Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is acidified, adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation; the solids are pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced, their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents; the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, chives or cranberries. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, high content of fat, protein and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese. Speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese; the long storage life of some cheeses when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, the outside has a layer of wax; this specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine; the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived; the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The word cheese comes from cīese or cēse. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages—West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi—all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kāsī, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin; the Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from "Old English cyse, cese...from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus "cheese"." The Online Etymological Dictionary states. Compare fromage.
Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius "broth, juice.'"When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that the French fromage, standard Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, Occitan fromatge are derived. Of the Romance languages, Portuguese, Romanian and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus; the word cheese itself is employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense; the term "cheese" is used as a noun and adjective in a number of figurative expressions. Cheese is an ancient food. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, whether in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.
Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend—wit
Franklin Wendell Welker is an American voice actor best known for his role as Fred Jones from the Scooby-Doo franchise since its inception in 1969 and as the voice of Scooby-Doo since 2002. He is known as the voice of Megatron in the Transformers franchise and as the voice and vocal effects of Nibbler on Futurama. In 2016, Welker was honored with an Emmy Award for his lifetime achievement. Welker was born in Denver, Colorado, on March 12, 1946, he moved to California and attended Santa Monica College in Santa Monica, where he majored in theatrical arts. In 1966, he received honors for his performance as the Cowardly Lion in the college's theater production of The Wizard of Oz. During his transition between college and his voice-acting career, his first voice-over role was in a commercial for Friskies dog food; the producer's girlfriend informed him of auditioning for Hanna-Barbera during the casting of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, where he auditioned for the title character but instead won the role of Fred Jones.
Welker's first voice role came as Fred Jones in the Scooby-Doo franchise. Welker has voiced Fred in every series and incarnation of the Scooby-Doo animated franchise and has provided the voice of Scooby-Doo since 2002; as of 2019, Welker is the only remaining original voice actor still involved in the series. His next major character voice was for Marvin White on the 1973 series Super Friends; that same year, he played Pudge and Gabby on DePatie-Freleng Enterprises' animated series Bailey's Comets. Welker continued to provide voices for many characters for Hanna-Barbera for several years, which include Jabberjaw, Dog Wonder, the Shmoo in The New Fred and Barney Show and its spin-off, The Flintstones Comedy Show. Frank Welker described the voice he used for the Shmoo as "a bubble voice". In 1978, he played the title character on Fangface and in its spin-off and Fangpuss, voiced Heckle and Jeckle and Quackula on The New Adventures of Mighty Mouse and Heckle & Jeckle, Tom Cat, Jerry Mouse, Tyke, Slick Wolf and Barney Bear on The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Welker became a busy actor, providing the voice for many popular cartoon characters in multiple series, including Brain, Doctor Claw, M. A. D. Cat on Inspector Gadget. I. Joe heroes and villains, he voiced various characters on The Simpsons, such as Santa's Little Helper, Snowball II, various other animals from 1991 to his departure from the show in 2002. Welker provided both the speaking animal sounds for Nibbler on Matt Groening's Futurama, he provided the voices for Mr. Plotz, Ralph the Guard and other characters on Animaniacs, Gogo Dodo, Furball and others on Tiny Toon Adventures, Pepé Le Pew on The Sylvester & Tweety Mysteries, McWolf the main antagonist to Droopy and his nephew Dripple on Tom and Jerry Kids Show and Droopy, Master Detective. Welker has created the vocal effects for many animals and creatures in films, including Abu the monkey, Rajah the tiger, the Cave of Wonders in Aladdin, its two sequels, the television series, Arnold the Pig in the television film Return to Green Acres, the Martians in Tim Burton's Mars Attacks!, the penguins in Mr. Popper's Penguins.
He performed Spock's screams in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock and voiced The Thing in The Golden Child, Jinx the robot in SpaceCamp, Totoro in the 2005 English version of Studio Ghibli's film My Neighbor Totoro, Alien Sil in Species, Malebolgia in Spawn, Gargamel's cat Azrael in Sony Pictures Animation's live action/animated film versions of The Smurfs. In 2006, he began voicing George in the popular children's series Curious George, he voiced George in the animated film of the same name that same year. In 2007, Welker became the new voice of Garfield, succeeding the original actor Lorenzo Music, who died in 2001. Welker voiced Garfield in Garfield Gets Real, Garfield's Fun Fest, Garfield's Pet Force, on the series The Garfield Show, which ran from 2008 to 2016. In 2011, he provided the voice of Batman in a Scooby-Doo crossover segment of the Batman: The Brave and the Bold episode, "Bat-Mite Presents: Batman's Strangest Cases!". In the same episode, he voiced Batboy, the classic Mad Magazine Batman spoof created by Wally Wood.
Welker has provided voices for many video game characters, most notably Disney's Oswald the Lucky Rabbit and The Shadow Blot in Epic Mickey and its sequel Epic Mickey 2: The Power of Two, as well as Zurvan called the Ancient One, on StarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm. He provided the voice of the mad mage Xzar for the Baldur's Gate video game series, reprised his role from Avengers Assemble as Odin for Lego Marvel's Avengers. Welker's first on-camera film role was as a college kid from Rutgers University who
Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. There are competing related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or form of imaginative role enactment. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened concentration. Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion; the use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.
The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may aid the formation of false-memories; the term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" and the suffix -is. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism", all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820; these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked. A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, has increased suggestibility; the hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change, it could be said. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.e. a method that makes use of suggestion and employs methods to amplify its effects. In Trance on Trial, a 1989 text directed at the legal profession, legal scholar Alan W. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more a particular characteristic is to appear, the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; the earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid, who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature."Braid elaborated upon this brief definition in a work, Hypnotic Therapeutics: The real origin and essence of the hypnotic condition, is the induction of a habit of abstraction or mental concentration, in which, as in reverie or spontaneous abstraction, the powers of the mind are so much engrossed with a single idea or train of thought, as, for the nonce, to render the individual unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, all other ideas, impressions, or trains of thought.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep". In his The Physiology of Fascination, Braid conceded that his original terminology was misleading, argued that the term "hypnotism" or "nervous sleep" should be reserved for the minority of subjects who exhibit amnesia, substituting the term "monoideism", meaning concentration upon a single idea, as a description for the more alert state experienced by the others. A new definition of hypnosis, derived from academic psychology, was provided in 2005, when the Society for Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, published the following formal definition: Hypnosis involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented.
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, may contain further
Frederick Bean "Tex" Avery was an American animator, director and voice actor, known for producing and directing animated cartoons during the golden age of American animation. His most significant work was for the Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios, where he was crucial in the creation and evolution of famous animated characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, Screwy Squirrel and Junior, Chilly Willy. Gary Morris described Avery's innovative approach:Above all, steered the Warner Bros. house style away from Disney-esque sentimentality and made cartoons that appealed to adults, who appreciated Avery's speed and irony, to kids, who liked the nonstop action. Disney's "cute and cuddly" creatures, under Avery's guidance, were transformed into unflappable wits like Bugs Bunny, endearing buffoons like Porky Pig, or dazzling crazies like Daffy Duck; the classic fairy tale, a market that Disney had cornered, was appropriated by Avery, who made innocent heroines like Red Riding Hood into sexy jazz babes, more than a match for any Wolf.
Avery endeared himself to intellectuals by breaking through the artifice of the cartoon, having characters leap out of the end credits, loudly object to the plot of the cartoon they were starring in, or speak directly to the audience. Avery's style of directing encouraged animators to stretch the boundaries of the medium to do things in a cartoon that could not be done in the world of live-action film. An often-quoted line about Avery's cartoons was, "In a cartoon you can do anything." He performed a great deal of voice work in his cartoons throwaway bits. Avery was born to George Walton Avery and Mary Augusta "Jessie" in Texas, his father was born in Alabama and his mother was born in Chickasaw County, Mississippi. His paternal grandparents were Needham Avery and his wife, Lucinda C. Baxly, his maternal grandparents were his wife Minnie Edgar. His paternal great-grandparents were wife Elizabeth Brannon Avery. Avery, nicknamed "Tex", "Fred", "Texas", was born and raised in Taylor, Texas, a small town in the vicinity of Austin.
Avery graduated in 1926 from North Dallas High School. A popular catchphrase at his school was "What's up, doc?", which he would utilize for Bugs Bunny in the 1940s. Interested in becoming a newspaper cartoonist, he took a summer course at the Chicago Art Institute. On January 1, 1928, Avery arrived in Los Angeles, he spent the following months working in menial jobs. According to animation historian Michael Barrier, these jobs included working in a warehouse, working on the docks at night, loading fruits and vegetables, painting cars, he began his animation career. He was only an inker, inking cels for animated short films in the Oswald the Lucky Rabbit series. Avery moved to a new studio, Universal Studio Cartoons, he was again employed as an inker, but moved up the studio's hierarchy. By 1930, Avery had been promoted to the position of animator. Avery at the start of his animation career continued being employed by the Walter Lantz Studio in the early 1930s, he worked on the majority of the Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons from 1931 to 1935.
He is shown as'animator' on the original title card credits on the Oswald cartoons. He claimed to have directed two cartoons during this time. During some office horseplay at the Lantz studio, a thumbtack or paper clip flew into Avery's left eye and caused him to lose his sight in that eye; some speculate it was his lack of depth perception that gave him his unique look at animation and bizarre directorial style, but it did not stop his creative career. The incident is described in some detail based in part on old interviews with Avery. Part of the typical crude horseplay at the Universal studio was using a rubber band or a paper spitball to target the back of a colleague's head, they would shout "Bull's eye" after every successful shot. An animator called Charles Hastings decided to take the game one step further, by using a wire paper clip instead. Avery heard one of his colleagues telling him to look out, he reacted by turning around. Instead of the back of his head, the paper clip hit Avery in his left eye.
He lost use of his eye. As an animator, Avery worked under director Bill Nolan. Nolan delegated work to Avery, whenever Avery had to animate a sequence. Nolan's instructions for a scene involving Oswald being chased by bees, were simple, he would describe. The rest of the details were left up to Avery. Avery started handing out work to other animators working under Nolan, he still wanted more control over the creative process, served as a de facto director for a couple of films. Based on Avery's recollections, there is a description of, he was submitting sight gags for use in the short films. Some of them wer
Charles Martin Jones was an American animator, cartoonist, author and screenwriter, best known for his work with Warner Bros. Cartoons on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts, he wrote, and/or directed many classic animated cartoon shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, Pepé Le Pew, Porky Pig, Michigan J. Frog, the Three Bears, a slew of other Warner characters. After his career at Warner Bros. ended in 1962, Jones started Sib Tower 12 Productions, began producing cartoons for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, including a new series of Tom and Jerry shorts and the television adaptation of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. He started his own studio, Chuck Jones Enterprises, which created several one-shot specials, periodically worked on Looney Tunes related works. Jones was nominated for an Oscar eight times and won three times, receiving awards for the cartoons For Scent-imental Reasons, So Much for So Little, The Dot and the Line, he received an Honorary Academy Award in 1996 for his work in the animation industry.
Film historian Leonard Maltin has praised Jones' work at Warner Bros. MGM and Chuck Jones Enterprises, he said that the "feud" that there may have been between Jones and colleague Bob Clampett was because they were so different from each other. In Jerry Beck's The 50 Greatest Cartoons, ten of the entries were directed by Jones, with four out of the five top cartoons being Jones shorts. Jones was born on September 21, 1912, in Spokane, the son of Mabel McQuiddy and Charles Adams Jones, he moved with his parents and three siblings to the Los Angeles, California area. In his autobiography, Chuck Amuck, Jones credits his artistic bent to circumstances surrounding his father, an unsuccessful businessman in California in the 1920s, his father, Jones recounts, would start every new business venture by purchasing new stationery and new pencils with the company name on them. When the business failed, his father would turn the huge stacks of useless stationery and pencils over to his children, requiring them to use up all the material as fast as possible.
Armed with an endless supply of high-quality paper and pencils, the children drew constantly. In one art school class, the professor gravely informed the students that they each had 100,000 bad drawings in them that they must first get past before they could draw anything worthwhile. Jones recounted years that this pronouncement came as a great relief to him, as he was well past the 200,000 mark, having used up all that stationery. Jones and several of his siblings went on to artistic careers. During his artistic education, he worked part-time as a janitor. After graduating from Chouinard Art Institute, Jones got a phone call from a friend named Fred Kopietz, hired by the Ub Iwerks studio and offered him a job, he worked his way up starting as a cel washer. I went on to take animator's drawings and traced them onto the celluloid. I became what they call an in-betweener, the guy that does the drawing between the drawings the animator makes". While at Iwerks, he met a cel painter named Dorothy Webster, who became his first wife.
Jones joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, the independent studio that produced Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies for Warner Bros. in 1933 as an assistant animator. In 1935, he was promoted to animator, assigned to work with new Schlesinger director Tex Avery. There was no room for the new Avery unit in Schlesinger's small studio, so Avery and fellow animators Bob Clampett, Virgil Ross, Sid Sutherland were moved into a small adjacent building they dubbed "Termite Terrace"; when Clampett was promoted to director in 1937, Jones was assigned to his unit. Jones became a director himself in 1938; the following year Jones created his first major character, Sniffles, a cute Disney-style mouse, who went on to star in twelve Warner Bros. cartoons. He was involved in efforts to unionize the staff of Leon Schlesinger Studios, he was responsible for recruiting animators, layout men, background people. All animators joined, in reaction to salary cuts imposed by Leon Schlesinger; the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio had signed a union contract, encouraging their counterparts under Schlesinger.
In a meeting with his staff, Schlesinger talked for a few minutes turned over the meeting to his attorney. His insulting manner had a unifying effect on the staff. Jones gave a pep talk at the union headquarters; as negotiations broke down, the staff decided to go on strike. Schlesinger locked them out before agreeing to sign the contract. A Labor Management Committee was formed and Jones served as a moderator; because of his role as a supervisor in the studio, he could not himself join the union. Jones created many of his lesser-known characters during this period, including Charlie Dog and Bertie, The Three Bears. During World War II, Jones worked with Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, to create the Private Snafu series of Army educational cartoons. Jones collaborated with Seuss on animated adaptations of Seuss' books, including How the Grinch Stole Christmas! in 1966. Jones directed such shorts as The Weakly Reporter, a 1944 short that related to shortag
A refrigerator is an appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries; the lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C. A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer; the refrigerator replaced the icebox, a common household appliance for a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, developed in the early 1800s. In 1834, the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system was built.
The first commercial ice-making machine was invented in 1854. In 1913, refrigerators for home use were invented. In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit; the introduction of Freon in the 1920s expanded the refrigerator market during the 1930s. Home freezers as separate compartments were introduced in 1940. Frozen foods a luxury item, became commonplace. Freezer units are used in industry and commerce. Commercial refrigerator and freezer units were in use for 40 years prior to the common home models; the freezer-on-top-and-refrigerator-on-bottom style has been the basic style since the 1940s, until modern refrigerators broke the trend. A vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers and freezers. Newer refrigerators may include automatic defrosting, chilled water, ice from a dispenser in the door. Domestic refrigerators and freezers for food storage are made in a range of sizes. Among the smallest is a 4 L Peltier refrigerator advertised as being able to hold 6 cans of beer.
A large domestic refrigerator stands as tall as a person and may be about 1 m wide with a capacity of 600 L. Refrigerators and freezers may be free-standing, or built into a kitchen; the refrigerator allows the modern household to keep food fresh for longer than before. Freezers allow people to buy food in bulk and eat it at leisure, bulk purchases save money. Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the winter, they were once common. Natural means are still used to cool foods today. On mountainsides, runoff from melting snow is a convenient way to cool drinks, during the winter one can keep milk fresh much longer just by keeping it outdoors; the word "refrigeratory" was used at least as early as the 17th centuryThe history of artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small refrigerating machine in 1755. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air.
The experiment created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans described a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for the production of ice by ether under vacuum. In 1820, the British scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures, in 1834, an American expatriate in Great Britain, Jacob Perkins, built the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system, it was a closed-cycle device. A similar attempt was made in 1842, by American physician, John Gorrie, who built a working prototype, but it was a commercial failure. American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in 1850 for a vapor compression system that used ether; the first practical vapor compression refrigeration system was built by James Harrison, a Scottish Australian. His 1856 patent was for a vapor compression system using alcohol or ammonia, he built a mechanical ice-making machine in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong and his first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1854.
Harrison introduced commercial vapor-compression refrigeration to breweries and meat packing houses, by 1861, a dozen of his systems were in operation. The first gas absorption refrigeration system using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water was developed by Ferdinand Carré of France in 1859 and patented in 1860. Carl von Linde, an engineering professor at the Technological University Munich in Germany, patented an improved method of liquefying gases in 1876, his new process made possible the use of gases such as ammonia, sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride as refrigerants and they were used for that purpose until the late 1920s. In 1913, refrigerators for home and domestic use were invented by Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, with models consisting of a unit, mounted on top of an ice box. In 1914, engineer Nathaniel B. Wales of Detroit, introduced an idea for a practical electric refrigeration unit, which became the basis for the Kelvinator. A self-contained refrigerator, with a compressor on the bottom of the cabinet was invented by Alfred Mellowes in 1916.
Mellowes produced this refrigerator commercially but was bought out by William C. Durant in 1918, who started the Frigidaire company to mass-produce refrigerators. In 1918, Kelvinator company introduced the first refrigerator with