The River Chelmer is a river that flows entirely through the county of Essex, running 65 kilometres from the north west of the county through Chelmsford to the River Blackwater near Maldon. The source of the river is in the parish of Debden in north west Essex, the two primary source streams run to the north and to the west of the hamlet of Debden Green. The River Chelmer flows past Thaxted, south through the district of Uttlesford around the northeast of Great Dunmow and it continues flowing south-southeast into the borough of Chelmsford and on into the city of Chelmsford where the River Can flows into it. It flows east through the borough and into the district of Maldon until it meets the River Blackwater near Maldon and it discharges into the North Sea via the Blackwater Estuary. The Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation Company was found by act of parliament in 1793, work commenced on constructing the navigation from Chelmsford to Colliers Reach in the tidal estuary of the River Blackwater.
The work was completed in 1797, the navigation mainly followed the course of the River Chelmer from Chelmsford to Beeleigh near Maldon. From there it continued through a cut and followed the course of the River Blackwater to Heybridge. According to Edward Arthur Fitch, the Fullbridge was a shallow ford and this was before the waters of the River Blackwater were combined with the Chelmer at Beeleigh, resulting in a much greater flow of water past the Fullbridge. In the spring of 1812 the Chelmer above the Fullbridge was straightened, some of these changes are clearly visible today. For example, an island that is shown on the 1777 Chapman, further upstream, near the golf course, similar earthwork is visible and, from that point to Beeleigh weir the channel appears to be a cut bypassing the original course of the river. At Beeleigh, there was a mill on the original course of the Chelmer. This mill operated until 1875, when it was destroyed by fire, the mill had two bays inside, where lighters were loaded with flour to be taken to the port at Maldon, about a mile downstream.
There it would be loaded onto Thames sailing barges and taken to London, part of the mill still remains and is leased by Essex County Council with the intention of restoring it. River Blackwater Museum of Power - Langford pumping station extracts from the Chelmer
Part of speech
A part of speech is a category of words which have similar grammatical properties. Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, adjective, pronoun, conjunction, the term form class is used, although this has various conflicting definitions. Word classes may be classified as open or closed, open classes acquire new members constantly, while closed classes acquire new members infrequently, almost all languages have the word classes noun and verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages. This variation in the number of categories and their identifying properties means that needs to be done for each individual language. Nevertheless, the labels for each category are assigned on the basis of universal criteria, the classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics. The ancient work on the grammar of the Tamil language, Tolkāppiyam, dated variously between the 1st and 10th centuries AD, classifies Tamil words as peyar, vinai and uri.
A century or two after the work of Nirukta, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in his Cratylus dialog that, sentences are, I conceive, a combination of verbs and nouns. Aristotle added another class, which included not only the words known today as conjunctions, the Latin grammarian Priscian modified the above eightfold system, excluding article, but adding interjection. The Latin names for the parts of speech, from which the corresponding modern English terms derive, were nomen, participium, praepositio, the category nomen included substantives as well as adjectives. This is reflected in the older English terminology noun substantive and noun adjective, the adjective became a separate class, and the English word noun came to be applied to substantives only. For discussion see the sections below, English words have been classified into eight or nine parts of speech, Noun a word or lexical item denoting any abstract or concrete entity, a person, thing, idea, or quality. Nouns can be classified as count nouns or non-count nouns, the most common part of the speech, they are called naming words.
Pronoun a substitute for a noun or noun phrase, pronouns make sentences shorter and clearer since they replace nouns. Adjective a modifier of a noun or pronoun, adjectives make the meaning of another word more precise. Verb a word denoting an action, occurrence, or state of being, without a verb a group of words cannot be a clause or sentence. Adverb a modifier of an adjective, verb, or other adverb, preposition a word that relates words to each other in a phrase or sentence and aids in syntactic context. Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun with another word in the sentence, conjunction a syntactic connector, links words, phrases, or clauses. Conjunctions connect words or group of words Interjection an emotional greeting or exclamation, interjections express strong feelings and emotions
P. G. Wodehouse
Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse KBE was an English author and one of the most widely read humorists of the 20th century. Born in Guildford, the son of a British magistrate based in Hong Kong, Wodehouse spent happy years at Dulwich College. After leaving school he was employed by a bank but disliked the work and his early novels were mostly school stories, but he switched to comic fiction, creating several regular characters who became familiar to the public over the years. Although most of Wodehouses fiction is set in England, he spent much of his life in the US and used New York and Hollywood as settings for some of his novels and short stories. During and after the First World War, together with Guy Bolton and Jerome Kern and he began the 1930s writing for MGM in Hollywood. In a 1931 interview, his revelations of incompetence and extravagance at Hollywood studios caused a furore. In the same decade, his career reached a new peak. In 1934 Wodehouse moved to France for tax reasons, in 1940 he was prisoner at Le Touquet by the invading Germans.
After his release he made six broadcasts from German radio in Berlin to the US, the talks were comic and apolitical, but his broadcasting over enemy radio prompted anger and strident controversy in Britain, and a threat of prosecution. From 1947 until his death he lived in the US, taking dual British-American citizenship in 1955 and he was a prolific writer throughout his life, publishing more than ninety books, forty plays, two hundred short stories and other writings between 1902 and 1974. He died in 1975, at the age of 93, in Southampton, Wodehouse worked extensively on his books, sometimes having two or more in preparation simultaneously. He would take up to two years to build a plot and write a scenario of about thirty thousand words, after the scenario was complete he would write the story. Early in his career he would produce a novel in three months, but he slowed in old age to around six months. Some critics of Wodehouse have considered his work flippant, but among his fans are former British prime ministers, the Wodehouses, who traced their ancestry back to the 13th century, belonged to a collateral branch of the family of the earls of Kimberley.
Eleanor Wodehouse was of ancient aristocratic ancestry and she was visiting one of her sisters in Guildford when Wodehouse was born there prematurely. The boy was baptised at the Church of St Nicolas, Wodehouse wrote in 1957, If you ask me to tell you frankly if I like the name Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, I must confess that I do not. I was named after a godfather, and not a thing to show for it, the first name was rapidly elided to Plum, the name by which Wodehouse became known to family and friends. Mother and son sailed for Hong Kong, where for his first two years Wodehouse was raised by a Chinese amah, alongside his elder brothers Peveril and Armine
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, interpretation and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory.
In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes
The ridges are usually parallel to the prevailing winds, they are steep on the windward side and sloping to the leeward side. Smaller irregularities of this type are known as ripples or wind ridges, larger features are especially troublesome to skiers and snowboarders. The words sastrugi/zastrugi are Russian-language plurals, the singular is sastruga or zastruga, the form sastruga is the German-language transliteration of the Russian word заструга. A Latin-type analogical singular sastrugus is used in writings, including Robert Falcon Scotts expeditions diaries. Under the action of wind, free snow particles accumulate and drift like the sand grains in barchan dunes. Inuit of Canada call them kalutoqaniq, when winds slacken, the drifted formations consolidate via sublimation and recrystallization. Subsequent winds erode kalutoqaniq into the forms of sastrugi. Inuit call large sculpturings kaioqlaq and small ripples tumarinyiq, further erosion may turn kaioqlaq back into drifting kalutoqaniq. An intermediate stage of erosion is mapsuk, an overhanging shape, on the windward side of a ridge, the base erodes faster than the top, producing a shape like an anvil tip pointing upwind.
Sastrugi are more likely to form on sea ice than on multiyear ice. First-year ice is smoother than multiyear ice, which allows the wind to pass uniformly over the surface without topographic obstructions. Except during the season, snow is dry and light in climates cold enough for sea ice, allowing the snow to be easily blown. The locations of sastrugi are fixed by March in the northern hemisphere, melt ponds are more likely to form in the depressions between zastrugi on first-year ice. Cornice Föhn wind Snowdrift Grey, D. M. Male, handbook of Snow, Processes and Use. The Heart of the Antarctic, Being the Story of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-1909
A retronym is a neologism for a word created to differentiate between two words, where previously no clarification was required. Advances in technology are responsible for the coinage of retronyms. For example, the acoustic guitar was coined at the advent of electric guitars. Since the end of the 19th century, most bicycles have been expected to have two equal sized wheels, and the type has been renamed penny-farthing or high-wheeler bicycle. Similarly, the term cisgender was coined to describe persons who identify with the gender they were assigned at birth, the term retronym was coined by Frank Mankiewicz in 1980 and popularized by William Safire in The New York Times Magazine. In 2000 The American Heritage Dictionary became the first major dictionary to include the word retronym, back-formation Backronym Contrastive focus reduplication -onym Protologism
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
Historically, a ship was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the trade, but have served scientific, cultural. After the 16th century, new crops that had come from, Ship transport is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, of these 28% were oil tankers, 43% were bulk carriers, and 13% were container ships. Military forces operate vessels for naval warfare and to transport and support forces ashore, the top 50 navies had a median fleet of 88 surface vessels each, according to various sources. There is no definition of what distinguishes a ship from a boat. Ships can usually be distinguished from boats based on size and the ability to operate independently for extended periods. A legal definition of ship from Indian case law is a vessel that carries goods by sea, a common notion is that a ship can carry a boat, but not vice versa.
American and British 19th Century maritime law distinguished vessels from other craft and boats fall in one legal category, a number of large vessels are usually referred to as boats. Other types of vessel which are traditionally called boats are Great Lakes freighters, riverboats. Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, in most maritime traditions ships have individual names, and modern ships may belong to a ship class often named after its first ship. The first known vessels date back about 10,000 years ago, the first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat and this allowed men to explore widely, allowing for the settlement of Oceania for example. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians knew how to assemble wooden planks into a hull and they used woven straps to lash the planks together, and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams. Sneferus ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name, the ancient Egyptians were perfectly at ease building sailboats.
A remarkable example of their skills was the Khufu ship. Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Greece, a panel found at Mohenjodaro depicted a sailing craft
A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly within a cylindrical tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along the inside of the tube, allowing the syringe to take in. The open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle, syringes are frequently used in clinical medicine to administer injections, infuse intravenous drugs into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, and draw/measure liquids. The word syringe is derived from the Greek σύριγξ via back-formation of a new singular from its Greek-type plural syringes, sectors in the syringe and needle market include disposable and safety syringes, injection pens, needleless injectors, insulin pumps, and specialty needles. Hypodermic syringes are used with hypodermic needles to inject liquid or gases into body tissues, the barrel of a syringe is made of plastic or glass, usually has graduated marks indicating the volume of fluid in the syringe, and is nearly always transparent.
Glass syringes may be sterilized in an autoclave, reuse of needles and syringes has caused spread of diseases, especially HIV and hepatitis, among intravenous drug users. Syringes are, commonly reused by diabetics, and this is if the syringe is only used by one person. In medical settings, single-use needles and syringes effectively reduce the risk of cross-contamination, syringes come with a number of designs for the area in which the blade locks to the syringe body. Perhaps the most well known of these is the Luer lock, bodies featuring a small, plain connection are known as slip tips and are useful for when the syringe is being connected to something not featuring a screw lock mechanism. Similar to this is the tip, which is essentially a slip tip but longer and tapered. These can be used for rinsing out wounds or large abscesses in veterinary use, there is an eccentric tip, where the nozzle at the end of the syringe is not in the centre of the syringe but at the side. This causes the blade attached to the syringe to lie almost in line with the walls of the syringe itself, syringes for insulin users are designed for standard U-100 insulin.
The dilution of insulin is such that 1 mL of insulin fluid has 100 standard units of insulin, since insulin vials are typically 10 mL, each vial has 1000 units. Low dead space to reduce complications caused by improper drawing order of different insulin strengths, there are needle syringes designed to reload from a built-in tank after each injection, so they can make several or many injections on a filling. These are not used much in human medicine because of the risk of cross-infection via the needle, an exception is the personal insulin autoinjector used by diabetic patients. Venom extraction syringes are different from standard syringes, because they usually do not puncture the wound. The most common types have a nozzle which is placed over the affected area. Attempts to treat snakebites in this way are specifically advised against, as they are ineffective, syringes of this type are sometimes used for extracting human botfly larvae from the skin
A tamale is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough, which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf. The wrapping is discarded before eating, tamales can be filled with meats, fruits, chilies or any preparation according to taste, and both the filling and the cooking liquid may be seasoned. Tamales originated in Mesoamerica as early as 8000 to 5000 BC, aztec and Maya civilizations, as well as the Olmeca and Tolteca before them, used tamales as portable food, often to support their armies, but for hunters and travelers. The diversity of languages in Mesoamerica led to a number of local words for the tamal. The Spanish singular of tamales is tamal, the English word tamale differs from the Spanish word by having a final vowel. Aztec tamales differed from modern tamales by not having added fat, in the pre-Columbian era, the Mayas ate tamales and often served them at feasts and festivals. The Classic Maya hieroglyph for tamales has been identified on pots and other dating back to the Classic Era.
Several different types of tamales are mentioned in Dresden Codex, iguana tamales, turkey tamales, deer tamales, in Mexico, tamales begin with a dough made from nixtamalized corn, called masa, or a masa mix, such as Maseca, and lard or vegetable shortening. Tamales are generally wrapped in corn husks or plantain leaves before being steamed and they usually have a sweet or savory filling and are usually steamed until firm. Tamale-making is a ritual that has part of Mexican life since pre-Hispanic times. Today, tamales are typically filled with meats, cheese or vegetables, preparation is complex, time-consuming and an excellent example of Mexican communal cooking, where this task usually falls to the women. Tamales are a comfort food in Mexico, eaten as both breakfast and dinner, and often accompanied by hot atole or champurrado and arroz con leche or maize-based beverages of indigenous origin. Street vendors can be seen serving them from huge, the most common fillings are pork and chicken, in either red or green salsa or mole.
Another traditional variation is to add pink-colored sugar to the mix and fill it with raisins or other dried fruit. Commonly, a few deaf, or fillingless, might be served with refried beans, most recently the roasted pepper and Monterey Jack cheese tamales have become a favorite recipe. The cooking of tamales is traditionally done in batches of tens or sometimes hundreds, instead of corn husks, banana or plantain leaves are used in tropical parts of the country, such as Oaxaca, Chiapas and the Yucatán Peninsula. Another less-common variation is to use chard or avocado leaves, which can be eaten along with the filling, tamales are usually eaten during festivities, such as Christmas, the Day of the Dead, Las Posadas, La Candelaria Day and Mexican Independence Day. In Belize, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, the masa is usually made from maiz