click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bacan Islands

The Bacan Islands also known as the Bachans and Batchians, are a group of islands in the Moluccas in Indonesia. They are forested, lying south of Ternate and southwest of Halmahera; the islands are administered by the South Halmahera Regency of North Maluku Province. Bacan also known as Bachian or Batchian, is the group's largest island; the second and third largest islands are Mandioli. Bacan includes about 60,000 people of. Kasiruta and Mandioli each have over 8,000 inhabitants, each is subdivided into 2 districts. A fourth island, Batan Lomang, forms a 12th district within the group. There are dozens of smaller islands in the group, which had a total population of 84,075 at the 2010 Census. In 1513, the first Portuguese trading fleet to reach the Moluccas set up a trading post on Bacan which at the time was subservient to the Sultan of Ternate; the fleet's commander, Captain Antonio de Miranda Azevedo, left seven men on Bacan to buy cloves for the following year's expedition. Their arrogant behaviour and reported bad treatment of Bacan women led to their murder.

As Ternate did not have enough stock, the ship for which the men had stayed to prepare was used by the Sultan of Ternate to fill Ferdinand Magellan's last ship, the first ship to circumnavigate the world. A slave and two birds of paradise were given to the ship by Bacan. Bacan became a place of refuge for rebellious Ternateans; the Portuguese sent a punitive expedition against Bacan but it failed, instead the Portuguese Governor Galvão challenged Bacan's sultan to a duel to determine, to be subservient to whom. The challenge was accepted but the duel never took place. In 1557, Father Antonio Vaz converted Bacan's court members to Catholicism; the king subsequently married Sultan Hairun of Ternate who had become a Catholic. Ternate invaded in 1578 and the king apostasized. A community of Christians remained and were joined by correligionists from Tobelo and Ambon. A small Roman Catholic hospital was built by an elderly Dutch nun. Today, Protestants outnumber Catholics. During the mid-19th century Moluccan travels of British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace, Christians in the Moluccas were called Orang Sirani, a term applied to locals of European ancestry in the Malay Archipelago, thought to have been descended from the Portuguese.

They had dressed in white and black and Wallace reports they dance "quadrilles, waltzes and mazurkas with great vigour and much skill". Following the 1578 Ternatean invasion, Bacan appears to have become subservient to Ternate; the wife of Sultan Said of Ternate was provided by Bacan. A Spanish fort was built in 1606. Once the Dutch established hegemony in the 17th century, the Netherlands' power on Bacan was based in Fort Barnaveld. In 1705, the sergeant in charge of the fort and the sultan captured the English explorer William Dampier, seized his ship, looted its cargo, threatened all aboard with execution, it is thought. When the sergeant's Dutch superiors heard of the incident, Dampier was released, his ship restored and the English provided with sumptuous hospitality in Ternate; the chief town at the time known as Bachian, was Amasing or Amasingkota on the island's isthmus. Ternate and Bacan were the only places in the northern Moluccas that had a Dutch curriculum school and a Protestant minister in the late 19th century.

The majority of Bacan's Roman Catholics became Protestants during the Dutch colonial period. These Sirani celebrated Sundays with dancing and music; the Sultanate of Bacan was treated as a Dutch protectorate. What independence remained was lost with the Japanese occupation during and Indonesian independence after World War II; the most significant modern town is Labuha on the west coast. Bacan has more been in the news due to violence between Christian and Muslim inhabitants of the island. Bacan is of irregular form, consisting of two distinct mountainous parts, united by a low isthmus, which a slight subsidence would submerge; the total land area is around 1,900 km². The prevailing rocks are sandstone, coralline limestone, pebbly conglomerate, although hot springs attest to volcanic activity as well; the ancient and non-volcanic rocks are prevalent on the south side of the island. The sulphur spring at Taubenkit has a temperature of 125 °F and a still more remarkable example is found at Sayowang on the east coast.

"Amasing Hill" on the northern half consists of three small andesitic volcanoes: Cakasuanggi, Dua Saudara, Mount Sibela. The highest elevation on the southern half is Gunong Sabella or Labua, which the locals traditionally considered the seat of evil spirits. Coal and other minerals have been discovered. During the 19th and early 20th century, large portions of the island were richly wooded, with indigenous sago and cloves abundantly produced; the Dutch purposefully exterminated the native nutmeg trees: a large grove still remained as late as the 1870s but it had disappeared by the onset of World War I. It is the easternmost point inhabited by primates, in the form of a black macaque which occurs on Sulawesi; the world's largest bee, the giant mason bee, occurs here and on nearby Halmahera. By the mid-19th century, the interior of Bacan island was considered uninhabited and the coastal dwellers all non-indigenous, they consisted of the Christian descendants of Portuguese sailors, of Malays and Papuans, of Galelas from northern Halmahera, o

Maynard Morrison (American football)

Maynard Davis "Doc" Morrison was an All-American football fullback and center for the University of Michigan Wolverines from 1929 to 1931. Michigan football coach Harry Kipke ranked Morrison as the finest linebacker he saw. "No one got past him," Kipke said. In 1931, he was chosen by Grantland Rice and the NEA Service as a first-team All-American at center and helped lead Michigan to a Big Ten Conference championship; as a sophomore in 1929, Morrison was a significant contributor at the fullback position. When Morrison finished his freshman year, he "was rated the outstanding fullback prospect in Michigan history." In the fall of 1929, Morrison missed five games at the beginning of the season due to injury. Against Illinois, he was placed in the lineup at tackle and became "the individual star of the Wolverines by a wide and undisputed margin." On defense, he was taken out of the line and played at defensive fullback, when an Illinois back found a hole in the line, Grantland Rice wrote that “Morrison picked him up bodily and hurled him back into the breach in the wall.”

And "he was content with smacking the ball carriers against the ground as they had never been smacked before." After the Illinois game, Coach Kipke said of Morrison, "That boy will develop into the finest defensive back in Michigan’s history. His injured knee isn't well, when it is he will add more speed to his play."At the end of the 1929 season, Coach Kipke touted Morrison as the best back to wear the Michigan uniform in 15 years: "Coach Harry Kipke says Maynard Morrison... is the nearest approach to Johnny Maulbetsch the Wolverines have seen in the last 15 years. Morrison is a husky sophomore of more than 200 pounds and hits the line with all the force and power that made Maulbetsch famous as a line smasher. Morrison suffered early season injuries that kept him from play during the first month but he is expected to show his stuff in the closing games." He scored a touchdown in a 14–12 victory over Harvard, as he "hurled his 210 pound bulk through the Crimson forward wall for a touchdown."

After a scoreless tie with Iowa, the Associated Press reported that Morrison “was responsible for most of the Wolverine’s first downs.” In the summer of 1930, Coach Kipke reported that he had 15 varsity caliber backs but was lacking in talent in the line. Accordingly, Kipke reported. Again in early September, Kipke announced that “so great is the lack of linemen” that he proposed making a center of Morrison. However, before making the move, Kipke had to persuade Morrison's father. One newspaper account in 1930 reported: "Maynard Morrison was a pretty good fullback last year at Michigan. Coach Harry Kipke, but Morrison’s father wanted him to carry the ball. Kipke made the trip himself to Royal Oak to persuade Papa Morrison that Maynard would be better at flipping the ball than lugging it."After ten days of experimenting during fall practice, Kipke made the switch, moving Maynard from fullback to center. Morrison performed well at his new position in 1930, being praised by the AP for his “defensive genius.”

At the end of the 1930 season, Morrison was named to All-Big Ten teams by the United Press and the NEA Service. One reporter noted that Morrison "was just about everything a coach could ask for in a center." In 1931, Morrison started nine games for the 8–1–1 Wolverines team that tied for the Big Ten Conference championship. Morrison was selected as a first-team All-American in 1931 by Grantland Rice for Collier’s magazine and by the NEA Service All-America Board; the NEA Service All-America Board made their All-American selections based on more than 680 reports from coaches and officials representing every section of the country where football was played. According to newspaper accounts reporting on Morrison being the consensus selection by the board members at the center position, it was noted that his "great defensive ability gave him the call." Thomas Yarr of Notre Dame was named the first-team center by the Associated Press in 1931. In announcing Morrison as its All-Big Ten team center, the Associated Press described him as "Michigan’s 210 pound center from Royal Oak, Michigan," a player, "big and fast," and "the key man of Michigan's defense."

Football writer Merle Oliver called Morrison Michigan’s “diagnostician of enemy plays.”Morrison was part of a long line of All-American centers at Michigan, starting with William Cunningham and Germany Schulz followed by Ernie Vick, Jack Blott, Bob Brown, Chuck Bernard. Among the honors received by Morrison are the following: First team All-Big Ten in 1930 and 1931. Inducted into the Royal Oak High School Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2005, Morrison was selected as one of the 100 greatest Michigan football players of all time by the "Motown Sports Revival," ranking 50th on the all-time team. 1931 College Football All-America Team University of Michigan Athletic Hall of Honor Bentley Library photograph and biography of Morrison

Criteria air pollutants

The U. S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are limits on atmospheric concentration of six pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, other health hazards. Established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act, NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country; the six criteria air pollutants, or criteria pollutants, for which limits are set in the NAAQS are ozone, atmospheric particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides. These are emitted from many sources in industry, transportation, electricity generation and agriculture. In many cases they are the products of the combustion of industrial processes; the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants cover many other chemicals, require the maximum achievable reduction that the EPA determines is feasible. The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants recognized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as needing standards on a national level.

The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the six CAPs. The NAAQS are health based and the EPA sets two types of standards: primary and secondary; the primary standards are designed to protect the health of'sensitive' populations such as asthmatics and the elderly. The secondary standards are concerned with protecting the environment, they are designed to address visibility, damage to crops, vegetation and animals. The EPA established the NAAQS according to Sections 108 and 109 of the U. S. Clean Air Act, last amended in 1990; these sections require the EPA " to list widespread air pollutants that reasonably may be expected to endanger public health or welfare. Ozone: Ozone found on the surface-level known as tropospheric ozone is regulated by the NAAQS under the Clean Air Act. Ozone was found to be damaging to grapes in the 1950s; the US EPA set "oxidants" standards in 1971. These standards were created to reduce other related damages. Like lead, ozone requires a reexamination of new findings of health and vegetation effects periodically.

This aspect necessitated the creation of a US EPA criteria document. Further analysis done in 1979 and 1997 made it necessary to modify the pollution standards Atmospheric particulate matter PM10, coarse particles: 2.5 micrometers to 10 μm in size PM2.5, fine particles: 2.5 μm in size or less. Particulate Matter was listed in the 1996 Criteria document issued by the EPA. In April 2001, the EPA created a Second External Review Draft of the Air Quality Criteria for PM, which addressed updated studies done on particulate matter and the modified pollutant standards done since the First External Review Draft. In May 2002, a Third External Review Draft was made, the EPA revised PM requirements again. After issuing a fourth version of the document, the EPA issued the final version in October 2004. Lead: In the mid-1970s, lead was listed as a criteria air pollutant that required NAAQS regulation. In 1977, the EPA published a document; this document was based on the scientific assessments of lead at the time.

Based on this report, the EPA established a "1.5 µg/m3 Pb NAAQS in 1978." The Clean Air Act requires periodic review of NAAQS, new scientific data published after 1977 made it necessary to revise the standards established in the 1977 Lead AQCD document. An Addendum to the document was published in 1986 and again as a Supplement to the 1986 AQCD/Addendum in 1990. In 1990, a Lead Staff Paper was prepared by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, based on information presented in the 1986 Lead/AQCD/Addendum and 1990 Supplement, in addition to other OAQPS sponsored lead exposure/risk analyses. In this paper, it was proposed that the Pb NAAQS be revised further and presented options for revision to the EPA; the EPA elected to not modify the Pb NAAQS further, but decided to instead focus on the 1991 U. S. EPA Strategy for Reducing Lead Exposure; the EPA concentrated on regulatory and remedial clean-up efforts to minimize Pb exposure from numerous non-air sources that caused more severe public health risks, undertook actions to reduce air emissions.

Carbon monoxide: The EPA set the first NAAQS for carbon monoxide in 1971. The primary standard was set at 9 ppm averaged over an 8-hour period and 35 ppm over a 1-hour period; the majority of CO emitted into the ambient air is from mobile sources. The EPA has reviewed and assessed the current scientific literature with respect to CO in 1979, 1984, 1991, 1994. After the review in 1984 the EPA decided to remove the secondary standard for CO due to lack of significant evidence of the adverse environmental impacts. On January 28, 2011 the EPA decided that the current NAAQS for CO were sufficient and proposed to keep the existing standards as they stood; the EPA is strengthening monitoring requirements for CO by

Mike Eldred (guitarist)

Mike Eldred is an American guitarist and luthier. Eldred came to national attention while backing Lee Rocker in the mid-1990s, he served as director of the Fender Custom Shop. He has put out four albums as leader of the Mike Eldred Trio. Eldred, a native of Arizona, started playing guitar at 14, he started building guitars at age 19 and was hired by the Charvel company in early 1979. He worked there for about eight or nine years joined Yamaha Corporation, where he spent eight or nine years. Eldred eventually started a blues band called the Ace Tones, which recorded a demo tape to get club bookings; the tape came to the notice of Brian Setzer of the Stray Cats. Setzer passed his copy on to Stray Cats bass player Lee Rocker. Rocker formed Lee Rocker's Big Blue, which put out its first album in 1994 and its second in 1995. Trouser Press called the group "a likable, sharp blues trio" and observed that "Eldred kicks out impressive junior Stevie Ray Vaughan guitar panache." In a writeup of a 1996 live performance, the Los Angeles Times noted that Eldred's stinging guitar lines enhanced Rocker's singing.

