re-opened Salzburg City Theatre. One year joined the Deutsches Theater ensemble under director Otto Brahm in Berlin. In 1901, Reinhardt together with Friedrich Kayßler and several other theatre colleagues founded the Schall und Rauch Kabarett stage in Berlin. Re-opened as Kleines Theater it was the first of numerous stages, where Reinhardt worked as a director until the beginning of Nazi rule in 1933.
From 1903 to 1905, he managed the Neues Theater and in 1906 acquired the Deutsches Theater in Berlin. In 1911, he premiered with Karl Vollmöller's The Miracle at Olympia, London gaining international reputation. By employing powerful staging techniques, harmonising stage design, language and choreography, Reinhardt introduced new dimensions into German theatre; the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna, arguably the most important German-language acting school, was installed implementing his ideas. In 1910, Siegfried Jacobsen wrote his book entitled "Max Reinhardt". In 1914, he was persuaded to sign the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, defending the German invasion of Belgium, he was signatory 66. From 1915 to 1918, Reinhardt worked as director of the Volksbühne theatre and after World War I re-opened the Großes Schauspielhaus in 1919, following its expressionist conversion by Hans Poelzig. By 1930, he ran 11 stages in Berlin and, in addition, managed the Theater in der Josefstadt in Vienna from 1924 to 1933.
In 1920, Reinhardt established the Salzburg Festival with Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, notably directing an annual production of the morality play Everyman about God sending Death to summon a representative of mankind for judgment. In the United States, he directed The Miracle in 1924, a popular stage version of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1927. Reinhardt followed that success by directing a film version in 1935 using a different cast, that included James Cagney, Mickey Rooney, Joe E. Brown and Olivia de Havilland, amongst others. Mickey Rooney and Olivia de Havilland had appeared in Reinhardt's 1934 stage production, staged at the Hollywood Bowl; the Nazis banned the film because of the Jewish ancestry of both Reinhardt and Felix Mendelssohn, whose music was used throughout the film. After the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi-governed Germany in 1938, he emigrated first to Britain to the United States. Reinhardt opened the Reinhardt School of the Theatre on Sunset Boulevard.
Several notable stars of the day received classical theater training, among them actress Nanette Fabray. In 1940, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. At that time, he was married to his second wife, actress Helene Thimig, daughter of actor Hugo Thimig. Compared with most of his contemporaries, Reinhardt was more interested in film than in theater, he made films as a director and from time to time as a producer. His first staging was the film Sumurûn in 1910. After that, Reinhardt founded his own film company, he sold the film rights for the film adaptation of the play Das Mirakel to Joseph Menchen, whose full-colour 1912 film of The Miracle gained world-wide success. Controversies around the staging of Das Mirakel, shown in the Vienna Rotunde in 1912, led to Reinhardt's retreat from the project; the author of the play, Reinhardt's friend and confidant Karl Gustav Vollmoeller, had French director Michel Carré finish the shooting. Reinhardt made two films, Die Insel der Seligen and Eine venezianische Nacht, under a four-picture contract for the German film producer Paul Davidson.
Released in 1913 and 1914 both films received negative reviews from the press and public. The other two films called for in the contract were never made. Both films demanded much of cameraman Karl Freund because of Reinhardt's special shooting needs, such as filming a lagoon in moonlight. Isle of the Blessed attracted attention due to its erotic nature, its ancient mythical setting included sea gods and fauns, the actors appeared naked. However, the film fit in with the strict customs of the late German and Austrian empires; the actors had to live up to the demands of double roles. Wilhelm Diegelmann and Willy Prager played the bourgeois fathers as well as the sea gods, Ernst Matray a bachelor and a faun, Leopoldine Konstantin the Circe; the shooting for Eine venezianische Nacht by Karl Gustav Vollmoeller took place in Venice. Maria Carmi played the bride, Alfred Abel the young stranger, Ernst Matray Anselmus and Pipistrello; the shooting was disturbed by a fanatic who incited the attendant Venetians against the German-speaking staff.
In 1935, Reinhardt directed his first film in A Midsummer Night's Dream. He founded the drama schools
Scenic design is the creation of theatrical, as well as film or television scenery. Scenic designers come from a variety of artistic backgrounds, but in recent years, are trained professionals, holding a B. F. A. or M. F. A. degrees in theater arts. Scenic designers design sets and scenery that aim to support the overall artistic goals of the production. A designer looks at the details searching for evidence through research to produce conceptual ideas that’s best toward supporting the content and values with visual elements; the subject of, “How do we generate creative ideas?” is a legitimate question. The most consuming part of expanding our horizons toward scenic concepts is much more than witnessing creativity, creative people, it starts with us opening our mind to the possibilities. To have an attitude toward learning and engaging in creativity and to be willing to be adventurous and curious. Our imagination is visual. Whether outside or inside, colorful trees or concerts, star lit skies or the architecture of a great building, scenic design is a process of discovery.
Discovering what will best clarify and support the setting, atmosphere, ambience, & world, being created. The scenic designer works with the director and other designers to establish an overall visual concept for the production and design the stage environment, they are responsible for developing a complete set of design drawings that include the following: basic ground plan showing all stationary scenic elements. All of these required drawing elements can be created from one accurate 3-D CAD model of the set design; the scenic designer is responsible for collaborating with the theatre director and other members of the production design team to create an environment for the production and communicating the details of this environment to the technical director, production manager, charge scenic artist and prop master. Scenic designers are responsible for creating scale models of the scenery, paint elevations and scale construction drawings as part of their communication with other production staff.
In Europe and Australia, scenic designers take a more holistic approach to theatrical design and will be responsible not only for scenic design but costume and sound and are referred to as theatre designers or scenographers or production designers. Notable scenic designers and present, include: Alban Piot, Adolphe Appia, Boris Aronson, Alexandre Benois, Alison Chitty, Antony McDonald, Barry Kay, Caspar Neher, Cyro Del Nero, Aleksandra Ekster, David Gallo, Edward Gordon Craig, Es Devlin, Ezio Frigerio, Christopher Gibbs, Franco Zeffirelli, George Tsypin, Howard Bay, Inigo Jones, Jean-Pierre Ponnelle, Jo Mielziner, John Lee Beatty, Josef Svoboda, Ken Adam, Léon Bakst, Luciano Damiani, Maria Björnson, Ming Cho Lee, Natalia Goncharova, Nathan Altman, Nicholas Georgiadis, Oliver Smith, Ralph Koltai, Neil Patel, Robert Wilson, Russell Patterson, Brian Sidney Bembridge, Santo Loquasto, Sean Kenny, Todd Rosenthal, Robin Wagner, Tony Walton, Roger Kirk. Scenic painting Scenographer Scenography Set construction Theatrical scenery Film sculptor Making the Scene: A History of Stage Design and Technology in Europe and the United States by Oscar G. Brockett, Margaret Mitchell, Linda Hardberger 365 pages.
Designing and Painting for the Theater by Lynn Pecktal. Detailing production design for theater and ballet, Designing and Drawing for the Theater is a foundational text that provides a professional picture and encyclopedic reference of the design process. Well illustrated with detailed lined drawings and photographs, the book conveys the beauty and craft of scenic and production design. Prague Quadrennial of Performance Design and Space - the largest scenography event in the world - presenting contemporary work in a variety of performance design disciplines and genres - costume, light, sound design, theatre architecture for dance, drama, site specific, multi-media performances, performance art, etc. Prague, CZ What is Scenography Article illustrating the differences between US and European theatre design practices. Special:WhatLinksHere/Julia Anastasopoulos
David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, acclaimed by critics and musicians for his innovative work during the 1970s, his career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million albums worldwide, made him one of the world's best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, released eleven number-one albums. In the US, he received nine gold certifications, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child studying art and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. "Space Oddity" became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969.
After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie's style shifted radically towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul" alienating many of his UK devotees but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, released Station to Station; the following year, he further confounded musical expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Heroes" and Lodger followed. After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes", its parent album Scary Monsters, "Under Pressure", a 1981 collaboration with Queen.
He reached his commercial peak in 1983 with Let's Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle, he continued acting. He stopped touring after 2004 and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006. In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with The Next Day, he remained musically active until he died of liver cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. Bowie was born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 in London, his mother, Margaret Mary "Peggy", was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Kent. Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, she worked as a waitress at a cinema in Royal Tunbridge Wells. His father, Haywood Stenton "John" Jones, was from Doncaster, worked as a promotions officer for the children's charity Barnardo's; the family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth. Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler.
In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to Bromley. Two years he started attending Burnt Ash Junior School, his voice was considered "adequate" by the school choir, he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. At the age of nine, his dancing during the newly-introduced music and movement classes was strikingly imaginative: teachers called his interpretations "vividly artistic" and his poise "astonishing" for a child; the same year, his interest in music was further stimulated when his father brought home a collection of American 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Little Richard. Upon listening to Little Richard's song "Tutti Frutti", Bowie would say that he had "heard God". Bowie was first impressed with Presley when he saw his cousin dance to "Hound Dog". By the end of the following year, he had taken up the ukulele and tea-chest bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, had started to play the piano. Like someone from another planet".
After taking his eleven-plus exam at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School. It was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote: Despite its status it was, by the time David arrived in 1958, as rich in arcane ritual as any public school. There were houses named after eighteenth-century statesmen like Wilberforce. There was a uniform, an elaborate system of rewards and punishments. There was an accent on languages and design, where a collegiate atmosphere flourished under the tutorship of Owen Frampton. In David's account, Frampton led through force of persona