Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Www.tism.wanker.com is the fifth album by Australian alternative rock group TISM, released in 1998. The album title references an internet URL which, at the time of release, was a subdomain provided by a friendly person overseas who had registered wanker.com, as TISM were not able to obtain their preferred domain, wanker.com.au, due to Australian domain regulations. However, the web hosting fees were not paid, subsequently it was taken down by the hosting ISP several months after launch and has not been available since. Early editions of the CD featured a CD-ROM component; the program asks the user whether she wants to continue -- repeatedly. It responds "OK then. Downloading virus." No virus is downloaded. The sleeve contains a choice of seven front covers for the album. Humorously, they are identical, all consisting of a close up photo of an individual, masked, TISM member; each is labelled with their name and states that they'think this should be the front cover'. It bears a resemblance to the cover of the album Dark Room by The Angels.
The album consists of standard TISM songs, parodying popular culture and engaging in toilet humour. The album demonstrates a "serious" attempt by the band to divide Australian male culture into two groups – "yobs" and "wankers"; this is best demonstrated in the lyrics of the third single, "Whatareya": The rest of the song continues in a similar vein, including such distinctions as "The wanker fights class prejudice/The yobbo...just fights." The theme and celebration of the bogan lifestyle is explored further on tracks such as "Dumb and Base" and "Yob". Other themes cross the safety of wasted potential and regret; the first single released for the album was "Yob". The first video released for the album was for "I Might Be a Cunt, but I'm Not a Fucking Cunt", is a parody of the Mimi Macpherson sex tape. Two other videos, "Whatareya?", featured the band on an Aerobics Oz Style-style television show and "Thunderbirds Are Coming Out" featured various bands of the day, such as 28 Days and Blood Duster.
The release of the track "I Might Be a Cunt, But I'm Not a Fucking Cunt" as a single brought controversy back to TISM once again. The song and its accompanying music video of a couple having sex was banned by the SBS, ABC's rage, Triple J due to its content. Bruce Ruxton, the head of the Victorian Branch of the Australian RSL, wrote a letter of complaint to Shock Records asking for TISM to be fired from the label, describing the song as "... Dropping through the floor into the proverbial sewer". Ron Hitler Barassi of TISM responded to criticism in an interview: I like the song, the thing that disappoints me about some of the reaction to the song is people's reaction was confined to "oh how naughty, oh those naughty boys TISM have said a naughty word and another naughty word, oh that's so naughty" and I must admit, I was sort of, I shouldn't have, I was disappointed with that reaction... We were attempting to use the common dialect of people in the street, to sum up a term, have a good pisstake.
It's more than just naughtiness. That's profound isn't it? Initial pressings of the album were shipped with a bonus disc; the CD in question looks like a blank CDR, with texta writing that reads "Att: SHOCK RECORDS FAULTY PRESSING DO NOT MANUFACTURE". In reality, it featured a mixture of songs and low-quality audio recordings of Hitler-Barassi and Flaubert discussing various topics whilst watching the Pamela Anderson/Tommy Lee sex tape; the "conversation" tracks have never been given an official title. For the iTunes re-release, these tracks were appended to the start/end of the titled tracks; the titles were available on TISM's website at the time. "Yob" is the first single from TISM's 1998 album www.tism.wanker.com. It interpolates a sample of the song "Hawaiian Cowboy" by Sol K. Bright. One of the main themes on the album www.tism.wanker.com is the distinction between the two classes of males, the yobs and the wankers. This song details the "ingredients", it lists the various things which a person can do and a following action to take on such an event, the action classifying the person as a yob if he indulges in these activities.
A song titled "If They're Different, Punch", a variant of the first line of the song, is listed in the track list for a 1988 demo tape, Three Blake and a Dollar's Worth of Chips. A slightly remixed version of track two was released on Att: Shock Records Faulty Pressing Do Not Manufacture, the bonus disc which came on initial pressings of wanker.com. The version of "Yob" appearing on wanker.com with a different vocal track. "Yob" "The Last Australian Guitar Hero" "Yob" Yobbo Yob Lyrics
ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public service broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia, a advertising-funded satellite channel overseas. ABC is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; the history of the ABC's television operations can be traced back to 1953, when the federal Television Act was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both the ABC and commercial television networks. Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place, land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
The ABC's first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks by transmission in Melbourne. Outside broadcasting was initiated on 5 November, from the ABC's first outside broadcast van; the van, now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia, was instrumental in the production of thousands of outside broadcasts. It was restored in time to be displayed at the Sydney Olympic Games and was used to film the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to the site of the National Museum in 2000. Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, opened on 29 January 1958, replacing temporary sound studios used since the ABC's television services launched in 1956.
In the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Direct relays between Sydney and Melbourne, as well as Canberra, were established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of airing programs across multiple stations. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962. ABQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year with ABD-6 Darwin completing the ABC's coverage of every state in 1971. Teletext services were introduced to ABC in 1983 to allow hearing-impaired viewers access to closed captions. International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998; the ABC's television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporation's Ultimo headquarters in 2000.
In 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific, the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, companion radio network Radio Australia, the service provided a mix of programming targeted at audiences throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Funding cuts in 2003, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kid's Channel. ABC2, now ABC Comedy, a second attempt at a digital-only television channel, was launched on 7 March 2005, running on a budget of $3 million per year. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later. Genre restrictions limiting the types of programming the channel could carry were lifted in October 2006. In the lead-up to the 2007 federal election, the Australian Government endorsed a proposal submitted to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by the ABC to launch a second digital channel targeted at children; the new channel, titled ABC3, was to aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content.
At midday on 8 February 2008, ABC Television was rebranded as ABC1, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005. ABC has four digital services; as of 2009, ABC announced an Australia-wide upgrade to its Digital service, that it would provide a seven-day Electronic Program Guide and give new logical channel numbers for all of ABC’s television services. The new ABC logical channel numbers are below; these services are available nationally through digital terrestrial television, all the digital TV services are available through the VAST free-to-air satellite service. Only the primary ABC channel is available on the Optus Aurora satellite platform. In June 2010, playout was moved to a new facility shared with WIN Television at Ingleburn. On 6 December 2016, ABC upgraded its HD format from 720p to 1080i. Within Australia, the ABC operates four television channels, all of them non-commercial. ABC, the Corporation's original television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama and news and current affairs.
In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7 pm nightly. ABC Comedy, launched in 2005, shows comedic content in addition to some repeats from ABC TV of which the amount has decreased since ABC Comedy's inception, it is not a 24-hour channel, but is
TISM were a seven-piece anonymous alternative rock band from Melbourne, Australia. The group were formed on 30 December 1982 by vocalist/drummer Humphrey B. Flaubert, bassist/vocalist Jock Cheese and keyboardist/vocalist Eugene de la Hot Croix Bun, enjoyed a large underground/independent following, their third album and the Four Seasons, reached the Australian national top 10 in 1995. On 30 December 1982, Damian Cowell, Jack Holt and Eugene Cester, recorded a nine-song session called Great Truckin' Songs of the Renaissance under the name This Is Serious Mum at the home of friend Peter Minack. Minack and Cester were members of a group called "I Can Run", which evolved into This Is Serious Mum; the band's first concert was on 6 December 1983. The Get Fucked Concert at the Duncan McKinnon Athletics Reserve in the small suburb of Murrumbeena was considered a complete failure which caused the band to split up, they reformed in February 1984 and returned to their recordings, experimenting with dark ambient and industrial music, before returning to their rock style.
They consider every subsequent performance a "re-union gig". By 1985 the band were playing around Melbourne and soon released a 10-track demo composed of selections from their recordings followed by their début single, "Defecate on My Face", a 7" vinyl record packaged in a 12" sleeve with all four sides glued shut; this song is found on the EP Form and Meaning Reach Ultimate Communion as a country version. Their next single, "40 Years – Then Death", was released on transparent vinyl in a clear plastic sleeve with no cover art or labels; this Is Serious Mum's first radio-friendly. The début album, Great Truckin' Songs of the Renaissance, is a double vinyl release in an embossed gatefold sleeve; the first record contained twelve of TISM's most popular tracks, the second was a pastiche of interviews, bedroom recordings and live diatribes. Despite this odd combination, Truckin' Songs entered the lower reaches of Australia's mainstream Top 50, as did the single "Saturday Night Palsy"; that year, The TISM Guide To Little Aesthetics, a book compiling lyrics and press releases, was published.
Though the physical books were printed in 1989, they could not be released until 1990 due to TISM being required to hand-censor the book with a mixture of white-out and permanent marker, as well as place "CENSORED DUE TO LEGAL ADVICE" stickers on each copy of the book. Some uncensored copies of the book do exist, however. In 1990, TISM entered negotiations with CBS Records and Phonogram Records and were signed by the latter. In April that year, the band began work on what would become their next album with producer Laurence Maddy; when Phonogram released Hot Dogma it failed to reach the commercial charts, TISM were fired six months due to management issues, despite owing the label tens of thousands of dollars. Hot Dogma is the first release to use the acronymic form of the band's name exclusively. Over two nights in May 1991, the band were filmed live and released the video Incontinent in Ten Continents; these performances were the last for guitarist Leek Van Vlalen. In mid-1991, independent record label Shock Records signed TISM and re-issued Great Truckin' Songs of the Renaissance, as well as the EP Gentlemen, Start Your Egos, a compilation of tracks unavailable on CD.
TISM, with producer Tony Cohen released the EP Beasts of Suburban. A new guitarist,'Tony Coitus' joined the group onstage for the first time on 23 January 1992; the next EP, Australia The Lucky Cunt was TISM's most controversial release to date. Courts issued an injunction order of the CD when the Ken Done Society threatened legal action over the artwork, which parodied Done's signature style and depicted a koala sucking a syringe; the matter was settled for an undisclosed amount of money "fairly close to the amount that Radiohead spends on buying friends" and was re-released with new artwork as Censored Due To Legal Advice. During 1994, TISM sometimes played under the names "The Frank Vitkovic Jazz Quartet", "Machiavelli and the Four Seasons" and "Late for Breakfast". TISM's biggest success was the the Four Seasons; the release was a shift from alternative-rock to synth-driven techno and dance which retained vocal melodies and loud guitars. The album won an ARIA Award for Best Independent Release.
Three of its singles reached Triple J's Hottest 100, two of them in the top 10. On 27 April 1995 the band appeared on the RMITV show Under Melbourne Tonight and performed "Protest Song" and " Ol' Man River". Success exposed TISM to mainstream Australian radio and television, most of, perplexed by the band's guerrilla approach to interviews and lack of interest in the music industry. A four CD box set of early albums was released and steady record sales allowed extensive tours of Australia and New Zealand. In 1996 TISM toured on the Big Day Out, during which Ron Hitler-Barassi was either absent or wheelchair-bound due to a detached retina and broken arm caused by a stage dive he performed at the Pacific Hotel, Victoria prior to the tour; the same year, TISM toured England, the group's sole Northern Hemisphere excursion. Taking a year off from touring, TISM spent 1997 working on their next album with producer Lachlan Magoo; the album, www.tism.wanker.com was announced via a series of liv
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif