B. Tech is a 2018 Indian Malayalam-language drama thriller film co-written and directed by Mridul Nair, starring Asif Ali, Anoop Menon, Aju Varghese, Alencier Ley Lopez, V. K. Prakash, Aparna Balamurali, Niranjana Anoop and Arjun Ashokan in major roles; the film score and soundtrack were composed by Rahul Raj. B. Tech was released in Kerala on 5 May 2018 with positive reviews and became a successful venture at Kerala box office. B. Tech completed successful run of 105 days in Kerala theaters. Asif Ali as Anand Subramaniam Deepak Parambol as Nizar Ahammad Sreenath Bhasi as Jojo Mathew Arjun Ashokan as Azaad Muhammed Saiju Kurup as Prasath P. P. Subeesh Sudhi as Kuttan Shani Shaki as Abdhu Aparna Balamurali as Priya Varma Niranjana Anoop as Ananya Viswanath Alencier Ley Lopez as Seyid Ali V. K. Prakash as Jayaram Aju Varghese as Manoj Abraham Jayan Cherthala as Subramanya Iyyer Jaffer Idukki as Lazer Neena Kurup as Smitha Subramanya Iyyer Anoop Menon as Adv. Viswanath Iyyer Harish Raj as A. C. P Naik Dinesh Prabhakar as Joseph Jayaprakash Kuloor as Usthad Mridhul Nair as Cameo appearance Chitra Iyer as Priya's Mother Anjali Nair as Azaad Muhammed's Sister Arshiya Gupta as "Ummukulsu" Azaad Muhammed's Sister Raai Laxmi as Laxmi Manobala as Mano Swaminathan as Dr France Arjun Menon R as Priya's Brother Ann Saleem as B.
Tech is the feature directorial debut of advertisement filmmaker Mridul Nair. According to Nair, the film is inspired by several real incidents and the story has been in his mind since eight years; the film was extensively shot in Bangalore. All music was composed and produced by Rahul Raj. Several critics hailed the music as a major highlight of the film. Anagha Jayan of Malayala Manorama appreciated the film for its good mixture of campus life and sensitive contemporary issues, while praising Rahul Raj's music; the Times of India praised the movie giving it a 3/5 rating, praising the music, while criticising some comedy scenes which seemed forced in. Filmibeat.com too gave a positive review with a 3/5 rating, calling the movie a satisfying experience in total. Mathrubhumi gave a mixed review with a rating of 2.5/5, but dubbed the work of Mahesh Narayanan and Abhilash Balachandran in editing, the music by Rahul Raj as major plus points. Lensmanreviews.com gave a mixed review, calling the film an ambitious venture, but with a bloated script, adding that the music by Rahul Raj's was the film's highlight.
B. Tech on IMDb
University of Waikato
The University of Waikato, informally Waikato University, is a comprehensive university in Hamilton, New Zealand. The university was established in 1964, has a satellite campus located in Tauranga; the University of Waikato began in 1956 after Hamilton locals launched a petition for a university to serve the needs of the South Auckland region. The group was led by Douglas Seymour, a barrister, subsequently Anthony "Rufus" Rogers, a Hamilton GP and brother to long-time Mayor of Hamilton, Denis Rogers, their campaign coincided with a shortage of teachers in the 1950s that prompted the New Zealand government to consider plans for a teachers’ college in the region. In 1960, the newly established Hamilton Teachers’ College opened its doors, combined with the fledgling university, began a joint campus on farmland at Hillcrest, on the city's outskirts. In 1964, the two institutions moved to their new home, the following year the University of Waikato was opened by Governor-General Sir Bernard Fergusson.
At this time the university comprised a School of Social Sciences. In 1969 a School of Science.was established. This was followed by the creation of Waikato Management School in 1972, Computer Science and Computing Services in 1973, the establishment of the School, now Faculty, of Law in 1990. From the beginning, it was envisaged that Māori studies should be a key feature of the new university, the Centre for Māori Studies and Research was set up in the School of Social Sciences in 1972. A separate School of Māori and Pacific Development was formally established in 1996. In 1999, the original Schools of Humanities and Social Sciences were merged to form the School of Arts and Social Sciences. In 2010, the tertiary partnership was widened to include Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi in the Eastern Bay of Plenty. In 2014, the university became smoke-free, disallowing smoking on campus and in university-owned vehicles; the Faculty of Law is one of seven faculties that make up the University. The Faculty is located on the southeast side of the Hillcrest Campus in Hamilton, accessible from Hillcrest Road.
The Law Faculty is located at the Tauranga campus. The Law Faculty adopted the principles of professionalism and the study of law in context. One of the key founders of the Waikato Faculty of Law was the 27th Speaker of the House Margaret Wilson who returned to the faculty as a professor in January 2009; the chief executive of the University of Waikato is the vice-chancellor Professor Neil Quigley. The University is governed by a council, headed by the University's Chancellor, former New Zealand prime minister Rt Hon James B Bolger ONZ; the University Council works with Te Rōpū Manukura, made up of representatives of the 16 iwi authorities in the University's catchment area. Te Rōpū Manukura is the Kaitiaki of the Treaty of Waitangi for the University of Waikato, acts to ensure that the University works in partnership with iwi to meet tertiary needs and aspirations of Māori communities; the following list shows the university's chancellors: Denis Rogers J. Bruce McKenzie Henry R. Bennett C. Douglas Arcus The Hon Sir David Lance Tompkins QC Henry R. Bennett Dame Joy Drayton Gerald D.
G. Bailey Caroline Bennett John A. Gallagher John B. Jackman Rt Hon James Bolger ONZ The University of Waikato operates from two campuses and Tauranga. Undergraduate degrees are offered through a satellite location on the campus of Zhejiang University City College in Hangzhou; the main Hamilton campus is spread over 64 hectares of landscaped gardens and lakes, includes extensive sporting and recreational areas. Farmland, the campus was designed by architect John Blake-Kelly in 1964; the open space landscaping contains extensive native plantings, including a fernery, centred around three artificial lakes, created by draining marshy paddocks. The University of Waikato shared two campuses with Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology in Tauranga: Windmere and the Bongard Centre. In 2018, it was announced that the University would be moving all of their Tauranga operations to the Bongard Centre, with Toi Ohomai conversely moving their Bongard students to the Windmere campus. In 2019, construction on a new campus on Durham Street is expected to be completed.
The Student Centre opened in 2011 by Waikato alumnus Governor-General Jerry Mateparae. In the latest 2019 QS rankings, The University of Waikato leapt more than 100 places in five years to 274th place – in the top 1.1 percent of the world's 26,000 universities. Graduate Nathan Cohen is a two-time world champion and Olympic champion in rowing; the university has current prime minister of New Zealand Jacinda Ardern as a notable alumna. The Waikato Students' Union represents all students on campus, publishes the student magazine Nexus. Law students are represented by the University of Waikato Law Students' Association, Te Whakahiapo, the Pacific Law Students' Association. Management students are represented by the Waikato Management School Students' Association, Management Communication Students' Association, Pacific Islands Management Students Association, Te Ranga Ngaku. Waikato University's website
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Curtin University is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. It is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students. Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia and Mauritius, it has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres, it had a Sydney campus from 2005 to 2016. Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network, is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy and Communication, Health and Well-being and Changing Environments and Prosperity and Creative Writing, it is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.
Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business and research projects in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals and natural gas; the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005. Curtin University was founded in 1966 as the Western Australian Institute of Technology, its nucleus comprised the tertiary programs of the Perth Technical College, which opened in 1900. Curtin University's current site in Bentley was selected in 1962, opened in 1966; the first students enrolled the following year. In 1969, three more institutions were merged with WAIT: the Western Australian School of Mines, the Muresk Agricultural College, the Schools of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy. Between 1966 and 1976 WAIT experienced an expansion from 2,000 to 10,000 students.
In December 1986 the Western Australian Institute of Technology was made a university, under provisions of the WA Institute of Technology Amendment Act 1986. Curtin University took its name from the former Prime Minister of John Curtin. Curtin accepted its first students as a university in 1987. In 2005, Curtin and Murdoch University were engaged in a feasibility study into the possibility of a merger. However, on 7 November 2005, both institutions announced. In 2009, Curtin became the first university in the Australian Technology Network to be listed on the Academic Ranking of World Universities of research universities. In 2010, Curtin dropped the "of Technology" suffix, from operating as "Curtin University"; the legal name remains Curtin University of Technology until the Act under which it operates is amended by the Western Australian parliament. Curtin has three smaller off-site campuses within the Perth metropolitan area; the Graduate School of Business building is located in the Perth Central Business District in the renovated former Government Printing Office and the law school is located on Murray Street in the old Public Health Department and Chief Secretary's building, a listed building on the State Register of Heritage Places.
Exploration Geophysics and Petroleum Engineering are located at the co-location research facilities of the Australian Resources Research Centre which houses offices of CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering and National Measurement Institute. The ARRC is located in the Technology Park Belmont, adjacent to the main Bentley campus; some University staff and students on practicum work in other locations such as the Oral Health Centre of WA in Nedlands and at Royal Perth Hospital, amongst other organisations. Curtin has campuses outside Perth, the largest being the Western Australian School of Mines at Kalgoorlie, a number of micro-campuses in locations such as Esperance, Margaret River and Geraldton. Nursing is the only course offered in Geraldton; the Muresk Institute at Northam left Curtin in 2012. In April 2017 Curtin University established its newest campus in Dubai at Dubai International Academic City. Australian Ambassador to the UAE HE Arthur Spyrou opened the campus on 10 September 2017.
