Young Sick Bacchus
The Young Sick Bacchus known as the Sick Bacchus or the Self-Portrait as Bacchus, is an early self-portrait by the Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, dated between 1593 and 1594. It now hangs in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. According to Caravaggio's first biographer, Giovanni Baglione, it was a cabinet piece painted by the artist using a mirror; the painting dates from Caravaggio's first years in Rome following his arrival from his native Milan in mid-1592. Sources for this period are inconclusive and inaccurate, but they agree that at one point the artist fell ill and spent six months in the hospital of Santa Maria della Consolazione. According to a 2009 article in the American medical publication Clinical Infectious Diseases, the painting indicates that Caravaggio's physical ailment involved malaria, as the jaundiced appearance of the skin and the icterus in the eyes are indications of some active hepatic disease causing high levels of bilirubin; the Sick Bacchus was among the many works making up the collection of Giuseppe Cesari, one of Caravaggio's early employers, seized by the art-collector Cardinal-Nephew Scipione Borghese in 1607, together with the Boy Peeling Fruit and Boy with a Basket of Fruit.
Apart from its assumed autobiographical content, this early painting was used by Caravaggio to market himself, demonstrating his virtuosity in painting genres such as still-life and portraits and hinting at the ability to paint the classical figures of antiquity. The three-quarters angle of the face was among those preferred for late renaissance portraiture, but what is striking is the grimace and tilt of the head, the real sense of the suffering; the still-life can be compared with that contained in later works such as the Boy With a Basket of Fruit and the Boy Bitten by a Lizard where the fruits are in a much better condition, reflecting no doubt Caravaggio's improved condition, both physically and mentally. The painting shows the influence of his teacher, the Bergamasque Simone Peterzano, in the utilization of the tensed musculature depiction, of the austere Lombard school style in its attention to realistic details. Cindy Sherman, as part of her History Portrait series, produced a parody on Sick Bacchus, an ironic photographic self-portrait named Untitled # 224.
During a 2018 NPR interview, Paul Janeway of the band St. Paul & the Broken Bones said that the title of his band's new album, Young Sick Camellia, is an homage to Caravaggio's Young Sick Bacchus. Chronology of works by Caravaggio
Mario Minniti was an Italian artist active in Sicily after 1606. Born in Syracuse, Sicily, he arrived in Rome in 1593, where he became the friend and model of the key Baroque painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, his main fame today is his identification, or proposed identification, as a model in many of Caravaggio's early works, including Boy with a Basket of Fruit, The Fortune Teller, The Musicians, Boy Bitten by a Lizard, The Lute Player, The Calling of Saint Matthew, The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew. He ceases to appear as a model after about 1600, when he is believed to have married, but he may have been involved with Caravaggio and others in the 1606 street brawl which resulted in the death of Ranuccio Tomassoni at Caravaggio's hands – his biographer records that he fled to Sicily following a homicide, from where he petitioned for a pardon, it is known that he sheltered Caravaggio on the latter's stay in Sicily in 1608–1609, procuring for him the important commission for the Burial of Saint Lucy.
In Sicily he established a successful workshop producing religious commissions and became a respected local businessman. Because of the nature of his output, where paintings were produced as a collaborative effort by assistants and pupils, it is difficult to identify which works, or parts of works, are by Minniti's own hand, it is clear that he brought to Sicily the lessons he had learnt from Caravaggio, in particular the use of dramatic chiaroscuro and the depiction of scenes seized at the moment of greatest dramatic intensity, but his work has been criticised for "endlessly recycled motifs" and "bland religious canvasses". He is held in high regard in Sicily, it is possible to speak of a'School of Minniti' in the island's artistic history
Boy with a Basket of Fruit
Boy with a Basket of Fruit, c.1593, is a painting ascribed to Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in the Galleria Borghese, Rome. The painting dates from the time when Caravaggio, newly arrived in Rome from his native Milan, was making his way in the competitive Roman art world; the model was the Sicilian painter Mario Minniti, at about 16 years old. The work was in the collection of Giuseppe Cesari, the Cavaliere d'Arpino, seized by Cardinal Scipione Borghese in 1607, may therefore date to the period when Caravaggio worked for d'Arpino "painting flowers and fruits" in his workshop, it cannot predate 1593, the year Minniti arrived in Rome. It is believed to predate more complex works from the same period such as The Fortune Teller and the Cardsharps, the latter of which brought Caravaggio to the attention of his first important patron, Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte. Vittorio Sgarbi notes certain Murillesque portraiture qualities in the painting that could point to other painters in the Arpino workshop.
At one level the painting is a genre piece designed to demonstrate the artist's ability to depict everything from the skin of the boy to the skin of a peach, from the folds of the robe to the weave of the basket. The fruit is exquisite, Professor Jules Janick of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Purdue University, has analysed them from a horticulturalist's perspective: The basket... contains a great many fruits, all in nearly perfect condition and including a bi-colored peach with a bright red blush. There are leaves showing various disorders: a prominent virescent grape leaf with fungal spots and another with a white insect egg mass resembling that of the oblique banded leaf roller, peach leaves with various spots; the analysis indicates that Caravaggio is being realistic, in capturing only what was in the fruit basket. Caravaggio's fruit The British-Canadian band Velcro Hooks open up their video "A Love Song to T. S. Eliot" with a remarkable "live" reproduction of Boy with a Basket of Fruit
Judith Beheading Holofernes (Caravaggio)
Judith Beheading Holofernes is a painting of Judith beheading Holofernes by Caravaggio, painted in c. 1598–1599. The widow Judith first charms the Syrian general Holofernes decapitates him in his tent; the painting was rediscovered in 1950 and is part of the collection of the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica in Rome. The deuterocanonical Book of Judith tells how Judith served her people by seducing and pleasuring Holofernes, the Syrian General. Judith gets Holofernes drunk seizes her sword and slays him: "Approaching to his bed, she took hold of the hair of his head". Caravaggio's approach was to choose the moment of greatest dramatic impact: the moment of decapitation itself; the figures are set out in a shallow stage, theatrically lit from the side, isolated against the inky black background. Judith's maid Abra stands beside her mistress to the right as Judith extends her arm to hold a blade against Holofernes's neck. X-rays have revealed that Caravaggio adjusted the placement of Holofernes' head as he proceeded, separating it from the torso and moving it minutely to the right.
The faces of the three characters demonstrate the artist's mastery of emotion, Judith's countenance in particular showing a mix of determination and repulsion. Artemisia Gentileschi and others were influenced by this work; the model for Judith is the Roman courtesan Fillide Melandroni, who posed for several other works by Caravaggio around this year. A painting believed by some to be Caravaggio's second version of Judith Beheading Holofernes was discovered in Toulouse in 2014. An export ban was placed on the painting by the French government while tests were carried out to establish its authenticity. In February 2019 it was announced that the painting would be sold at auction after the Louvre had turned down the opportunity to purchase it for €100 million. Judith and Holofernes
The Caravaggisti were stylistic followers of the 16th-century Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. His influence on the new Baroque style that emerged from Mannerism was profound. Caravaggio never established a workshop as most other painters did, thus had no school to spread his techniques. Nor did he set out his underlying philosophical approach to art, the psychological realism which can only be deduced from his surviving work, but it can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera and Rembrandt. Famous while he lived, Caravaggio himself was forgotten immediately after his death. Many of his paintings were reascribed to his followers, such as The Taking of Christ, attributed to the Dutch painter Gerrit van Honthorst until 1990, it was only in the 20th century that his importance to the development of Western art was rediscovered. In the 1920s Roberto Longhi once more placed him in the European tradition: "Ribera, Vermeer, La Tour and Rembrandt could never have existed without him.
And the art of Delacroix and Manet would have been utterly different". The influential Bernard Berenson stated: "With the exception of Michelangelo, no other Italian painter exercised so great an influence." At the height of his popularity in Rome during the late 1590s and early 1600s, Caravaggio's dramatic new style influenced many of his peers in the Roman art world. The first Caravaggisti included Mario Minniti, Giovanni Baglione, Leonello Spada and Orazio Gentileschi. In the next generation there were Carlo Saraceni, Bartolomeo Manfredi and Orazio Borgianni as well as anonymous masters such as the Master of the Gamblers. Gentileschi, despite being older, was the only one of these artists to live much beyond 1620, ended up as court painter to Charles I of England, his daughter Artemisia Gentileschi was close to Caravaggio, one of the most gifted of the movement. Yet in Rome and in Italy it was not Caravaggio, but the influence of Annibale Carracci, blending elements from the High Renaissance and Lombard realism, which triumphed.
Other artists active in Rome, worth mentioning, include Angelo Caroselli, Pier Francesco Mola, Tommaso Salini and Francesco Buoneri. Giacinto Brandi was active in Rome and Naples. Dutch painter David de Haen was active in Rome between 1615 and 1622. In May 1606 after the killing of Ranuccio Tomassoni, Caravaggio fled to Naples with a death sentence on his head. While there he completed several commissions, two major ones being the Madonna of the Rosary, The Seven Works of Mercy, his work had a profound effect on the local artists and his brief stay in Naples produced a notable school of Neapolitan Caravaggisti, including Battistello Caracciolo, Bernardo Cavallino, Carlo Sellitto, Massimo Stanzione, Francesco Guarino, Andrea Vaccaro, Cesare Fracanzano and Antonio de Bellis. Giacinto Brandi was active in Rome and Naples; the Caravaggisti movement there ended with a terrible outbreak of plague in 1656, but at the time Naples was a possession of Spain and the influence of Caravaggism had spread there.
Marco Antonio Bassetti is known to have been in Rome in 1616, may have arrived there two years earlier. In Rome he came under the influence of the paintings of Orazio Borgianni. On his return to Verona he painted a St. Peter and Saints for the church of San Tomaso and a Coronation of the Virgin for Sant' Anastasia, he died from the plague in Verona in 1630. Bernardo Strozzi and active in Genoa and Venice, is considered a principal founder of the Venetian Baroque style. In the 1620s Strozzi abandoned his early Mannerist style in favor of a more personal style characterized by a new naturalism derived from the work of Caravaggio and his followers; the Caravaggist style of painting had been brought to Genoa both by Domenico Fiasella, after his return from Rome in 1617–18, by followers of Caravaggio who spent time working in the city. Italian painter Biagio Manzoni was active in Faenza. Italian painter from Reggio Emilia Bartolomeo Schedoni, Daniele Crespi from Milan and Luca Cambiasi known as Luca Cambiaso and Luca Cangiagio, the leading artist in Genoa in the 16th century depicted brilliantly lit figures set against a dark background.
Felice Boselli, active in Piacenza, used contrast Caravaggisti lighting for his still-lifes. Tanzio da Varallo was active in Lombardy and Piedmont, including the Sacro Monte at Varallo Sesia, where he worked contemporaneously with Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli; the Italian painter and engraver Bernardino Mei worked in his native Siena and in Rome, finding patronage above all in the Chigi family. Pietro Ricchi, born in Lucca often depicted brilliantly lit figures set against a dark background. Mario Minniti was an Italian artist active in Sicily after 1606. He, at the age of 16 posed for Caravaggio's painting Boy with a Basket of Fruit; the Netherlands Institute for Art History lists 128 artists labelled "Caravaggisten". Dutch painter David de Haen was active in Rome between 1615 and 1622. Another artist worth mentioning is Paulus Bor, who painted rather Caravaggisti-like history paintings, but his works fast became marked by a classicism related to that of his townsman van Campen. Abraham Lambertsz van den Tempel is worth contrasting lighting.
Flemish born painter Frans Badens was active in Amsterdam. In the early 17th century Catholic artists from the Netherlands travelled to Rome as students and were profoundly influenced by the work of Caravaggio. On their return to the north this group, known as the "Utrecht Caravaggisti", had a short-live
The Cardsharps is a painting by the Italian Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. The original is agreed to be the work acquired by the Kimbell Art Museum in 1987, although Caravaggio may have painted more than one version; the work represents an important milestone for Caravaggio. He painted it when he was attempting an independent career after leaving the workshop of the Cavaliere Giuseppe Cesari d'Arpino, for whom he had been painting "flowers and fruit", finishing the details for the Cavaliere's mass-produced output. Caravaggio left Arpino's workshop in January 1594 and began selling works through the dealer Costantino, with the assistance of Prospero Orsi, an established painter of Mannerist grotesques. Orsi introduced Caravaggio to his extensive network of contacts in the world of collectors and patrons; the painting shows an unworldly boy playing cards with another boy. The second boy, a cardsharp, has extra cards tucked in his belt behind his back, out of sight of the mark but not the viewer, a sinister older man is peering over the dupe's shoulder and signaling to his young accomplice.
The second boy has a dagger handy at his side. It was the second such painting; the first, The Fortune Teller, had drawn attention, this painting extended his reputation, small though it was at this stage. The subjects of The Fortune Teller and Cardsharps offered something new, realistic scenes of street life with this beautifully rendered attention to little details such as the split fingers on the older man's gloves, or the teenage cheat's anxious glance at his master; the psychological insight is striking, the three figures bound together by the common drama, yet each with his own unique part within the larger play – for if the innocent is being duped, the other boy is no older, another innocent being corrupted as he cheats his gull. The Cardsharps, with its mixture of brutal low-life realism and luminous Venetian delicacy, was much admired, Orsi "went around acclaiming new style and heightening the reputation of his work." Caravaggio appears to have produced more than one version of the work.
Over fifty copies and variants made by other painters have survived, with artists such as Georges de La Tour painting their own appreciations of the theme. Whether through Costantino or Orsi, Caravaggio came to the notice of the prominent collector Cardinal Francesco Del Monte, who purchased Cardsharps and became the artist's first important patron, giving him lodgings in his Palazzo Madama behind the Piazza Navona as now one of the principal squares in Rome. From Del Monte's collection the work entered the collection of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, nephew of the Pope Urban VIII, in Rome and was passed through the Colonna-Sciarra family, it disappeared in the 1890s, was rediscovered in 1987 in a private collection in Zürich. The British art historian Denis Mahon acquired a copy of Cardsharps at auction in 2006. Although it had been sold by Sotheby's as being a copy of the work in the Kimbell Art Museum and by an artist other than Caravaggio, Mahon argued that it was a replica by Caravaggio himself.
There is a pentimento, in which full detail of the face of one of the cheats had been sketched in spite of being painted over by the page's hat. This suggests; the attribution of this version to Caravaggio has been accepted, although as of 2014 it is the subject of a legal dispute. This suggests that Caravaggio might have painted at least two versions of the work, as he is believed to have done with Boy Bitten by a Lizard, The Fortune Teller, The Lute Player. Sir Denis Mahon died in 2011 and the painting had been loaned to London's Museum of the Order of St. John and insured for £10,000,000. On January 16, 2015, the High Court of England and Wales ruled in favor of Sotheby's, saying that, relying on qualified experts, Sotheby's had reasonably come to the view that the painting was not a Caravaggio. A Caravaggio Rediscovered, The Lute Player, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on this painting Painters of reality: the legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on this painting
Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto
Jupiter and Pluto is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. It is located in the former hunting lodge of the erstwhile Villa Ludovisi, Rome, it is unusually painted in oils on plaster. And hence it is not a fresco. Oil painting is on canvas or, less on wood. According to an early biographer, one of Caravaggio's aims was to discredit critics who claimed that he had no grasp of perspective; the three figures demonstrate the most dramatic foreshortening imaginable. They contradict claims; the artist seems to have used his own face for all three gods. The painting was done for Caravaggio's patron Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte and painted on the ceiling of the cardinal's garden casino of his country estate, which became known as the Villa Ludovisi; the cardinal had a keen interest alchemy. Caravaggio has painted an allegory of the alchemical triad of Paracelsus: Jupiter stands for sulphur and air, Neptune for mercury and water, Pluto for salt and earth; each figure is identified by his beast: Jupiter by the eagle, Neptune by the hippocamp, Pluto by the three-headed dog Cerberus.
Jupiter is reaching out to move the celestial sphere. Galileo was a friend of Del Monte; the Villa Aurora is private property in the hands of the Ludovisi family and can be visited upon request. Rome Artlover: Casino di Villa Lodovisi presso Porta Pinciana Minor Sights: Villa Aurora- Rome's best kept secret