A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate. This demographic phenomenon is ascribed within certain geographical bounds. People born during these periods are called baby boomers; the causes of baby booms involves various fertility factors. The most well-known baby boom occurred in middle of twentieth century, beginning in late 1930s or early 1940s and ending in 1960s, it was a change of trend, unexpected, because in most countries it occurred in the midst of a period of improving economies and rising living standards. The baby boom occurred in countries that experienced tremendous damage from the war and were going through dramatic economic hardships; these countries include Poland. In the United States the baby boom was attributed to the number of veterans returning home after the war ended in 1945, it was due to the strong post-war American economy. The U. S. Congress passed the G. I. Bill of Rights to encourage home ownership and higher levels of education by charging low or no interest at all on loans for veterans.
Getting settled in with a more comfortable economic position allowed families to have a place to live, be educated, start having babies. "Now thriving on the American Dream, life was simple, jobs were plentiful, a record number of babies were born." The U. S. birthrate exploded after World War II. From 1941 to 1961, more than 65 million children were born in the United States. At the height of this baby boom, a child was born every seven seconds on average. Factors that contributed to the baby boom consisted of young couples who started families after putting off marriage during the War, government encouragement of growth of families through the aid of GI benefits, popular culture that celebrated pregnancy and large families; the baby boom was the result of couples holding off on having children due to the Great Depression and World War II. Once the baby boom began, the average woman started getting married around the age of 20 instead of 22. Couples were eager to have babies after the war ended because they knew that the world would be a safer place to start a family.
Another leading cause that led to the baby boom was that people were able to afford moving out to the suburbs to raise a family instead of living in the city. Additionally, the cost of living in the suburbs was low for those returning from the military; this was the time period where women were encouraged to take on their "roles", meaning that they were encouraged to stay home as a housewife along with being a mother while the husband worked. The market became a seller's market. Many families were adapting to popular culture changes that included purchasing TVs, opening credit card accounts, buying mouse ears to wear while watching The Mickey Mouse Club. Once economists realized how many children were being born, concern arose about enough resources being available when those born in the baby boom time period started having kids of their own; the issues of the baby boom time period are that it could hugely impact the population change and cause social and economic impacts. One economic impact of the baby boom is the concern that when baby boomers get older and retire, the dependency ratio will increase.
The Census Bureau estimates that the dependency ratio in the United States will be 65 by 2020 and reach a record-breaking high of 75, the highest it has been since the 1960s and 1970s when those baby boomers were children. The economics of an area or country could benefit from the baby boom: It could increase the demand of housing, transportation and more for the increasing population. With an increase in population, the demand for food increased. If a country cannot keep up with a increasing population, it could cause a food shortage and insufficient health care facilities. Without the sufficient supplies needed for the population, it could cause poor health that could lead to deaths in the population. "According to the new UNICEF report 2 billion babies will be born in Africa between 2015 and 2050 and the 2 main driving forces behind this surge in births and children are continued high fertility rates and rising numbers of women able to have children of their own."The HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa has contributed locally to a population boom.
Aid money used for contraceptives has been diverted over the past two decades into fighting HIV, which lead the number of babies born far outstripping the deaths from AIDS. After being in a lull of low birth rates, France experienced a baby boom after 1945; the sense that the population was too small in regard to the more powerful Germany, was a common theme in the early 20th century. Pronatalist policies were implemented in the 1940s. In addition, there was steady immigration from former French colonies in North Africa; the population of France grew from 40.5 million in 1946 to nearly 50 million in 1968 and just under 60 million by 1999. The farm population declined from 35% of the workforce in 1945 to under 5% by 2000. By 2004, France had the second highest birthrate in Europe, behind only Ireland; the First Baby BoomIn Japan, the first baby boom occurred between 1947 and 1949. The number of births in the past three years exceeds 2.5 million every year, bringing the total number of births to about 8 million.
The 2.69 million births in 1949 are the largest in postwar statistics. The people born in this period is called the "baby boom generation"; the Second Baby BoomIt refers to a period of more than 2 million births from 1971 t
Richard Michael Farber, is an American-born Israeli composer and librettist whose career spans over more than four decades. Farber began his work as a theater and ballet composer from which he moved to large scale stage works and orchestral and vocal music. Farber is the 2005 recipient of the Composers’ Prime Minister Award. Born in Washington D. C. to an American father and a holocaust survivor mother who arrived in the US from Galicia in 1929, Farber’s first seven years of school at the Hebrew Academy of Washington were difficult, as undiagnosed dyslexia prevented him from dealing with the two alphabets simultaneously. A self-taught clarinet player, Farber was asked to play the contrabass upon entering the public school system at 14. A single lesson from the orchestra’s conductor sufficed for Farber to continue on his own and play the bass in his high school big-band, bass clarinet and contrabass in its orchestra. Having borrowed instruments from the school’s band, Farber taught himself saxophone, baritone horn, other instruments.
At 14 he wrote his first compositions—more than a dozen songs in the style of folk songs. Having been active in Habonim youth movement, Farber attended their summer camp and became an instructor at the Washington D. C. branch. Influenced by the movement’s Zionist messages, Farber immigrated to Israel at the age of 19 he enrolled at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1964, a year in the Music Theory Department at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance in Jerusalem, from which he graduated in 1969. Among his teachers at the Rubin Academy were Yitzhak Sadai, Noam Sheriff, Haim Alexander, Edith Gerson-Kiwi and Yosef Tal. While a student, Farber wrote incidental music for drama and ballet productions at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Professional commissions soon followed from the Jerusalem Khan Theater, in the 70s and 80s, led to commissions from most of the professional theaters and ballet companies in the country. Farber’s first full-length ballet, 5 1/2, was set to his own libretto and choreographed by Renato Zanella.
Between 1969 and 1975 Farber had taught theatre music at Tel Aviv University, has worked since 1970 as a freelance composer and director of radio drama at Kol Yisrael. Beginning to write radio plays in 1974 Farber has directed more than a hundred radio plays and operas for Kol Yisrael, Galei Tzahal and European radio stations in Austria, Germany and the Netherlands. Additional plays were produced for France Culture. Farber is the librettist and composer of eight operas and music theater works for the radio in Austria and Germany; the first were Boris und Edna: Das Komödien-Team, Spot-Operetten, Spielzeugoperetten and Vier Todesträume. Thirty Seven Depression Miniatures, a music theater piece was produced by the WDR in 2005. Farber’s Mission Argo, which he directed, was the first surround sound production produced at the WDR in 2000. Dracula and the Nerd in Aetherspace, a Neo-Gothic Melodrama is scheduled for production in surround sound at the WDR in 2014. One of Farber's works for radio is Begegnungen mit rothaarige Frauen, a four-hour radio novel based on a book of his of the same name.
The Quest to Polyphonia, Farber’s first stage opera, was commissioned by Stuttgart Opera in 1989. Taking place in a post-atomic-war world, the opera is a legend folded within another: journeying through the history of western art music, Farber anthropomorphizes familiar melodic and harmonic features into evil creatures that try to prevent the protagonist, Prince Johann von Buxtehude, from getting to the Cave of Time. Upon defeating all the evil creatures, Prince Johann finds the time capsule and brings back art music. An ironic commentary on compositional teaching, The Quest to Polyphonia finds its composer indulging in violating these pedagogical conventions. A second, Hebrew production, of The Quest to Polyphonia took place in 1995 by the New Israel Opera in Tel Aviv. Additional stage works include: Dracula oder Die Gefesselte Ballerina, The Eternal Triangle Trio, Operation Mitternacht. In 1998 Farber turned to concert art music. Farber’s first symphony Dichotomy, drawing on Jazz idioms and sonic imageries reminiscent of children’s toys, was recorded live in concert at the WDR in 2005.
USS Sumner was a survey ship in the United States Navy. She was named in honor of Thomas Sumner, she was commissioned as a submarine tender as USS Bushnell, in honor of David Bushnell, the inventor of the first American submarine. Bushnell was launched 9 February 1915 by Seattle Construction and Dry Dock Company, Washington, she was assigned to the Submarine Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet, as tender to L-class submarines in January 1916 and arrived on the east coast in February. Early in 1917 she escorted submarines to the Azores and in December accompanied Submarine Division 5 to Ireland, arriving at Queenstown 27 January 1918. Bushnell acted as tender for submarines operating off Queenstown until the end of World War I, she escorted captured German submarines to Scotland and the United States. In September 1920 she assisted in salvage operations on the submarine USS S-5 sunk off the Delaware Capes. Up until August 1931, Bushnell cruised with various Submarine Divisions on the Atlantic coast, in the Caribbean, on the west coast, in the Hawaiian Islands.
Bushnell arrived at San Diego 3 September 1931 and reported for duty with the Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet, with whom she operated until 1937. She towed the sailing frigate USS Constitution from San Diego to the Panama Canal Zone during March and April 1934 and in February 1935 assisted in the search for survivors of the dirigible USS Macon which crashed off San Diego. In December 1937 she was transferred to duty with the Hydrographic survey and carried out her operations on the coasts of Colombia, Trinidad, British Guiana, Samoa until September 1941. On 25 July 1940 the ship's designation was changed on 23 August she was renamed Sumner. Sumner sailed from Norfolk, Virginia 20 October 1941. On 7 December 1941 Sumner was moored at the Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor, took an active part in the defense of the Islands against the Japanese attack. After the attack she assisted the stricken ships in the area. On 12 January 1942 she set sail for thence to Nandi Island and Samoa for surveying. After transporting Marines to Wallis Island in May, she made a survey of local harbors.
During the ensuing months she conducted surveys at New Caledonia. Sumner weighed anchor for Sydney, Australia, 28 January 1943. In March she sailed to the Deboyne Islands to make a survey, she subsequently surveyed Stanley and Milne Bays in New Guinea. On 5 August she commenced a survey of Ellice Islands; these operations were hampered throughout September by enemy air attacks. On 1 December 1943 her classification was changed to AGS-5. Between 5 December 1943 and 13 February 1944 Sumner participated in the occupation of Tarawa and conducted a survey of the newly acquired area, she sailed to Kwajalein in February 1944 where she was engaged in improving the harbor facilities until 11 April. The ship stood out for San Francisco, via Pearl Harbor, arriving 7 May. Repairs completed, Sumner returned to the Hawaiian Islands in August. In September she steamed to Ulithi. On 1 February she sailed for Guam. On 4 March she arrived at Iwo Jima and commenced surveying operations under adverse conditions. On 8 March she was injured three others.
The shell failed to explode and material damage was light. Sumner continued surveying the area until 3 May, she remained at Guam until 17 June when she sailed to Philippine Islands. Survey operations in the Philippines were completed 28 August and Sumner stood out for Jinsen, arriving 9 September 1945, she continued her survey operations in the Korea-China area until sailing for Pearl Harbor 19 December 1945. Sumner underwent a yard period at Pearl Harbor and sailed to Bikini Atoll to conduct surveys in preparation for the coming atomic bomb tests before returning to California 24 May 1946. On 9 July she proceeded to Norfolk where she reported for inactivation, she was decommissioned 13 September 1946 and transferred to the United States Maritime Commission six days later. Sumner received three battle stars for her World War II service. World War I Victory Medal American Defense Service Medal with "FLEET" clasp Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three battle stars World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Medal China Service Medal This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The entry can be found here