Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan, his birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village. At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval; the boy thereafter served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family; as with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ". Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581, he faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
He appointed his own son as his successor, unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das. Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi Khatri family in Lahore, his father was mother Daya Kaurboth of whom died when he was aged seven. He was brought up by his grandmother, he married the younger daughter of Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand and Guru Arjan. Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in Goindval town of Punjab. Of his three sons, Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru; the choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Arjan called as Minas, is alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind. However, alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction offer a different story, contradict this explanation on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Arjan.
The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement and describe Prithi Chand as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Ram Das. Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur", he started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
The town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. Ram Das composed about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, he was a celebrated poet, composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music. These cover a range of topics: One who calls himself to be a disciple of the Guru should rise before dawn and meditate on the Lord's Name. During the early hours, he should rise and bathe, cleansing his soul in a tank of nectar, while he repeats the Name the Guru has spoken to him. By this procedure he washes away the sins of his soul. – GGS 305 The Name of God fills my heart with joy.
My great fortune is to meditate on God's name. The miracle of God's name is attained through the perfect Guru, but only a rare soul walks in the light of the Guru's wisdom. – GGS 94 O man! The poison of pride is killing you. Your body, the colour of gold, has been discoloured by selfishness. Illusions of gradeur turn black. – GGS 776 Guru's Bani is part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. His compositions continue to be sung daily in Harimandir Sahib of Sikhism. Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode, it is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition. This was intermittently used, its use lapsed in late 18th century. However, sometime in 19th or 20th century by conflicting accounts, the composition of Ram Das came back in use along with Anand Karaj ceremony, replacing the Hindu ritual of circumambulation around the fire.
The composition of Ram
Amrit Velā begins at the start of a new day, begins at 12:00 am and ends at 6:00 am, or before the dawning of the morning sun, used for daily meditation and recitation of Gurbani hymns. Sikhs start Amrit Vela at 2:00 am or earlier. Guru Nanak in the Japji Sahib says, "During the hours of Amrit velā, meditate on the grandeur of the one true Name." The importance of Amrit Vela is found throughout the Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib states that "those who consider themselves a Sikh must wake up daily at Amrit Vela and be in tune with the Naam" In the Sikh Rehat Maryada, it is written to arise Amrit Velā, meditate on the divine Naam. Sikhs recite their morning Nitnem during Amrit Vela. Traditionally after Nitnem Sikhs meet with the Sangat to recite Asa di Var. Amrit Khalsa Meditation Nitnem Outline of Sikhism Sikh beliefs Sikhism Simran Singh, Puran; the Spirit Born People. Peshawar: Languages Department, Punjab. Singh, Raghbir. Bandginama. New Delhi: Atma Science Trust Singh, Randhir.'Autobiography of Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh.'Ludhiana: Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh Trust Definition of Amrit Vela Amritvela Cheat Sheet Q&A - Amrit Vela and Sadh Sangat #7 @ UCL Sikh Society Video Amrit Vela - Importance - Guru's Hukam Video Amrit Vela: Rise & Shine
Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. Tegh Bahadur continued in the spirit of Nanak. Guru Tegh Bahadur resisted the forced conversions of Kashmiri Pandits and non-Muslims to Islam, was publicly beheaded in 1675 on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi for himself refusing to convert to Islam and saving Kashmiri Pandits and other non-Muslims or as viewed by Muslims that he was condemned to death for waging war but was offered at last moment that reverting to Islam will save him, which he declined as he wanted to be in Sikh rehat till his last breath. Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib and Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib in Delhi mark the places of execution and cremation of the Guru's body; the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur is remembered as the Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur every year on 24 November, according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003. The Sixth guru, Guru Hargobind had one daughter Bibi Viro and five sons: Baba Gurditta, Suraj Mal, Ani Rai, Atal Rai and Tyaga Mal.
Tyaga Mal was born in Amritsar in the early hours of 18 April 1621, who came to be known by the name Tegh Bahadur, given to him by Guru Hargobind after he had shown his valour in a battle against the Mughals. Amritsar at that time was the centre of Sikh faith; as the seat of the Sikh Gurus, with its connection to Sikhs in far-flung areas of the country through the chains of Masands or missionaries, it had developed the characteristics of a state capital. Guru Tegh Bahadur was trained in archery and horsemanship, he was taught the old classics such as the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Puranas. He preferred prolonged spells of contemplation. Tegh Bahadur was married on 3 February 1633, to Mata Gujri. In the 1640s, nearing his death, Guru Hargobind and his wife Nanaki moved to his ancestral village of Bakala in Amritsar district, together with Tegh Bahadur and Mata Gujri. Bakala, as described in Gurbilas Dasvin Patishahi, was a prosperous town with many beautiful pools and baolis. After Guru Hargobind's death, Tegh Bahadur continued to live in Bakala with his mother.
He spent most of his time in meditation, but was not a recluse, attended to family responsibilities. He made visits outside Bakala, visited the eighth Sikh guru Guru Har Krishan, when the latter was in Delhi. In March 1664 Guru Har Krishan contracted smallpox; when asked by his followers who would lead them after him, he replied Baba Bakala, meaning his successor was to be found in Bakala. Taking the advantage of the ambiguity in the words of the dying Guru, many installed themselves in Bakala, claiming themselves as the new Guru. Sikhs were puzzled to see so many claimants. Sikh tradition has a myth concerning the manner. A wealthy trader, Baba Makhan Shah Labana, had once prayed for his life and had promised to gift 500 gold coins to the Sikh Guru if he survived, he arrived in search of the ninth Guru. He went from one claimant to the next making his obeisance and offering two gold coins to each Guru, believing that the right guru would know that his silent promise was to gift 500 coins for his safety.
Every "guru" he met bid him farewell. He discovered that Tegh Bahadur lived at Bakala. Labana gifted Tegh Bahadur the usual offering of two gold coins. Tegh Bahadur gave him his blessings and remarked that his offering was short of the promised five hundred. Makhan Shah Labana forthwith ran upstairs, he began shouting from the rooftop, "Guru ladho re, Guru ladho re" meaning "I have found the Guru, I have found the Guru". In August 1664 a Sikh Sangat anointed Tegh Bahadur as the ninth guru of Sikhs; the Sangat was led by Diwan Durga Mal, a formal "Tikka ceremony" was performed by Bhai Gurditta on Tegh Bahadur conferring Guruship on him. As had been the custom among Sikhs after the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Tegh Bahadur was surrounded by armed bodyguards, he himself lived an austere life. Guru Tegh Bahadur contributed many hymns to Granth Sahib including the Saloks, or couplets near the end of the Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Tegh Bahadur toured various parts of Mughal Empire and was asked by Gobind Sahali to construct several Sikh temples in Mahali.
His works include 116 shabads, 15 ragas and his bhagats are credited with 782 compositions that are part of bani in Sikhism. His works are included in the Guru Granth Sahib, they cover a wide range of topics, such as the nature of God, human attachments, mind, dignity, service and deliverance. For example, in Sorath rag, Guru Tegh Bahadur describes what an ideal human being is like, Guru Tegh Bahadur travelled extensively in different parts of the country, including Dhaka and Assam, to preach the teachings of Nanak, the first Sikh guru; the places he stayed in, became sites of Sikh temples. During his travels, Guru Tegh Bahadur spread the Sikh ideas and message, as well as started community water wells and langars; the Guru made three successive visits to Kiratpur. On 21 August 1664, Guru went there to console with Bibi Rup upon the death of her father, Guru Har Rai, the seventh Sikh guru, of her brother, Guru Har Krishan; the second visit was on 15 October 1664, at the death on 29 September 1664, of Bassi, the mother of Guru Har Rai.
A third visit concluded a extensive journey through northwest Indian subcontinent. His son Guru Gobind Singh, who would be the tenth Sikh guru, was born in Patna, whil
Guru Arjan 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib, he was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who became Guru Ram Das, Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century, he completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one-tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization; the Masand not only collected these funds but taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region.
The dasvand financed the building of langars. Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam, he refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture, his martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003. Arjan was born in Goindval to Jetha Sodhi. Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, her husband Jetha Sodhi came to be known as Guru Ram Das. Arjan's birthplace site is now memorialized as the Gurdwara Chaubara Sahib, he had two brothers: Mahadev. Various Sikh chroniclers give his birth year as 1553 or 1563, the latter is accepted by scholarly consensus as the actual year of birth with 15 April as the accepted birth date. Arjan spent the first 11 years of his life in Goindwal and the next seven years with his father in Ramdaspur.
Per Sikh tradition, he had stayed for two years in Lahore during his youth after being sent by his father to attend the wedding of his first cousin Sahari Mal's son as well as to establish a Sikh congregation. He was appointed as the Sikh Guru in 1581 after the death of his father. Ram Das was a Khatri of the Sodhi sub-caste. With Arjan's succession, the Guruship remained in the Sodhi family of Ram Das. Arjan had Prithi Chand and Mahadev. Guru Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru. Mahadev, the middle brother chose the life of an ascetic, his choice of Arjan as successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The stories in the Sikh tradition about the succession dispute around Guru Arjan are inconsistent. In one version, Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community; the Sikhs following Guru Arjan called the Prithi Chand faction as Minas, who are alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind, befriended Mughal agents.
However, the second version, found in alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction contradict this version. They offer a different explanation for the attempt on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Guru Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Guru Arjan; the competing texts do acknowledge their disagreement. They state Prithi Chand left Amritsar, became the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan and one who disputed the succession of Guru Hargobind as the next Guru; the mainstream Sikh tradition recognised Guru Arjan as the fifth Guru, Hargobind as the sixth Guru. Arjan, at age 18, became the fifth Guru in 1581 inheriting the title from his father. After his execution by the Muslim officials of the Mughal Empire, his son Hargobind became the sixth Guru in 1606 CE. Guru Arjan's martyrdom in Mughal custody has been one of the defining though controversial issues in Sikh history. Most Mughal historians considered Guru Arjan's execution as a political event, stating that the Sikhs had become formidable as a social group, Sikh Gurus became involved in the Punjabi political conflicts.
A similar theory floated in early 20th-century, asserts that this was just a politically-motivated single execution. According to this theory, there was an ongoing Mughal dynasty dispute between Jahangir and his son Khusrau suspected of rebellion by Jahangir, wherein Guru Arjan blessed Khusrau and thus the losing side. Jahangir was jealous and outraged, therefore he ordered the Guru's execution; the Sikh tradition has a competing view. It states that the Guru's execution was a part of the ongoing persecution of the Sikhs by Islamic authorities in the Mughal Empire, that the Mughal rulers of Punjab were alarmed at the growth of the Panth. According to Jahangir's autobiography Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, too many people were becoming persuaded by Guru Arjan's teachings and if Guru Arjan did not become a Muslim, the Sikh Panth had to be extinguished. In 1606 CE, the Guru was imprisoned in Lahore Fort, where by some accounts he was tortured and executed, by other accounts the method of his death remains unresolved.
The traditional Sikh account states that the Mughal emperor Jahangir demanded a fine of 200,000 rupees and demanded that Guru Arjan erase some of the hymns in the text that he found offensive. The Gu
The Five Ks
In Sikhism, the Five Ks are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699. They are: Kesh, Kara and Kirpan; the Five Ks are not just symbols, but articles of faith that collectively form the external identity and the Khalsa devotee's commitment to the Sikh rehni "Sikh way of life". A Sikh who has taken Amrit and keeps all five Ks are known as Khalsa or Amritdhari Sikh, while a Sikh who has not taken Amrit but follows the teachings of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is called a Sahajdhari Sikh; the Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bracelet called a Kara at all times. The Kesh, or uncut, long hair, is considered by Sikhs as an indispensable part of the human body. Long known as a sign of spiritual devotion, it emulates the appearance of Guru Gobind Singh and is one of the primary signs by which a Sikh can be and identified. A Sikh never trims any hair as a symbol of respect for the perfection of God's creation.
The uncut long hair and the beard, in the case of men, form the main kakār for Sikhs. The turban is a spiritual crown, a constant reminder to the Sikh that they are sitting on the throne of consciousness and are committed to living according to Sikh principles. Guru Gobind Singh told his Sikhs: "Khaalsa mero roop hai khaas. Khaalsa mai ho karo nivaas... The Khalsa is my image. Within the Khalsa I reside." Wearing a turban declares sovereignty, self-respect and piety. A noted figure in Sikh history is Bhai Taru Singh, martyred when he refused to get his Kesh cut. Comb the hair twice a day, covering it with turban, to be tied from fresh. A Kangha is a small wooden comb, it is supposed to be worn only at all times. Combs help to clean and remove tangles from the hair, is a symbol of cleanliness. Combing their hair reminds Sikhs that their lives should be tidy and organized; the comb keeps the hair tidy, a symbol of not just accepting what God has given, but an injunction to maintain it with grace. The Guru Granth Sahib said.
In the Guru's time, some holy men let their hair become dirty. The Guru said; the Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bracelet called a Kara at all times. The Kara is a constant reminder to always remember that whatever a person does with their hands has to be in keeping with the advice given by the Guru; the Kara is an iron/steel circle to symbolise God as never ending. It is a symbol of being a link in the chain of Khalsa Sikhs. ਸੀਲ ਜਤ ਕੀ ਕਛ ਪਹਿਰਿ ਪਕਿੜਓ ਹਿਥਆਰਾ ॥ The sign of true chastity is the Kachera, you must wear this and hold weapons in hand. The Kachera is a shalwar-undergarment with a tie-knot worn by baptized Sikhs; the Kachera was made part of the five Ks as a symbol of a Sikh soldier's willingness to be ready at a moment's notice for battle or for defence. The confirmed Sikh wears a Kachera every day; some go to the extent of wearing a Kacheraye while bathing, to be ready to at a moment's notice, changing into the new one a single leg at a time, so as to have no moment where they are unprepared.
Further, this garment allowed the Sikh soldier to operate in combat and without any hindrance or restriction, because it was easy to fabricate, maintain and carry compared to other traditional under-garments of that era, like the dhoti. The Kachera symbolises self-respect, always reminds the wearer of mental control over lust, one of the Five Evils in Sikh philosophy. Kachera follow a practical and roomy design, it features an embedded string that circles the waist which can be tightened or loosened as desired, knotted securely. The Kachera can be classed between underwear and an outer garment, as in appearance it does not reveal private anatomy, looks and wears like shorts; as with all of the Five Ks, there is equality between men and women, so women are expected to wear it. Considering the hot climate in India, the Kachera is worn by men as an outer garment, keeping the wearer cool and being practical in manual work such as farming, but it is not considered respectful for women to wear the Kachera as an outer garment as it is considered too revealing.
ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਹੀਨ ਕਬਹੂ ਨਹਿ ਹੋਈ, ਰਿਹਤਵੰਤ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਸੋਈ ॥Those who never depart his/her arms, they are the Khalsa with excellent rehats. The Kirpan is a dagger. All Sikhs should wear kirpan on their body at all times as a defensive side-arm, just as a police officer is expected to wear a side-arm when on duty, its use is only allowed in the protection of others. It stands for bravery and protecting the innocent; the kirpan is kept sharp and is used to defend others, such as those who are oppressed by harsh rulers, women who are raped in the streets, or a person, being robbed or beaten. The true Sikh cannot turn a blind eye to such evils, thinking that they are "someone else's concern." It is the duty of the true Sikh to help those who suffer unjustly, by whatever means available, whether that means alerting the police, summoning help, or defending those wh
Guru Hargobind, revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Guru Hargobind introduced the process of militarization to Sikhism as a response to his father's execution and to protect the Sikh community, he symbolized it by representing the dual concept of miri and piri. In front of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht, as a court for consideration of temporal issues and administration of justice; the Akal Takht represents the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa today. Guru Hargobind had the longest tenure as Guru, lasting 9 months and 3 days. Hargobind was born in 1595 in Wadali Guru, a village 7 km west of Amritsar, the only son of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, he suffered from smallpox as a child and survived a poisoning attempt by an uncle, as well as another attempt on his life, when a cobra was thrown at him.
He studied religious texts with Bhai Gurdas and trained in swordsmanship and archery with Baba Buddha. On 25 May 1606 Guru Arjan selected Hargobind as his successor and instructed his son to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection. Shortly afterwards, Guru Arjan was arrested and killed by order of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony took place on 24 June 1606, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority and the other, his temporal authority. He followed his martyred father's advice and always kept himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection; the number fifty two was special in his life, his retinue consisted of fifty two armed men. He thus founded the military tradition in the Sikh faith. Guru Hargobind had three wives: Damodari and Mahadevi, he had children from all three wives. Two of his eldest sons from the first wife died during his lifetime. Tegh Bahadur, his son from Nanaki, became the ninth Sikh Guru.
The Guru was a martial artist, an avid hunter and, according to Persian records, unlike earlier Gurus, he and the Sikh Gurus that followed him were meat eaters. Guru Hargobind encouraged people to maintain physical fitness and keep their bodies ready for physical combat, he had his own Darbar. The arming and training of some of his devoted followers began; the Guru came to possess seven hundred horses and his Risaldari grew to three hundred horsemen and sixty musketeers. He nominated his grandson to succeed him as the seventh Guru Har Rai, he died in 1644 at Kiratpur Sahib, a town situated on the banks of river Sutlej, was cremated on the banks of River Sutlej, where now stands Gurdwara Patalpuri. Guru Hargobind led the Sikh response against Mughal power after Guru Arjan's execution, he nominally accepted Shah Jahan's authority but resisted the Islamic persecution, fighting four wars against Shah Jahan's armies. His attempts to transform the Sikh community brought him in conflict with the Mughal authority.
Because of the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to fight the Mughals; the death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasise the military dimension of the Sikh community. He symbolically wore two swords, which represented piri, he created a formal court, Akal Takht. Jahangir responded by jailing the 14 year old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind, it is not clear as to. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old. Persian records, such as Dabistan i Mazahib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617-1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir, it is unclear. Scholars suggest that Jahangir had more or less reverted to tolerant policies of Akbar by about 1611 after he felt secure about his throne, the Sunnis and Naqshbandhi court officials at the Mughal court had fallen out of his favour.
Another theory states that Jahangir discovered the circumstances and felt Guru Hargobind was harmless, so he ordered his release. According to Surjit Singh Gandhi, 52 Rajas who were imprisoned in the fort as hostages for "millions of rupees" and for opposing the Mughal empire were dismayed as they were losing a spiritual mentor. Guru Hargobind requested Jehangir to let these Rajas be freed along with him and he stood surety for their loyal behaviour. Jahangir accepted his request but ordered the release of only as many as could hold onto the hem of his cloak when he walked out. So Guru Hargobind got an large cloak made and wore it the day of his release; as Guru Hargobind left the fort, the other 52 captive rajas held the hem of this cloak and thus were permitted to came out along with him. After his release, Guru Hargobind more discreetly strengthened the Sikh army and reconsolidated the Sikh community, his relations with Jahangir remained friendly. He accompanied Jahangir to Kashmir and Rajputana and subdued Tara Chand of Nalagarh, who had continued for a long time in open rebellion and all efforts to subdue him had failed.
During Jahangir's reign, Guru Hargobind fought a battle against the Mughals at Rohilla. The battl
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin