Tamil numerals, refers to the numeral system of the Tamil language used in Tamil Nadu and Singapore, as well as by the other Tamil-speaking populations around the world including Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Réunion, South Africa, other emigrant communities around the world. Old Tamil possesses a special numerical character for zero and it is read as andru, but yet Modern Tamil renounces the use of its native character and uses Arabic, 0. Modern Tamil words for zero include சுழியம் or பூச்சியம். Tamil has a numeric prefix for each number from 1 to 9, which can be added to the words for the powers of ten to form multiples of them. For instance, the word for fifty, ஐம்பது is a combination of ஐ and பத்து; the prefix for nine changes with respect to the succeeding base 10. தொ+ the unvoiced consonant of the succeeding base 10 forms the prefix for nine. For instance, 90 is தொ+ண், hence, தொண்ணூறு); these are void in the Tamil language except for some Hindu and Christian religious references, example'அட்ட இலட்சுமிகள்' in a Hindu context, or'ஏக பாலன்' in a Christian context.
However, it should be noted, that in religious contexts Tamil language is more preferred for its more poetic nature and low incidence of consonant clusters. Unlike other Indian writing systems, Tamil has distinct digits for 10, 100, 1000, it has distinct characters for other number-based aspects of day-to-day life. There are two numeral systems that can be used in the Tamil language: the Tamil system, as followsThe following are the traditional numbers of the Ancient Tamil Country, Tamizhakam. Proposals to encode Tamil fractions and symbols to Unicode were submitted; as of version 12.0, Tamil characters used for fractional values in traditional accounting practices were added to the Unicode Standard. You can transcribe any fraction, by affixing -இல் after the denominator followed by the numerator. For instance, 1/41 can be said as நாற்பத்து ஒன்றில் ஒன்று; the suffixing of the -இல் requires you to change the last consonant of the number to its இ form. For example, மூன்று+இல் becomes மூன்றில். Common fractions have names allocated to them, these names are used rather than the above method.
Other fractions include: ^ Aṇu was considered as the lowest fraction by ancient Tamils as size of smallest physical object. This term went to Sanskrit to refer directly to atoms. Decimal point is called புள்ளி in Tamil. For example, 1.1 would be read as ஒன்று புள்ளி ஒன்று. Percentage is known as விழுக்காடு in Tamil or சதவீதம்; these words are added after a number to form percentages. For instance, four percent is நான்கு சதவீதம் or நான்கு விழுக்காடு. Percentage symbol is recognised and used. Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the suffix -ஆம் after the number, except for'First'; as always, when blending two words into one, an unvoiced form of the consonant as the one that the second starts with, is placed in between to blend. This song is a list of each number with a concept its associated with; as the antique classical language of the Dravidian languages, Tamil numerals influenced and shaped the numerals of the others in the family. The following table compares the main Dravidian languages. Tamil through the Pallava script which itself through the Kawi script, Khmer script and other South-east Asian scripts has shaped the numeral grapheme of most South-east Asian languages.
Before the Government of India unveiled ₹ as the new rupee symbol, people in Tamil Nadu used the Tamil letter ௹ as the symbol. This symbol continues to be used as rupee symbol by Indian Tamils out of habit, it is used by Tamils in Sri Lanka ௳ is known as the Pillaiyar Suzhi. The Tamil numbers used symbols; the Sanskrit numerals are as follows: 1- ekam 2- dhwey 3- thrini 4- chathwari 5- pancha 6- shad 7- saptha 8- ashta 9- nava 10- dhasa Tamil script Tamil units of measurement
The abacus called a counting frame, is a calculating tool, in use in Europe and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system. The exact origin of the abacus is still unknown. Today, abacuses are constructed as a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires, but they were beans or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. Abacuses come in different designs; some designs, like the bead frame consisting of beads divided into tens, are used to teach arithmetic, although they remain popular in the post-Soviet states as a tool. Other designs, such as the Japanese soroban, have been used for practical calculations involving several digits. For any particular abacus design, there are numerous different methods to perform a certain type of calculation, which may include basic operations like addition and multiplication, or more complex ones, such as calculating square roots; some of these methods may work with non-natural numbers. Although today many use calculators and computers instead of abacuses to calculate, abacuses still remain in common use in some countries.
Merchants and clerks in some parts of Eastern Europe, Russia and Africa use abacuses, they are still used to teach arithmetic to children. Some people who are unable to use a calculator because of visual impairment may use an abacus; the use of the word abacus dates before 1387 AD, when a Middle English work borrowed the word from Latin to describe a sandboard abacus. The Latin word came from Greek ἄβαξ abax which means something without base, improperly, any piece of rectangular board or plank. Alternatively, without reference to ancient texts on etymology, it has been suggested that it means "a square tablet strewn with dust", or "drawing-board covered with dust". Whereas the table strewn with dust definition is popular, there are those that do not place credence in this at all and in fact state that it is not proven. Greek ἄβαξ itself is a borrowing of a Northwest Semitic Phoenician, word akin to Hebrew ʾābāq, "dust"; the preferred plural of abacus is a subject of disagreement, with both abaci in use.
The user of an abacus is called an abacist. The period 2700–2300 BC saw the first appearance of the Sumerian abacus, a table of successive columns which delimited the successive orders of magnitude of their sexagesimal number system; some scholars point to a character from the Babylonian cuneiform which may have been derived from a representation of the abacus. It is the belief of Old Babylonian scholars such as Carruccio that Old Babylonians "may have used the abacus for the operations of addition and subtraction; the use of the abacus in Ancient Egypt is mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus, who writes that the Egyptians manipulated the pebbles from right to left, opposite in direction to the Greek left-to-right method. Archaeologists have found ancient disks of various sizes that are thought to have been used as counters. However, wall depictions of this instrument have not been discovered. During the Achaemenid Empire, around 600 BC. Under the Parthian and Iranian empires, scholars concentrated on exchanging knowledge and inventions with the countries around them – India and the Roman Empire, when it is thought to have been exported to other countries.
The earliest archaeological evidence for the use of the Greek abacus dates to the 5th century BC. Demosthenes talked of the need to use pebbles for calculations too difficult for your head. A play by Alexis from the 4th century BC mentions an abacus and pebbles for accounting, both Diogenes and Polybius mention men that sometimes stood for more and sometimes for less, like the pebbles on an abacus; the Greek abacus was a table of wood or marble, pre-set with small counters in wood or metal for mathematical calculations. This Greek abacus saw use in Achaemenid Persia, the Etruscan civilization, Ancient Rome and, until the French Revolution, the Western Christian world. A tablet found on the Greek island Salamis in 1846 AD, dates back to 300 BC, making it the oldest counting board discovered so far, it is a slab of white marble 149 cm long, 75 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, on which are 5 groups of markings. In the center of the tablet is a set of 5 parallel lines divided by a vertical line, capped with a semicircle at the intersection of the bottom-most horizontal line and the single vertical line.
Below these lines is a wide space with a horizontal crack dividing it. Below this crack is another group of eleven parallel lines, again divided into two sections by a line perpendicular to them, but with the semicircle at the top of the intersection. From this time frame the Darius Vase was unearthed in 1851, it was covered with pictures including a "treasurer" holding a wax tablet in one hand while manipulating counters on a table with the other. The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC; the Chinese abacus, known as the suanpan, is 20 cm tall and comes in various widths depending on the operator. It has more than seven rods. There are two beads on each rod in the upper deck and five beads each in the bott
Eastern Arabic numerals
The Eastern Arabic numerals are the symbols used to represent the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Mashriq, the Arabian Peninsula, its variant in other countries that use the Perso-Arabic script in the Iranian plateau and Asia. The numeral system originates from an ancient Indian numeral system, re-introduced in the book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written by the medieval-era Iranian mathematician and engineer Khwarazmi, whose name was Latinized as Algoritmi; these numbers are known as أرقام هندية in Arabic. They are sometimes called "Indic numerals" in English. However, sometimes discouraged as it can lead to confusion with Indian numerals, used in Brahmic scripts of India; each numeral in the Persian variant has a different Unicode point if it looks identical to the Eastern Arabic numeral counterpart. However the variants used with Urdu and other South Asian languages are not encoded separately from the Persian variants.
