Woman's Christian Temperance Union
It was influential in the temperance movement, and supported the 18th Amendment. The WCTU was originally organized on December 23,1873, in Hillsboro, Ohio and it operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and womans suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored a conference at which the International Womens Christian Temperance Union was formed. The Worlds Womans Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and became the arm of the organization. At its founding in 1874, the purpose of the WCTU was to create a sober and pure world by abstinence, purity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president, the constitution of the WCTU called for the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage. Frances Willard, a noted feminist, was elected the WCTUs second president in 1879 and she remained president until her death in 1898. Its members were inspired by the Greek writer Xenophon, who defined temperance as moderation in all things healthful, the WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness or failing.
The WCTU agitated against tobacco, the American WCTU formed a Department for the Overthrow of the Tobacco Habit as early as 1885 and frequently published anti-tobacco articles in the 1880s. Agitation against tobacco continued through to the 1950s, as a consequence of its stated purposes, the WCTU was very interested in a number of social reform issues, including labor, public health and international peace. As the movement grew in numbers and strength, members of the WCTU focused on suffrage, the WCTU was instrumental in organizing womans suffrage leaders and in helping more women become involved in American politics. Local chapters, known as “unions”, were autonomous, though linked to state. Willard pushed for the Home Protection ballot, arguing that women, being the superior sex, needed the vote in order to act as citizen-mothers and protect their homes. At a time when suffragists were viewed as radicals and alienated most American women, as the WCTU grew internationally, it developed various approaches that helped with the inclusion of women of religions other than Christianity.
But, it was primarily, and still is, a Christian womens organization. The WCTUs work extended across a range of efforts to bring about personal and social moral reform, in the 1880s it worked on creating legislation to protect working girls from the exploitation of men, including raising Age of Consent laws. It focused on keeping Sundays as Sabbath days and restrict frivolous activities, in 1901 the WCTU said that golf should not be allowed on Sundays. The WCTU wanted to aid immigrants coming into the United States through Americanization activities, between 1900 and 1920, much of their budget was given to their center on Ellis Island, which helped to start the Americanization process
George Robert White
George Robert White was an American philanthropist. He was a citizen of Boston, Massachusetts for most of his life, as a boy he began working for the Weeks and Potter Drug Company. Over time Whites responsibilities grew and he became the president. White changed the name of the corporation to that of the Potter Drug, the company was best known for its antibacterial soap with the brand name Cuticura. Over the course of his life he amassed a fortune and he was active in a number of charitable organizations, and after his death in 1922 he bequeathed a sizable endowment on the City of Boston named The George Robert White Fund. The George Robert White Fund was established in Whites will when he left a trust of $5,000,000 to the City of Boston as a permanent charitable fund. The net income of the fund is to be used only for creating public beauty and utility for the inhabitants of the city, eager to prevent unduly hasty disbursements from the fund, White required a minimum of 3 months deliberation before disbursement.
He required the city to make a report to the public by the trustees in order to maintain a degree of public accountability. He suggested allowing the income of the fund to build periodically in order that the projects undertaken could be substantial, in 1905 a memorial was erected at the Forest Hills Cemetery entitled Angel of Peace created by the notable sculptor Daniel Chester French. In 1924 another monument by French was erected in the Boston Public Garden entitled Angel of the Waters, Boston,1822 to 1922, The Story of Its Government Ad Principal Activities During One Hundred Years. Boston, City of Boston Printing Department
Boston Public Library
The Boston Public Library is a municipal public library system in Boston, United States, founded in 1848. In fiscal year 2014, the library held over 10,000 programs, all free to the public, and lent 3.7 million materials. According to its website, the Boston Public Library has a collection of over 23.7 million items, the vast majority of the collection – over 22.7 million volumes — is held in the Central Branch research stacks. Between July 2012 and June 2013, the circulation of the BPL was 3.69 million. The New York Public Library is the other public library that is a member of the ARL. The library has established collections of distinction, based on the depth and breadth, including subjects such as Boston history. In addition, the library is both a federal and state depository of government documents, included in the BPLs research collection are more than 1.7 million rare books and manuscripts. There are large collections of prints, postcards, the library, for example, holds one of the major collections of watercolors and drawings by Thomas Rowlandson.
In the mid-19th century, several people were instrumental in the establishment of the Boston Public Library, George Ticknor, a Harvard professor and trustee of the Boston Athenaeum, raised the possibility of establishing a public library in Boston beginning as early as 1826. At the time, Ticknor could not generate enough interest, in 1839, Alexandre Vattemare, a Frenchman, suggested that all of Bostons libraries combine themselves into one institution for the benefit of the public. The idea was presented to many Boston libraries, most were uninterested in the idea, at Vattemares urging, Paris sent gifts of books in 1843 and 1847 to assist in establishing a unified public library. Vattemare made yet another gift of books in 1849, josiah Quincy, Jr. anonymously donated $5,000 to begin the funding of a new library. Quincy made the donation while he was mayor of Boston, John Jacob Astor influenced the establishment of a public library in Boston. At the time of his death, Astor bequeathed $400,000 to New York to establish a library there.
Because of the cultural and economic rivalry between Boston and New York, this bequest prompted more discussion of establishing a library in Boston. In 1848, a statute of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enabled the creation of the library, the library was officially established in Boston by a city ordinance in 1852. Mayor Benjamin Seaver recommended to the city council that a librarian be appointed, in May 1852 the city council adopted the recommendations of the mayor and Edward Capen was chosen to become Boston Public Librarys first librarian. Eager to support the library, Edward Everett collected documents from both houses of Congress, bound them at his own expense, and offered this collection to establish the new library
Frederick William MacMonnies
Frederick William MacMonnies was the best known expatriate American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts school, as successful and lauded in France as he was in the United States. He was an accomplished painter and portraitist. He was born in Brooklyn Heights, New York, three of MacMonnies best-known sculptures are Nathan Hale and Infant Faun, and Diana. In 1880 MacMonnies began an apprenticeship under Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and was promoted to studio assistant. MacMonnies studied at night with the National Academy of Design and The Art Students League of New York, in Saint-Gaudens studio, he met Stanford White, who was turning to Saint-Gaudens for the prominent sculptures required for his architecture. In 1884 MacMonnies traveled to Paris to study sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts, in 1888 he opened a studio in Paris and began to create some of his most famous sculptures, which he submitted annually to the Paris Salon. In his atelier, he mentored such notable artists as Janet Scudder, the life-size Nathan Hale was the first major commission gained by MacMonnies.
Erected in 1890 in City Hall Park, New York, it stands near where the actual Nathan Hale was thought to have been executed. The Metropolitan Museum has a copy, as do the Art Museum at Princeton University, the National Gallery of Art, Phoenix Art Museum, choate, at Naumkeag, in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. His long-term residence was at Giverny and this large decorative fountain piece became the focal point at the Exposition and established MacMonnies as one of the important sculptors of the time. In 1894, Stanford White brought another prestigious and highly visible commission, the complicated figural groups occupied him for the next eight years. MacMonnies began the work in 1906, and the work was unveiled in 1911, the monument features a depiction of Kit Carson, and it marks the end of the Smoky Hill Trail, a popular route to Colorado Territory taken by gold-seekers, located near the Smoky Hill River. Meanwhile he was creating portraits and his 1904 full length painting of his student Mabel Conkling was said to be his finest.
Commissioned in 1908, his Princeton Battle Monument, created in collaboration with architects Carrere & Hastings, located in Princeton, returning to New York after 1915, he continued his stylish work with the colossal group, Civic Virtue, a fountain for New York City Hall. It was the subject of controversy because it depicts a man trampling several female figures. This resulted in public criticism. The statue was moved in 1941 to distant Queens Borough Hall, called, in French, La Liberté éplorée the statue, located in Meaux, France, is over seven stories tall, at 22 metres. While work started on the statue in 1924, it was not finished until 1932, at the time of its dedication, it was the worlds largest stone monument
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
Charles Follen McKim
Charles Follen McKim was an American Beaux-Arts architect of the late 19th century. Along with William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White, he provided the architectural expertise as a member of the partnership McKim, McKim was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania. His parents were James Miller McKim, a Presbyterian minister, and they were active abolitionists and he was named after Charles Follen, another abolitionist and a Unitarian minister. After attending Harvard University, he studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris before joining the office of Henry Hobson Richardson in 1870, McKim formed his own firm in partnership with William Rutherford Mead, joined in 1877 by fellow Richardson protégé Stanford White. For ten years, the firm was known for their open-plan informal summer houses. He designed the Howard Mansion at Hyde Park, New York and he died, aged 62, in St. James, New York. He was a member and former president of the American Institute of Architects. He became a National Academician in 1907 and he belonged to the University, Lambs and Tennis Clubs of New York, and to the St.
Botolph and Somerset Clubs of Boston. McKim received numerous awards during his lifetime, including the Medaille dOr at the 1900 Paris Exposition, the royal gold medal from Edward VII was awarded for the restoration of the White House. In 1902 Congress appropriated $475,445 for this purpose to be spent at the discretion of President Theodore Roosevelt. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University, and the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 1890. He was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1877, Charles Follen McKim at the archINFORM database. The McKim Mead & White Architectural Records Collection at the New York Historical Society
Hearst Castle is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark mansion located on the Central Coast of California, United States. It was designed by architect Julia Morgan, between 1919 and 1947, as a residence for newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, who died in 1951, in 1954 it became a California State Park. The site was opened to visitors in 1958, since that time it has been operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument where the estate, and its considerable collection of art and antiques, is open for public tours. Despite its location far from any urban center, the site attracts millions of travelers each year, Hearst formally named the estate La Cuesta Encantada, but usually called it the ranch. Hearst Castle and grounds are sometimes referred to as San Simeon without distinguishing between the Hearst property and the adjacent unincorporated area of the same name. Invitations to Hearst Castle were highly coveted during its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, the Hollywood and political elite often visited, usually flying into the estates airfield or taking a private Hearst-owned train car from Los Angeles.
While guests were expected to attend the formal dinners each evening, since the Ranch had so many facilities, guests were rarely at a loss for things to do. The estates theater usually screened films from Hearsts own movie studio, Hearst Castle was the inspiration for the Xanadu mansion of the 1941 Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, a fictionalization of William Randolph Hearsts career. Hearst Castle was not used as a location for the film, commercial filming is rare at Hearst Castle and most requests are turned down. U. Y. One condition of the Hearst Corporations donation of the estate was that the Hearst family would be allowed to use it when they wished. Patty Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph, related that as a child, the house is screened from tourist routes by a dense grove of eucalyptus to provide maximum privacy for the guests. In 2001, Patty Hearst hosted a Travel Channel show on the estate, Hearst Castle joined the National Register of Historic Places on June 22,1972 and became a United States National Historic Landmark on May 11,1976.
Hearst Castle was included as one of Americas 10 Amazing Castles by Forbes Travel. com, the estate itself is five miles inland atop a hill of the Santa Lucia Range at an altitude of 1,600 feet. The region is sparsely populated because the Santa Lucia Range abuts the Pacific Ocean, the surrounding countryside visible from the mansion remains largely undeveloped. Its entrance is approximately five miles north of Hearst San Simeon State Park, Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearsts father, George Hearst, originally purchased in 1865. The younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips and he inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. The Hearst Castle area has a mediterranean climate that is moderated by its relative proximity to the Pacific coastline. Hearst first approached American architect Julia Morgan with ideas for a new project in April 1915, I get tired of going up there and camping in tents
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fourth largest museum in the United States. It contains more than 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas, with more than one million visitors a year, it is the 55th most-visited art museum in the world as of 2014. Founded in 1870, the moved to its current location in 1909. The museum is affiliated with the Tufts School of the Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870 and opened in 1876, with most of its initial collection taken from the Boston Athenæum Art Gallery. Francis Davis Millet, a local artist, was instrumental in starting the Art School affiliated with the museum and it was built almost entirely of red brick and terracotta with a small amount of stone in its base. The brick was produced by the Peerless Brick Company of Philadelphia, in 1907, plans were laid to build a new home for the museum on Huntington Avenue in Bostons Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood near the renowned Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.
Museum trustees decided to hire architect Guy Lowell to create a design for a museum so that could be built in stages as funding was obtained for each phase, two years later, the first section of Lowell’s neoclassical design was completed. It featured a 500-foot façade of granite and a grand rotunda, the museum moved to its new location that year, the Copley Square Hotel eventually would replace the old building. The second phase of construction built a wing along the The Fens to house paintings galleries and it was funded entirely by Maria Antoinette Evans Hunt, the wife of wealthy business magnate Robert Dawson Evans, and opened in 1915. From 1916 through 1925, the noted artist John Singer Sargent painted the frescoes that adorn the rotunda, numerous additions enlarged the building throughout the years, including the Decorative Arts wing in 1928 and the Norma Jean Calderwood Garden Court and Terrace in 1997. The West Wing, designed by I. M. Pei, opened in 1981 and this wing now houses the museums cafe and gift shop as well as a special exhibition space.
In the mid-2000s, the museum launched an effort to renovate. In 2011, Moodys Investors Service calculated that the museum had over $180 million in outstanding debt, the agency cited growing attendance, a large endowment, and positive cash flow as reasons to believe that the museums finances would become stable in the near future. The renovation included a new Art of the Americas Wing to feature artwork from North, South, in 2006, the groundbreaking ceremonies took place. The landscape architecture firm Gustafson Guthrie Nichol redesigned the Huntington Avenue and Fenway entrances, access roads, the wing opened on November 20,2010 with free admission to the public. Mayor Thomas Menino declared it Museum of Fine Arts Day, the 12, 000-square-foot glass-enclosed courtyard features a 42. 5-foot high glass sculpture, titled the Lime Green Icicle Tower, by Dale Chihuly. In 2014, the Art of the Americas Wing was recognized for its architectural achievement by being awarded the Harleston Parker Medal.
In 2015, the museum renovated its Japanese garden, Tenshin-en, the garden, which originally opened in 1988, was designed by Japanese professor Kinsaku Nakane
Charles Tyson Yerkes was an American financier, born in Philadelphia. He played a part in developing mass-transit systems in Chicago. Yerkes was born into a Quaker family in the Northern Liberties and his mother died of puerperal fever when he was five years old and shortly thereafter his father was expelled from the Society of Friends for marrying a non-Quaker. After finishing a course at Philadelphias Central High School, Yerkes began his business career at the age of 17 as a clerk in a local grain brokerage. In 1859, aged 22, he opened his own brokerage firm, by 1865 he had moved into banking and specialized in selling municipal and government bonds. Relying on his bank president fathers connections, his political contacts and he was on the verge of entering Philadelphia society when disaster struck. While serving as a agent for the City of Philadelphias treasurer Joseph Marcer. This speculation ended calamitously when the Great Chicago Fire sparked a financial panic, scheming to remain out of prison, he attempted to blackmail two influential Pennsylvania politicians.
Yerkes was promised a pardon if he would deny the accusations he had made and he agreed to these terms and was released after seven months in the Eastern State Penitentiary. Yerkes spent the ten years rebuilding his fortune. In 1881 Yerkes traveled to Fargo in the Dakota Territory in order to obtain a divorce from his wife of over twenty-two years, that year, he wedded the 24-year-old Mary Adelaide Moore and moved to Chicago. He opened a stock and grain brokerage but soon involved with the citys public transportation system. However, he never achieved his ultimate goal—a monopoly of the streetcar lines. Yerkes was not averse to using bribery and blackmail to obtain his ends and he had initially intended to finance only a telescope but eventually agreed to foot the bill for an entire observatory. He contributed nearly $300,000 to the University of Chicago to establish what would become known as the Yerkes Observatory, located in Williams Bay, if Yerkes could have gotten his way, Chicago would never have had any elevated railroads.
So it is no small irony that his greatest legacy to the city was The Loop—a rectangle of elevated tracks enclosing Chicagos business district, while in Chicago, Yerkes became an avid art collector. He relied upon Sarah Tyson Hallowell to advise him on his purchases, after the Chicago Worlds Fair in 1893, she tried to interest him in the works of Auguste Rodin, which were part of the loan exhibitor of French art. Because the subject matter was controversial and other turned the works down
Watch and Ward Society
After the 1920s, its emphasis changed to combating the spread of gambling. In 1957 the organizations name was changed to the New England Citizens Crime Commission, in 1975 it was merged with another organization to form Community Resources for Justice, a group that promotes prison reform and rights for ex-convicts. The societys activities contributed to the popularization of the phrase Banned in Boston, which became a target of parody, the New England Society for the Suppression of Vice was founded in 1878 by a meeting of Boston residents following a speech given by Anthony Comstock. The New England Society was to be the first such chapter, the meeting, attended by more than 400 men, elected a committee of eight men to run the organization. The societys membership was open to making contributions of $5 or more, according to historian Paul Boyer. The society held its first annual meeting in Bostons Park Street Church in 1879, in 1891, it was renamed the Watch and Ward Society after an old volunteer police force, adopting the mission to watch and ward off evildoers.
It was headquartered on School Street, circa 1890s-1900s, the phrase, Banned in Boston, became a target of parody and a marketing slogan. In 1882, the society played a role in instigating obscenity charges against Walt Whitmans Leaves of Grass, in 1903 they went to court to prevent booksellers from advertising Boccaccios The Decameron and Rabelais Gargantua and Pantagruel, but lost the case. In 1907, they successfully backed obscenity charges against Elinor Glyns Three Weeks, in 1922, the society had Robert Keables Simon Called Peter removed from a library, and in 1923, used its influence to suppress distribution of Floyd Dells Janet March. In 1926, the society challenged a Herbert Asbury story called Hatrack, in Boston, with police, and a large crowd in attendance, Mencken sold a copy of the magazine to society secretary J. Frank Chase. In the ensuing trial, the magazine was not to be obscene. Mencken proceeded to sue the Watch and Ward Society for illegal restraint of trade. Chase died that year, and the societys influence began to decline, in 1928, the society blacklisted Aldous Huxleys Point Counter Point and Voltaires Candide.
In 1929, it went after Erich Maria Remarques All Quiet on the Western Front on the grounds of offensive language and that same year, in a decisive case, it failed to ban Theodore Dreisers An American Tragedy. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to no.41 Mount Vernon Street, in 1934, the society suppressed John OHaras Appointment in Samarra. In 1935, it banned Lillian Hellmans play The Childrens Hour, in one of its final acts of censorship, in 1950, the society took aim at Erskine Caldwells Gods Little Acre. The remnants of the Watch and Ward Societys endowments were propagated through all of these organizations, purity in Print, Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. Banned in Boston, The Watch and Ward Societys Crusade against Books and the Social Evil