Thanks to Eldred, among the debut's featured guests was Scotty Moore, well known for being Elvis Presley's studio and touring guitarist. Eldred had befriended Moore a couple of years before; as Moore recalled in his 2013 memoir, Eldred wrote Moore a letter that mentioned how much Moore influenced his playing. To Eldred's surprise, Moore responded and wound up driving from his home in Nashville to Memphis, where Big Blue was recording. For many years, starting in the late 1990s, Eldred ran the custom shop division of Fender Musical Instruments Corporation, which designed high-end instruments for celebrity clients including Eric Clapton, ZZ Top, Brad Paisley, Keith Urban. Among the projects Eldred oversaw was the Tribute Series, in which replicas of axes used by guitar heroes such as Jimi Hendrix, Jeff Beck, Rory Gallagher were made through a meticulous process of reverse engineering photographed. In 2007, Fender produced 250 copies of Stevie Ray Vaughan's well-worn guitar "Lenny"; when Eldred disassembled the 1965 Stratocaster, he found to his surprise that it contained a component from his days at Charvel: a neck that had the name of ZZ Top guitarist Billy Gibbons written in pencil on the heel.

Eldred's technical insights into guitar gear are visible in several books, including Fender histories by author Tony Bacon. Eldred left Fender in 2014 after a management shakeup; this group features Eldred as primary songwriter in addition to playing guitar. It includes bass player for The Blasters; the Mike Eldred Trio formed around 2000. It was visible playing out in the Los Angeles area as early as 2001; the self-titled first album was released by Virgin France in 2002. The second album, 61 & 49, came out in 2010. Guitar World magazine said that Eldred expertly led his trio into blues and rockabilly territory, likening his playing to Hendrix as well as Vaughan. Guest musicians included old pal Scotty Moore, Ike Turner, Cesar Rosas. Elvis Unleaded followed in 2012, it consisted of 20 cover versions of Elvis Presley songs. The Arizona Daily Star described Eldred as "one of roots music's most celebrated guitarists."The 2016 album Baptist Town was recorded at the famous Sun Studio in Memphis. It featured guest appearances from David Hidalgo, John Mayer, Robert Cray.

Mike Eldred Trio website

Baba Yaga

In Slavic folklore, Baba Yaga is a supernatural being who appears as a deformed or ferocious-looking old woman. In Russian fairy tales, Baba Yaga flies around in a mortar, wields a pestle, dwells deep in the forest in a hut described as standing on chicken legs. Baba Yaga may help or hinder those that encounter or seek her out and may play a maternal role and has associations with forest wildlife. According to Vladimir Propp's folktale morphology, Baba Yaga appears as either a donor, villain, or may be altogether ambiguous. Andreas Johns identifies Baba Yaga as "one of the most memorable and distinctive figures in eastern European folklore," and observes that she is "enigmatic" and exhibits "striking ambiguity." Johns summarizes Baba Yaga as "a many-faceted figure, capable of inspiring researchers to see her as a Cloud, Death, Snake, Pelican or Earth Goddess, totemic matriarchal ancestress, female initiator, phallic mother, or archetypal image". Variations of the name Baba Yaga are found in the languages of the Eastern Slavic peoples.

The first element, baba, is transparently a babble word. In Old Russian, baba may mean'midwife','sorceress', or'fortune teller'. In modern Russian, the word бабушка or babushka derives from it. In Serbian, baba means grandmother. In contemporary, unofficial Polish Baba is the pejorative synonym of woman. Baba may have a pejorative connotation in modern Russian, both for women as well as for "an unmanly, timid, or characterless man". To other kinship terms in Slavic languages, baba may be employed outside of kinship as a result of taboo. For example, in variety of Slavic languages and dialects, the word baba may be applied to various animals, natural phenomena, objects, such as types of mushrooms or a cake or pear; this function extends to various geographic features. In the Polesia region of Ukraine, the plural baby may refer to an autumn funeral feast; these associations have led to variety of theories on the figure of Baba Yaga, though the presence of the element baba may have been taken as its primary meaning of'grandmother' or'old woman'.

The element may appear as a means of glossing the second element, with a familiar component. Additionally, baba may have been applied as a means of distinguishing Baba Yaga from a male counterpart. While a variety of etymologies have been proposed for the second element of the name, Yaga, it remains far more etymologically problematic and no clear consensus among scholars has resulted. For example, in the 19th century, Alexander Afanasyev proposed the derivation of Proto-Slavic *ož and Sanskrit ahi; this etymology has subsequently been explored by other scholars in the 20th century. Related terms to the second element of the name, appear in various Slavic languages; the term appears in Old Church Slavonic as jęza/jędza. In other Indo-European languages the element iaga has been linked to Lithuanian engti, Old English inca, Old Norse ekki; the first clear reference to Baba Yaga occurs in 1755. In Lomonosov's grammar, Baba Yaga is mentioned twice among other figures from Slavic tradition; the second of the two mentions occurs within a list of Slavic gods and beings next to their presumed equivalence in Roman mythology.

Baba Yaga, appears in a third section without an equivalence, attesting to perception of her uniqueness in this first known attestation. In the narratives in which Baba Yaga appears, she displays a variety of typical attributes: a turning, chicken-legged hut. Baba Yaga bears the epithet "bony leg", when inside of her dwelling, she may be found stretched out over the stove, reaching from one corner of the hut to another. Baba Yaga may mention the "Russian scent" of those that visit her, her nose may stick into the ceiling. Particular emphasis may be placed by some narrators on the repulsiveness of her nose, buttocks, or vagina. In some tales a trio of Baba Yagas appear as all sharing the same name. For example, in a version of "The Maiden Tsar" collected in the 19th century by Alexander Afanasyev, Ivan, a handsome merchant's son, makes his way to the home of one of three Baba Yagas: He journeyed onwards, straight ahead and came to a little hut, he found Baba Yaga the Bony-legged. "Fie, fie," she said, "the Russian smell was never heard of nor caught sight of here, but it has come by itself.

Are you here of your own free will or by compulsion, my good youth?" "Largely of my own free will, twice as much by compulsion! Do you know, Baba Yaga, where lies the thrice tenth kingdom?" "No, I do not," she said, told him to go to her second sister. Ivan walks for some time before encountering a small hut identical to the first; this Baba Yaga makes the same comments and asks the same question as the first, Ivan asks the same question. This second Baba Yaga does not know either and directs him to the third, but says that if she gets angry with him "and wan

Murphy Oil

Murphy Oil Corporation is a petroleum and natural gas exploration company headquartered in El Dorado, Arkansas. The company has operating offices in Houston, Calgary and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; as of December 31, 2016, the company had 684 million barrels of oil equivalent of estimated proved reserves, of which 48% was petroleum, 48% was natural gas, 5% was natural gas liquids. The company's developed reserves are in the United States and Malaysia; the company has undeveloped reserves in Australia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Equatorial Guinea, Spain. In the United States, the company's reserves are in the Eagle Ford Shale area of South Texas and in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico; the company's Canadian operations are heavy crude oil projects in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Of the company's 2016 production of 175.6 thousand barrels of oil equivalent per day, 59% was petroleum, 5% was natural gas liquids, 36% was natural gas. The company was founded in 1944 as CH Murphy & Co by Charles H. Murphy Sr. and incorporated in Louisiana in 1950.

In 2003, the company acquired acreage offshore Republic of Congo. In 2004, the company sold oil fields in Western Canada for US$633 million. In July 2011, the company sold its refinery in Wisconsin to Calumet for $214 million. In September 2011, the company sold its refinery in Meraux, Louisiana to Valero Energy for $325 million. In August 2013, the company distributed 100% of the shares in its retail marketing gasoline station chain, Murphy USA, to its shareholders via a corporate spin-off. In 2016, the company sold its 5% stake in Syncrude Canada Ltd. a joint venture located about 25 miles north of Fort McMurray, for C$937 million. In 2017, the company acquired acreage offshore Brazil. In January 2007, Murphy announced that it would set aside $50 million to ensure that every student graduating from the El Dorado, Arkansas school system would be able to afford college; the scholarship, which requires that students spend a certain number of years in the El Dorado school system and maintain a 2.0 grade point average while in college, pays tuition and all mandatory fees for students, up to the highest annual rate charged by an Arkansas public university.

Scholarship amounts are paid based on length of attendance in the El Dorado Public School District. For example, graduates who attend all 13 years at El Dorado Public Schools will receive 100% of the scholarship. In August 2005, during Hurricane Katrina, an oil storage tank at the Murphy Oil refinery in Meraux, Louisiana floated off its foundation and released more than one million gallons of crude oil into Meraux and Chalmette. A class-action lawsuit against Murphy Oil ended in a settlement in 2009. In 2007, following a benzene leak in Louisiana, Murphy Oil was fined $395,313 in civil penalties plus $1.5 million for cleanup costs by the US EPA. The case was settled in April 2019. Business data for Murphy Oil Corporation