See U+0660 through U+0669 and U+06F0 through U+06F9. Written numerals are arranged with their lowest-value digit to the right, with higher value positions added to the left; that is identical to the arrangement used by Western texts using Western Arabic numerals though Arabic script is read from right to left. There is no conflict unless numerical layout is necessary, as is the case for arithmetic problems and lists of numbers, which tend to be justified at the decimal point or comma. Eastern Arabic numerals remain predominant vis-à-vis Western Arabic numerals in many countries to the East of the Arab world in Iran and Afghanistan. In Arabic-speaking Asia as well as Egypt and Sudan both kinds of numerals are used alongside each other with Western Arabic numerals gaining more and more currency, now in traditional countries such as Saudi Arabia; the United Arab Emirates uses both Western Arabic numerals. In Pakistan, Western Arabic numerals are more extensively used as a considerable majority of the population is anglophone.
Eastern numerals still continue to see use in Urdu publications and newspapers, as well as sign boards. In North Africa, only Western Arabic numerals are now used. In medieval times, these areas used a different set
Sinhala belongs to the Indo-European language family with its roots associated with Indo-Aryan sub family to which the languages such as Persian and Hindi belong. Although it is not clear whether people in Sri Lanka spoke a dialect of Prakrit at the time of arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there is enough evidence that Sinhala evolved from mixing of Sanskrit and local language, spoken by people of Sri Lanka prior to the arrival of Vijaya in Sri Lanka, the founder of Sinhala Kingdom, it is surmised that Sinhala had evolved from an ancient variant of Apabramsa, known as ‘Elu’. When tracing history of Elu, it was preceded by Pali Sihala. Sinhala though has close relationships with Indo Aryan languages which are spoken in the north, north eastern and central India, was much influenced by Dravidian language families of Hindi. Though Sinhala is related to Indic languages, it has its own unique characteristics: Sinhala has symbols for two vowels which are not found in any other Indic languages in India: ‘æ’ and ‘æ:’.
The Sinhala script had evolved from Southern Brahmi script from which all the Southern Indic Scripts such as Telugu and Oriya had evolved. Sinhala was influenced by Grantha writing of Southern India. Since 1250 AD, the Sinhala script had remained the same with few changes. Although some scholars are of the view that the Brahmi Script arrived with the Buddhism, Mahavamsa speaks of written language right after the arrival of Vijaya. Archeologists had found pottery fragments in Anuradhapura Sri Lanka with older Brahmi script inscriptions, carbon dated to 5th century BC; the earliest Brahmi Script found in India had been dated to 6th Century BC in Tamil Nadu though most of Brahmi writing found in India had been attributed to emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. Sinhala letters are round-shaped and are written from left to right and they are the most circular-shaped script found in the Indic scripts; the evolution of the script to the present shapes may have taken place due to writing on Ola leaves.
Unlike chiseling on a rock, writing on palm leaves has to be more round-shaped to avoid the stylus ripping the Palm leaf while writing on it. When drawing vertical or horizontal straight lines on Ola leaf, the leaves would have been ripped and this may have influenced Sinhala not to have a period or full stop. Instead a stylistic stop, known as ‘Kundaliya’ is used. Period and commas were introduced into Sinhala script after the introduction of paper due to the influence of Western languages. Although various scholars had mentioned about numerations in the Sinhala language in their writing on Sinhala language, a systematic study had not been conducted up to now on numerals and numerations found in Sinhala right before British occupation of Kandy. In modern Sinhala, Arabic numerals, which were introduced by Portuguese and English, is used for writing numbers and carrying out calculations. Roman numerals are used for writing dates and for listing items or words in Sinhala though at present, Roman numerals are not used and they were introduced by Westerners who invaded Sri Lanka.
It is accepted. It had been discovered by Sri Lankan archeologists that Brahmi numerals were used in the ancient Sri Lanka and it may have evolved into two sets of numerals which were known as archaic Sinhala numerals and Lith Illakkum which were found in the Kandyan period; this paper covers numerals and numerations in Sri Lanka at the time of British occupation of the Kandyan Kingdom and their evolution to the forms which were found in 1815, the year the British occupied the whole of Sri Lanka. This article will touch upon Brahmi numerals, which were found in Sri Lanka, it had been found that five different types of numerations were used in the Sinhala language at the time of the invasion of the Kandyan kingdom by the British. Out of the five types of numerations, two sets of numerations were in use in the twentieth century for astrological calculations and to express traditional year and dates in ephemeri des; the five types or sets of numerals or numerations are listed below. Abraham Mendis Gunasekera, in A Comprehensive Grammar of Sinhalese Language, described a set of archaic numerals which were no longer in use.
According to Mr. Gunesekera, these numerals were used for ordinary calculations and to express simple numbers. Gunasekera wrote: The Sinhalase had symbols of its own to represent the different numerals which were in use until the beginning of the present century. Arabic Figures are now universally used. For the benefit of the student, the old numerals are given in the plate opposite. Sinhala numerals did not have a zero and they did not have zero concept holder, they included separate symbols for 10, 40, 50, 100, 1000. These numerals were regarded as Lith Lakunu or ephemeris numbers by W. A. De Silva in his Catalogue of Palm leaf manuscripts in the library of Colombo Museum; this set of numerals was known as Sinhala Sinhala archaic numerals. Sinhala numerals or Sinhala illakkam were used in the Kandyan convention, signed between Kandyan Chieftains and the British governor, Robert Brownrig, in 1815. Eleven clauses were numbered in Arabic numerals in the English part of the agreement, the parallel Sinhala clauses were numbered in Sinhala archaic numerals.
Although this numeral set was used for casting horoscopes and to carry out astrological calculations, it had been found that this set had been used for numbering pages of Ola palm leaf books which covered of none Buddhist topics in
Sumer is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, one of the first civilizations in the world along with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. Living along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Prehistoric proto-writing dates back before 3000 BC; the earliest texts, from c. 3300 BC, come from the cities of Jemdet Nasr. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language, an agglutinative language isolate. These prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians", are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia; the Ubaidians, though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves, are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer.
They drained the marshes for agriculture, developed trade, established industries, including weaving, metalwork and pottery. Some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. Reliable historical records begin much later. Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians lived along the coast of Eastern Arabia, today's Persian Gulf region, before it was flooded at the end of the Ice Age. Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period, continuing into the Jemdet Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians, who spoke a language isolate, Akkadians, which gave rise to widespread bilingualism; the influence of Sumerian on Akkadian is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund. Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around 2270 BC, but Sumerian continued as a sacred language.
Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Third Dynasty of Ur at 2100–2000 BC, but the Akkadian language remained in use. The Sumerian city of Eridu, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, is considered to have been one of the oldest cities, where three separate cultures may have fused: that of peasant Ubaidian farmers, living in mud-brick huts and practicing irrigation; the term Sumerian is the common name given to the ancient non-Semitic-speaking inhabitants of Mesopotamia by the East Semitic-speaking Akkadians. The Sumerians referred to themselves as ùĝ saĝ gíg ga, phonetically /uŋ saŋ ɡi ɡa/ meaning "the black-headed people", to their land as ki-en-gi, meaning "place of the noble lords"; the Akkadian word Shumer may represent the geographical name in dialect, but the phonological development leading to the Akkadian term šumerû is uncertain. Hebrew Shinar, Egyptian Sngr, Hittite Šanhar, all referring to southern Mesopotamia, could be western variants of Shumer. In the late 4th millennium BC, Sumer was divided into many independent city-states, which were divided by canals and boundary stones.
Each was centered on a temple dedicated to the particular patron god or goddess of the city and ruled over by a priestly governor or by a king, intimately tied to the city's religious rites. The five "first" cities, said to have exercised pre-dynastic kingship "before the flood": Eridu Bad-tibira Larsa Sippar Shuruppak Other principal cities: Minor cities: Kuara Zabala Kisurra Marad Dilbat Borsippa Kutha Der Eshnunna Nagar 2 Apart from Mari, which lies full 330 kilometres north-west of Agade, but, credited in the king list as having "exercised kingship" in the Early Dynastic II period, Nagar, an outpost, these cities are all in the Euphrates-Tigris alluvial plain, south of Baghdad in what are now the Bābil, Diyala, Wāsit, Dhi Qar, Basra, Al-Muthannā and Al-Qādisiyyah governorates of Iraq; the Sumerian city-states rose to power during the prehistoric Uruk periods. Sumerian written history reaches back to the 27th century BC and before, but the historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic III period, c. the 23rd century BC, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions.
Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC. Following the Gutian period, there was a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, cut short in the 20th century BC by invasions by the Amorites; the Amorite "dynasty of Isin"
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia. A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon, it was a small provincial town during the Akkadian Empire but expanded during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called "the country of Akkad", a deliberate archaism in reference to the previous glory of the Akkadian Empire, it was involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria to the north and Elam to the east in Ancient Iran. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi created a short-lived empire, succeeding the earlier Akkadian Empire, Third Dynasty of Ur, Old Assyrian Empire; the Babylonian Empire, however fell apart after the death of Hammurabi and reverted to a small kingdom. Like Assyria, the Babylonian state retained the written Akkadian language for official use, despite its Northwest Semitic-speaking Amorite founders and Kassite successors, who spoke a language isolate, not being native Mesopotamians.
It retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded, this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian. The earlier Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in Babylonian and Assyrian culture, the region would remain an important cultural center under its protracted periods of outside rule; the earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a clay tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC. Babylon was a religious and cultural centre at this point and neither an independent state nor a large city. After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire, the south Mesopotamian region was dominated by the Gutian people for a few decades before the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which restored order to the region and which, apart from northern Assyria, encompassed the whole of Mesopotamia, including the town of Babylon. Mesopotamia had enjoyed a long history prior to the emergence of Babylon, with Sumerian civilisation emerging in the region c. 3500 BC, the Akkadian-speaking people appearing by the 30th century BC.
During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis occurred between Sumerian and Akkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian and vice versa is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence; this has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the third and the second millennium BC. From c. 3500 BC until the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC, Mesopotamia had been dominated by Sumerian cities and city states, such as Ur, Uruk, Isin, Adab, Gasur, Hamazi, Akshak and Umma, although Semitic Akkadian names began to appear on the king lists of some of these states between the 29th and 25th centuries BC. Traditionally, the major religious center of all Mesopotamia was the city of Nippur where the god Enlil was supreme, it would remain so until replaced by Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi in the mid-18th century BC.
The Akkadian Empire saw the Akkadian Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia unite under one rule, the Akkadians attain ascendancy over the Sumerians and indeed come to dominate much of the ancient Near East. The empire disintegrated due to economic decline, climate change and civil war, followed by attacks by the Gutians from the Zagros Mountains. Sumer rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur in the late 22nd century BC, ejected the Gutians from southern Mesopotamia, they seem to have gained ascendancy over much of the territory of the Akkadian kings of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia for a time. Followed by the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites in 2002 BC, the Amorites, a foreign Northwest Semitic-speaking people, began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia from the northern Levant gaining control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north; the states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite advance, for a time may have relied on their fellow Akkadians in Assyria for protection.
King Ilu-shuma of the Old Assyrian Empire in a known inscription describes his exploits to the south as follows: The freedom of the Akkadians and their children I established. I purified their copper. I established their freedom from the border of the marshes and Ur and Nippur and Kish, Der of the goddess Ishtar, as far as the City of. Past scholars extrapolated from this text that it means he defeated the invading Amorites to the south and Elamites to the east, but there is no explicit record of that, some scholars believe the Assyrian kings were giving preferential trade agreements to the south; these policies were continued by Ikunum. However, when Sargon I s
Mongolian numerals are numerals developed from Tibetan numerals and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear script. They are still used on Mongolian tögrög banknotes; the main sources of reference for Mongolian numerals are mathematical and philosophical works of Janj khutugtu A. Rolbiidorj and D. Injinaash. Rolbiidorj exercises with numerals of up to 1066, the last number which he called “setgeshgui” or “unimaginable” referring to the concept of infinity. Injinaash works with numerals of up to 1059. Of these two scholars, the Rolbiidorj’s numerals, their names and sequencing are accepted and used today, for example, in the calculations and documents pertaining to the Mongolian Government budget. Numbers from 1 to 9 are referred to as "dan", meaning "simple"