A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Bill Graham Civic Auditorium
The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium is a multi-purpose arena in San Francisco, named after promoter Bill Graham. The arena holds 8,500 people; the auditorium was designed by renowned Bay Area architects John Galen Howard, Frederick Herman Meyer and John W. Reid, Jr. and built in 1915 as part of the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. The auditorium hosted the 1920 Democratic National Convention, the San Francisco Opera from 1923 to 1932 and again for the 1996 season, the National AAU boxing trials in 1948, it was the home of the San Francisco Warriors of the National Basketball Association from 1964 to 1967. An underground expansion, named Brooks Hall, was completed in 1958 under the Civic Center Plaza north of the Civic Auditorium; the famous Mother of All Demos was presented here during the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference, the World Cyber Games 2004 were held here. In 1992, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted to rename the auditorium after the rock concert impresario Bill Graham, who had died the previous year in a helicopter crash.
Bill Graham had never promoted a show there. Long before Bill Graham came along, James T. Graham managed the Civic Auditorium from 1954 to 1970 and booked some of the biggest names in show business there. During Jim's tenure, the Civic Auditorium hosted Elvis Presley, Judy Garland, Ray Charles, the Tijuana Brass, the Jefferson Airplane, the Mamas and Papas, The Temptations and Gladys Night & the Pips, Jose Feliciano, Bobby Darin and more, which prompted San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen to opine that they named the Civic Auditorium after the wrong Graham. Jim Graham signed the Warriors to a contract at the Civic in 1962 when they first moved from Philadelphia to San Francisco; the Warriors would play their first few seasons at the Civic before they moved to the Cow Palace, a larger venue. Jim was manager there when Brooks Halls was built as a convention center underground in the Civic Center, adjacent to the Auditorium. Dedicated on April 11, 1958, Jim Graham managed Brooks Hall, where he booked American Medical Association conventions, the Harvest Festival, the San Francisco Gift Show and more.
Under Jim Graham's management, the Civic Auditorium hosted Barnum & Bailey circuses, the San Francisco Roller Derby, Golden Gloves Boxing matches, professional wrestling, Holiday on Ice, the Ice Capades, car shows, the International Dog Show, the Black and White Ball and the Folderol. In addition, Jim Graham was manager of the Auditorium when President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave a speech there on Aug. 23, 1956, on the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republican Party, when a fundraising gala was held there on June 1, 1968 for Democratic presidential hopeful Senator Robert Kennedy, a few days before he was assassinated in Los Angeles on June 5, 1968. At the time, the "Civic Auditorium" was ground zero in San Francisco for conventions and entertainment events. There was no other major venue for large gatherings, outside of the Cow Palace, considered ill-equipped for such events despite the fact that it was larger; the Civic Auditorium arena would continue to host concerts by many other famous artists, spanning many different genres.
It is owned by the City of San Francisco and since 2010 has been operated by Another Planet Entertainment, generating about $100,000 in leasing revenue for the city annually. List of convention centers in the United States List of tennis stadiums by capacity
Join Together (song)
"Join Together" is a 1972 song by British rock band The Who. Released as a non-album single, the song has since been performed live multiple times and has appeared on numerous compilation albums. "Join Together" is notable for its roots in The Who's abandoned Lifehouse album, a quality shared by The Who's other 1972 single "Relay". "Join Together", under the working title of "Join Together With the Band", was intended to be released as part of the Lifehouse album, but upon its shelving, the song was temporarily abandoned. Following the abandoning of Lifehouse, "Join Together", as well as other songs intended to appear on the album, was used in the working track list of another canceled Who album, Rock Is Dead—Long Live Rock!. The song was recorded on the same day as "Relay" and a demo of "Long Live Rock" in May 1972; the band's lead singer, Roger Daltrey, remembers the song positively, but claims that he was skeptical about using synthesizer. I remember when Pete came up with "Join Together".
He wrote it the night before we recorded it. I quite like it as a single, it's got a good energy to it, but at the time I was still doubtful about bringing in the synthesizer. I felt that, with a lot of songs, we'd end up spending so much time creating these piddly one-note noises that it would've been better just doing it on guitar. I mean, I'm a guitar man. I love the guitar. I don't think Pete did much with those sequencing things that he couldn't have done on his guitar anyway. With the definitive title of "Join Together", the song was released as a non-album single in 1972, backed with a live and unedited version of Marvin Gaye's "Baby Don't You Do It", recorded at San Francisco's Civic Auditorium on 13 December 1971; the single was successful, reaching number 9 on the British singles chart and number 17 on the US Billboard Hot 100. The single was the second of three non-album singles relating to the aborted Lifehouse project, the others being "Let's See Action" and "Relay", it has been included on several compilations, including The Singles, The Who: The Ultimate Collection, 20th Century Masters: The Millennium Collection: The Best of The Who and The Who Hits 50!.
A video shot in June 1972 shortly after completing the song featured The Who miming to playback in front of an excited audience. Roger Daltrey and Keith Moon play Jew's harps and Pete Townshend and John Entwistle play chord and bass harmonicas to mime to all those instruments played by Townshend. During the video and Daltrey's hands are bandaged; the promotional film premiered in the U. S. on American Bandstand on 9 December 1972. The song was first performed live on The Who's By Numbers Tour from 1975-1976, albeit more bluesy and abbreviated while attached to "My Generation", it was performed once on the 1982 tour as well, tagged on to the end of "Magic Bus". For the 1989 tour, it was brought back, this time in the same arrangement as the studio version. On 13 January 2011, the band played this song with guests Debbie Harry, Jeff Beck and Bryan Adams as the show-closer for the Concert for Killing Cancer benefit show, it has been played at every show of their The Who Hits 50! World tour. Roger Daltrey – lead vocals, harmonica Pete Townshend – guitar, jew's harp, backing vocals John Entwistle – bass, backing vocals Keith Moon – drums Side A: "Join Together" Side B: "Baby Don't You Do It" DISCOGRAPHY - Join Together at thewho.com at the Wayback Machine
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
The Last Waltz
The Last Waltz was a concert by the Canadian-American rock group The Band, held on American Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1976, at Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco. The Last Waltz was advertised as The Band's "farewell concert appearance", the concert saw The Band joined by more than a dozen special guests, including Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, Bob Dylan, Ronnie Wood, Muddy Waters, Neil Young, Neil Diamond, Van Morrison, Bobby Charles, Dr. John, Paul Butterfield, Emmylou Harris, Ronnie Hawkins, Joni Mitchell, The Staple Singers; the musical director for the concert was John Simon. The event was filmed by director Martin Scorsese and made into a documentary of the same title, released in 1978. Jonathan Taplin, The Band's tour manager from 1969 to 1972 and produced Scorsese's film Mean Streets, suggested that Scorsese would be the ideal director for the project and introduced Robbie Robertson and Scorsese. Taplin served as executive producer; the film features concert performances, intermittent song renditions shot on a studio soundstage, interviews by Scorsese with members of The Band.
A triple-LP soundtrack recording, produced by Simon and Rob Fraboni, was issued in 1978. The film was released on DVD in 2002 as was a four-CD box set of the concert and related studio recordings; the Last Waltz is hailed as one of the greatest documentary concert films made, although it has been criticized for its focus on Robertson. Beginning with a title card saying "This film should be played loud!" the concert documentary covers The Band's influences and career. The group—Rick Danko on bass and vocals. Various other artists perform with The Band: Muddy Waters, Paul Butterfield, Neil Young, Joni Mitchell, Van Morrison, Dr. John, Neil Diamond and Eric Clapton. Genres covered include blues and roll, New Orleans R&B, Tin Pan Alley pop and rock. Further genres are explored in segments filmed on a sound stage with Emmylou Harris and the Staple Singers; the film begins with The Band performing the last song of the evening, their cover version of the Marvin Gaye hit "Don't Do It", as an encore. The film flashes back to the beginning of the concert, follows it more or less chronologically.
The Band is backed by a large horn section and performs many of its hit songs, including "Up on Cripple Creek", "Stage Fright", "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down". The live songs are interspersed with studio segments and interviews conducted by director Martin Scorsese in which The Band's members reminisce about the group's history. Robertson talks about Hudson joining the band on the condition that the other members pay him $10 a week each for music lessons; the classically trained Hudson could tell his parents that he was a music teacher instead of a rock and roll musician. Robertson describes the surreal experience of playing in a burnt-out nightclub owned by Jack Ruby. Manuel recalls that some of the early names for The Band included "the Honkies", "the Crackers"; because they were referred to as "the band" by Dylan and their friends and neighbors in Woodstock, New York, they figured, just what they would call themselves. Danko is seen giving Scorsese a tour of The Band's Shangri-La studio, he plays a recording of "Sip the Wine," a track from his then-forthcoming 1977 solo album Rick Danko.
A recurring theme brought up in the interviews with Robertson is that the concert marks an end of an era for The Band, that after 16 years on the road, it is time for a change. "That's. The numbers start to scare you," Robertson tells Scorsese. "I mean, I couldn't live with twenty years on the road. I don't think I could discuss it." The idea for a farewell concert came about early in 1976 after Richard Manuel was injured in a boating accident. Robbie Robertson began giving thought to leaving the road, envisioning The Band becoming a studio-only band, similar to the Beatles' decision to stop playing live shows in 1966. Though the other band members did not agree with Robertson's decision, the concert was set at Bill Graham's Winterland Ballroom, where The Band had made its debut as a group in 1969; the Band was to perform on its own, but the notion of inviting Ronnie Hawkins and Bob Dylan was hatched and the guest list grew to include other performers. Promoted and organized by Bill Graham, whose home turf was Winterland and who had a long association with The Band, the concert was an elaborate affair.
Starting at 5:00 p.m. the audience of 5,000 was served turkey dinners. There was ballroom dancing with music by the Berkeley Promenade Orchestra. Poets Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Lenore Kandel, Diane Di Prima, Michael McClure, Robert Duncan and Freewheelin' Frank gave readings; the Band started its concert at around 9:00 p.m. opening with "Up on Cripple Creek", during the wind-down of which vocalist/drummer Levon Helm called out a humorous "I sure wish I could yodel!" This was followed by eleven more of The Band's most popular songs, including "The Shape I'm In", "This Wheel's on Fire" and "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down". They were backed by a large horn section with charts arranged by Allen Toussaint and other musicians, they were joined
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E
The Band was a Canadian-American roots rock group including Rick Danko, Garth Hudson, Richard Manuel, Robbie Robertson, Levon Helm. The members of the Band first came together as rockabilly singer Ronnie Hawkins's Toronto, Ontario-based backing group, The Hawks, which they joined one by one between 1958 and 1963. In 1964, they separated from Hawkins, after which they toured and released a few singles as Levon and the Hawks and the Canadian Squires; the next year, Bob Dylan hired them for his U. S. tour in 1965 and world tour in 1966. Following the 1966 tour, the group moved with help from Bob Dylan and his manager, Albert Grossman, to Saugerties, New York, where they made the informal 1967 recordings that became The Basement Tapes, the basis for their 1968 debut album, Music from Big Pink; because they were always "the band" to various frontmen and the locals in Woodstock, Helm said the name "the Band" worked well when the group came into its own. The group went on to release ten studio albums.
Dylan continued to collaborate with the Band over the course of their career, including a joint 1974 tour. The original configuration of The Band ended its touring career in 1976 with an elaborate performance at Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco, California that featured numerous musical celebrities of the era; this performance was filmed for Martin Scorsese's 1978 documentary The Last Waltz. Although the members of the group intended to continue working on studio projects, they drifted apart after the release of Islands in March 1977; the Band resumed touring in 1983 without Robertson, who had found success with a solo career and as a Hollywood music producer. As a result of their diminished popularity, they performed in theaters and clubs as headliners and took support slots in larger venues for onetime peers such as the Grateful Dead and Crosby and Nash. Following a 1986 concert, Manuel committed suicide in his hotel room; the remaining three members continued to tour and record albums with a succession of musicians filling Manuel's and Robertson's roles.
Danko died of heart failure in 1999. Helm was diagnosed with throat cancer in 1998 and was unable to sing for several years, but he regained the use of his voice, he continued to perform and released several successful albums until he died in 2012. The group was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1989 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994. In 2004 Rolling Stone ranked them No. 50 on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time, in 2008 they received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2004, "The Weight" was ranked 41st on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest songs of all time. In 2014, the Band was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame; the members of the Band came together in the Hawks, the backing group for Toronto-based rockabilly singer Ronnie Hawkins: Helm, an original Hawk who journeyed with Hawkins from Arkansas to Ontario Robertson, Danko and Hudson. Hawkins's act was popular in and around Toronto and nearby Hamilton, he had an effective way of eliminating his musical competition: when a promising band appeared, Hawkins would hire their best musicians for his own group.
While most of the Hawks were eager to join Hawkins's group, getting Hudson to join was a different story. He had earned a college degree, planned on a career as a music teacher, was interested in playing rock music only as a hobby; the Hawks admired his wild, full-bore organ style and asked him to join. Hudson agreed, under condition that the Hawks each pay him $10 per week to be their instructor and purchase a new state-of-the art Lowrey organ. There is a view that jazz is'evil' because it comes from evil people, but the greatest priests on 52nd Street, on the streets of New York City were the musicians, they were doing the greatest healing work. And they knew how to punch through music which would make people feel good. With Hawkins, they recorded a few singles in this period and became well known as the best rock group in the thriving Toronto music scene. Hawkins convened all-night rehearsals following long club shows, with the result that the young musicians developed great technical prowess on their instruments.
In late 1963, the group split from Hawkins over personal differences. They were tiring of playing the same songs so and wanted to perform original material, they were weary of Hawkins's heavy-handed leadership, he would fine the Hawks if they brought their girlfriends to the clubs, fearing it might reduce the numbers of "available" girls who came to performances, or if they smoked marijuana. Alcohol and pills were acceptable, but Canada had stiff penalties against marijuana possession. Robertson said, "Eventually, built us up to the point where we outgrew his music and had to leave, he shot himself in the foot bless his heart, by sharpening us into such a crackerjack band that we had to go on out into the world, because we knew what his vision was for himself, we were all younger and more ambitious musically."Upon leaving Hawkins, the group was known as the Levon Helm Sextet, with sixth member sax player Jerry Penfound, as Levon and the Hawks after Penfound's departure. In 1965, they released a single on Ware Records under the name the Canadian Squires, b