Curtin University Dubai courses use the same structure and unit curriculum as those offered at the Bentley campus. Curtin University Dubai is accredited by the Knowledge and Human Development Authority-KHDA; the Academic qualifications granted by Curtin University is certified by KHDA and is recognised in the Emirate of Dubai by all public and private entities. The campus in Miri, Malaysia, is a significant development for the university and is Curtin's largest international campus. Curtin's operations in Miri began in February 1999. In 2002, a purpose-built campus was opened as Curtin's first offshore campus and the first foreign university campus in East Malaysia, it has around 4,000 students from over 45 countries, academics from more than 15 countries. Curtin Malaysia is the only approved CISCO Networking University in Brunei. Curtin University opened a Singapore-based campus on 23 November 2008. Curtin Singapore cour
Open University of Sri Lanka
"The Open University of Sri Lanka" is a national university in Sri Lanka. It is unique within the Sri Lankan national university system for being the only university to offer programs of study leading to Certificate, Diploma and Postgraduate degrees up to PhD level through the Distance Mode Learning; the degrees awarded by the university are treated as equivalent to degrees awarded by any other Sri Lankan University under the preview of the University Grants Commission. The OUSL Main Campus is located in Colombo in Nugegoda. There are 8 regional centers in addition to main campus at Nawala, they are. The concept of establishing the Open University of Sri Lanka was by Dr. Nissanka Wijeyeratne the Cabinet Minister of Education & Higher Education at the time; the University was set up by the Government of Sri Lanka under the Universities Act No. 16 of 1978, for the purpose of providing higher educational opportunities to working adults – providing them the road to success, surpassing age, gender, race and religion.
The OUSL has the same academic status as any other national university in Sri Lanka. The university policy on admission would enable a person to register at the lowest'Level' with mere basic literacy and climb up to postgraduate level; the concept of Distance Education at the OUSL functions through a dynamic network of regional and study centres, with knowledge imparted through multiple media. Therefore, students with work commitments are able to pursue studies since they interact with designed self-instructional materials where the materials function as a "Tutor in Print"; this method provides the distance learner with the best possible learning opportunity to enable a balancing of personal, work related and academic obligations. Chancellor - Professor Colvin Goonaratna. Vice-Chancellor - Prof. S. A. Ariadurai. Deputy Vice-chancellor - Prof. Gunaherath Faculty Deans Faculty of Education - Prof. Shironica Karunanayaka Faculty of Engineering Technology - Prof. Ajith Dolage. Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences - Dr. Shantha Abeysinghe.
Faculty of Natural Sciences - Prof. Rajendra. Faculty of Health Sciences- Prof. Gaya Ranawaka. Registrar - Ms. Vindhya Jayasena. Bursar - Mr. W. M. K. G. A. Wickramasinghe. LIbrarian - Dr Wathmanel Seneviratne; the Chancellor presides at the convocation of the University. Professor Colvin Goonaratna. is the present chancellor of the Open University of Sri Lanka. He was appointed the Chancellor of OUSL in June 2015; the Vice-Chancellor is the head of administration of the University. Prof. S. A. Ariadurai is the current Vice-Chancellor of The Open University of Sri Lanka, he was appointed on 23 June 2015. Current Deputy vice chancellor is Prof. Kamal Gunaherath, appointed in December 2015; the University consists of one postgraduate institute and several divisions. The five faculties are: Faculty of Education Faculty of Engineering Technology Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty of Natural Sciences Faculty of Health Sciences Postgraduate Institute of English - This Post Graduate Institute offers two master's degree programmes.
The Faculty of Education was established in 2003 and consists of three departments. These three departments are: Department of Secondary & Tertiary Education Department of Early Childhood and Primary Education Department of Special Needs Education Faculty Dean, Dr. K A C UdayakumarThe Faculty of Engineering Technology of OUSL offers Bachelor of Technology Honours in Engineering, Bachelor of Industrial studies and Bachelor of Software Engineering. Bachelor of Technology Honours in Engineering degree offered by the Faculty of Engineering Technology is recognised by professional Engineering Institution, it is the pioneers of introducing Mechatronics Engineering to Sri Lankan engineering education curricula and would be proud of producing first graduate engineers in Mechatronics engineering on 2010 in Sri Lanka. The faculty consists of six departments; these six departments are: Department of Agricultural and Plantation Engineering Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Textile and Apparel Technology Department of Civil Engineering Department of Mathematics and Philosophy of EngineeringFaculty offers two Master of Technology programmes in Industrial Engineering and Construction management.
Faculty Dean = Prof. Camena Guneratne; the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences is the largest faculty of the OUSL. The Faculty consists of the four following departments: 1. Department of Language Studies 2. Department of Law 3. Department of Social Studies 4. Department of Management Faculty Dean = Prof. L. K. Senaratna; the Faculty of Natural Sciences was esta
Edith Cowan University
Edith Cowan University is an Australian public university located in Perth, Western Australia. It was named after the first woman to be elected to an Australian Parliament, Edith Cowan, is the only Australian university named after a woman. ECU is situated in Western Australia, with more than 30,000 students at undergraduate and postgraduate level 6,000 of whom are international students originating from over 100 countries outside Australia. ECU was granted university status in 1991 and was formed from an amalgamation of teachers' colleges with a history dating back to 1902 when the Claremont Teachers College was established, making ECU the modern descendant of the first institution of higher education in Western Australia; the university offers more than 300 courses across two metropolitan campuses, in Mount Lawley and Joondalup, a regional campus in the South West, Bunbury, 200 km south of Perth. Additionally, the university has partnerships with several education institutions to conduct courses and programs offshore.
Divisions of note include the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, recognised as one of Australia's prestigious performing arts training academies. The university is the largest provider of Psychology and Community Studies courses in Western Australia. ECU is home to the WA Screen Academy, one of Australia's leading film schools; the origins of Edith Cowan University date back to 1902 with the establishment of Claremont Teachers College, the first tertiary education institution in Western Australia. Other teacher training colleges were formed over the years, including Graylands Teachers College, the Western Australian Secondary Teachers College, Nedlands College of Advanced Education, Mount Lawley Teachers College and Churchlands Teachers College. In 1982 these colleges were all merged to form the Western Australian College of Advanced Education - with campuses in Churchlands, Claremont and Joondalup. Western Australian College of Advanced Education was granted university status on 1 January 1991 and changed its name to Edith Cowan University.
Edith Cowan University was named after the first woman to be elected to an Australian Parliament, Edith Dircksey Cowan, is the only Australian university named after a woman. Cowan worked tirelessly to raise funds for students to attend universities in other states, prior to a university being built in Western Australia, obtaining government support for her scheme, her work in this area was acknowledged by naming Western Australia's oldest education institution and newest university after her, as well as her image being added to the Australian $50 note. Cowan believed that education was the key to growth and improvement and her contribution to the development of Western Australian education was significant, she strove to achieve social justice and campaigned for the rights of women and families, for the poor, the poorly educated and the elderly. She promoted sex education in schools, migrant welfare, the formation of infant health centres, was instrumental in obtaining votes for women in Western Australia.
In 1991, the university purchased the house that Cowan, her husband and family resided in for 20 years. The house was reconstructed on the university's Joondalup Campus with the assistance of the West Coast College of TAFE, the reconstructed house was opened in 1997. Edith Cowan House, Building 20 on the university's Joondalup Campus plays host to the Peter Cowan Writer's Centre; the university has eight teaching schools School of Business and Law Broad disciplines: Business and Law School of Arts and Humanities Broad disciplines: Communication, Humanities, Social Sciences, Social Work and Justice School of Education Broad disciplines: Teacher education for Early Childhood and Secondary schools School of Engineering Broad disciplines: Full range of Engineering specialisations School of Medical and Health Sciences Broad disciplines: Exercise and Health Sciences, Medical Science, Biomedical Science, Speech Pathology and Paramedicine School of Nursing and Midwifery Broad disciplines: Nursing and Midwifery School of Science Broad disciplines: Biology and Environmental Sciences, Physics, Biochemistry and Security Sciences Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts Broad disciplines: Full range of performing arts and related specialities The university has a number of research centres within its areas of research strength: Health and Wellness.
Several of these research centres are categorised as Major National Research Facilities and WA Centres of Excellence in Science and Innovation. Centre for Innovative Practice Marketing and Services Research Centre Centre for Research in Entertainment, Technology and Communications Dance Research Centre - Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts Centre for Schooling and Learning Technologies Edith Cowan Institute for Education Research Fogarty Learning Centre Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering Centre for Communications Engineering Research Electron Science Research Institute National Networked Tele-Test Facility for Integrated Systems The Western Australian Centres for Microscopy/Nanoscale Characterisation Centre for Ecosystem Management Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research Natural Resources Mo
Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben