The term cultivar most refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.
In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of ornamental plants is called floriculture, which forms a major branch of horticulture. Ornamental plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers, scent, overall foliage texture, fruit and bark, aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent thorns of Rosa sericea and cacti. In all cases, their purpose is for the enjoyment of gardeners and the public institutions. Certain trees may be called ornamental trees; this term is used when they are used as part of a garden, park, or landscape setting, for instance for their flowers, their texture, form and shape, other aesthetic characteristics. In some countries trees in'utilitarian' landscape use such as screening, roadside plantings are called amenity trees. Ornamental grasses are grasses grown as ornamental plants.
Many ornamental grasses are true grasses, however several other families of grass-like plants are marketed as ornamental grasses. These include the sedges, rushes and cat-tails. All are monocotyledons with narrow leaves and parallel veins. Most are herbaceous perennials, though many are evergreen and some develop woody tissues. Ornamental grasses are popular in many countries, they bring striking linear form, color and sound to the garden, throughout the year. Ornamental grasses are popular in many colder hardiness zones for their resilience to cold temperatures and aesthetic value throughout fall and winter seasons. For plants to be considered ornamental, they require specific pruning by a gardener. For instance, many plants cultivated for topiary and bonsai would only be considered to be ornamental by virtue of the regular pruning carried out on them by the gardener, they may cease to be ornamental if the work was abandoned. Ornamental plants and trees are distinguished from utilitarian and crop plants, such as those used for agriculture and vegetable crops, for forestry or as fruit trees.
This does not preclude any particular type of plant being grown both for ornamental qualities in the garden, for utilitarian purposes in other settings. Thus lavender is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, but may be grown as a crop plant for the production of lavender oil; the term ornamental plant is used here in the same sense that it is used in the horticultural trades. The term corresponds to'garden plant', though the latter is much less precise, as any plant may be grown in a garden. Ornamental plants are plants, rather than functional ones. While some plants are both ornamental and functional, people use the term “ornamental plants” to refer to plants which have no value beyond being attractive, although many people feel that this is value enough. Ornamental plants are the keystone of ornamental gardening, they come in a range of shapes and colors suitable to a broad array of climates and gardening needs; some ornamental plants are grown for showy foliage. Their foliage may be deciduous, turning bright orange and yellow before dropping off in the fall, or evergreen, in which case it stays green year-round.
Some ornamental foliage has a striking appearance created by lacy leaves or long needles, while other ornamentals are grown for distinctively colored leaves, such as silvery-gray ground covers and bright red grasses, among many others. Other ornamental plants are cultivated for their blooms. Flowering ornamentals are a key aspect of many gardens, with many flower gardeners preferring to plant a variety of flowers so that the garden is continuously in flower through the spring and summer. Depending on the types of plants being grown, the flowers may be subtle and delicate, or large and showy, with some ornamental plants producing distinctive aromas which paint a palette of scents in addition to colors. Media related to Ornamental plants at Wikimedia Commons
Dioecy is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms. Dioecious reproduction is biparental reproduction. Dioecy is one method that excludes self-fertilization and promotes allogamy, thus tends to reduce the expression of recessive deleterious mutations present in a population. Flowering plants have several other methods of excluding self-fertilization, called self-incompatibility. In zoology, dioecious species may be opposed to hermaphroditic species, meaning that an individual is of only one sex, in which case the synonym gonochory is more used. Dioecy may describe colonies, such as the colonies of Siphonophorae, which may be either dioecious within a species or monoecious. Dioecious colonies contain members of only one sex, whereas monoecious colonies contain members of both sexes. Most animal species are dioecious. Dioecious species have the male and female reproductive structures on separate plants; the meaning of male and female in the context of plants is different from that used in animal groups and the usage is not correct.
This issue is discussed below in the Alternation of generations section. About 6 percent of angiosperm species are dioecious and about 7% of angiosperm genera contain some dioecious species. Examples of dioecious plant species include ginkgos, willows and African teak. More examples of dioecious plants can be found in Dioecious plants. Dioecy occurs in a wide variety of plant families; however it is more common in heterotrophic species. Certain algae are dioecious. There are several alternatives to dioecy for sexual reproductive structure organization in plants including bisexual flowers, gynomonoecy, andromonoecy; these are described at Plant reproductive morphology. Land plants have alternation of generations, for which the sporophyte generation produces spores rather than gametes. Speaking, the sporophytes of land plants do not have either male or female reproductive organs; the gametophytes of flowering plants are of a single sex. The sporophyte generation is called dioecious when each sporophyte has only one kind of spore-producing organ whose spores give rise to either all male gametes or all female gametes.
Different terms, "dioicous" and "monoicous", may be used for the gametophyte generation, although "dioecious" and "monoecious" are used. Monoecy and dioecy in fungi refer to the donor and recipient roles in mating, where a nucleus is transferred from one haploid hypha to another, the two nuclei present in the same cell merge by karyogamy to form a zygote; the definition avoids reference to male and female reproductive structures. An individual of a dioecious fungal species not only requires a partner for mating, but performs only one of the roles in nuclear transfer, as either the donor or the recipient. A monoecious fungal species may not be self-compatible. Dioecy has a demographic disadvantage compared with hermaphroditism: only about half of reproductive adults produce seeds, it is assumed that dioecious species must therefore have fitness advantages to compensate for this cost through increased survival, growth, or reproduction. In trees, compensation is realized through increased seed production by females.
This in turn is facilitated by a lower contribution of reproduction to population growth, which results in no demonstrable net costs of having males in the population compared to being hermaphroditic. Dioecy may accelerate or retard lineage diversification in angiosperms. Dioecious lineages are less in others. An analysis suggested that dioecy neither places a strong brake on diversification, nor drives it. Gonochorism Hermaphrodite Plant reproductive morphology Self-incompatibility in plants Sexual dimorphism
A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Rhus integrifolia known as lemonade sumac, lemonade berry, or lemonadeberry, is a shrub to small tree. It is native to the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges and the South Coast regions of Southern California; this extends from Santa Barbara County and the Channel Islands to San Diego County and extending into north-central Pacific coastal Baja California and its offshore islands such as Cedros Island. It is 1–8 metres in height, with a sprawling form, is a member of the chaparral plant community found in canyons and on north-facing slopes below elevations of 900 metres. Rhus integrifolia hybridizes with Rhus ovata. Rhus integrifolia leaves are simple, alternating and leathery, ranging from two to four centimeters wide on reddish twigs. Leaves are toothed with a waxy smooth appearance above and a paler tone below; the flowers which appear from February to May are small, clustered together, may be either bisexual or pistillate. These fragrant flowers exhibit radial symmetry with five green sepals, five white to rosy-pink petals, five stamens.
The small flowers are only six millimeters across. The ovary is superior and has a single ovule; the mature fruit of Rhus integrifolia is sticky, covered with hairs, about seven to ten millimeters in diameter. The elliptical fruit presents tight clusters at the ends of twigs. Young plants manifest smooth reddish bark, while more mature individuals have cracked scaly, grayish bark with the smooth red bark displayed underneath. Twigs are rather stout and flexible, reddish bud ends are diminutive and pointed. There is a multi-furcate branching structure from the base of the plant. A mature plant is thicket-like with a sprawling arrangement; the lemonade berry plant is found on dry slopes in coastal areas of southern California and northern Baja California. In addition to occurring on dry slopes and in canyon settings, the species sometimes is found on bluffs; the lemonade berry occurs in both coastal sage scrub communities. This plant thrives on well-drained endures heat and windy conditions well; the species tolerates sandy as well as medium loam soils, it can thrive in nutrient deficient soil.
This plant tolerates mildly acid to mildly alkaline soils. Propagation is by runners. Lemonade berry grows well in coastal exposures; the fruits are enjoyed by many bird species including the road-runner. Many plants within this genus are considered toxic, although some reports indicate the berries of this species can be used to make lemonade flavored drinks. Allergic reactions may result from skin contact with sap from some of the genera. Lemonade berry leaves are rich in tannins. Though the species is evergreen, there is some leaf fall in autumn, at which time the fallen leaves may be used as a brown dye or mordant. An oil can be extracted from lemonade berry seeds. Thereafter the oil can be employed to manufacture candles, which burn brightly, albeit emitting a pungent scent; the wood of mature plants is hard, making it prized for wood-burning fireplace kindling. Rhus integrifolia can be used as a landscape shrub and is suitable for hedging and espalier; the plant is vulnerable to frost, but the plant will regrow by summer, after it appears to have died from cold.
The growth habit is slow to moderate and, as a garden plant, this species is quite resistant to deer, supplies nectar and fruit for birds and nectar for butterflies. Its cultural requirements mimic its natural environment with little summer water. California chaparral and woodlands - California coastal sage and chaparral - Coastal sage scrub - Xeriscape Jepson Flora Project - Rhus integrifolia Calflora entry for Rhus integrifolia, with updated range mapPhotos of Rhus integrifolia
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources