The Tiasquam River is a 3.7-mile-long stream on the southwest of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The creek arises in the eastern section of Chilmark, flows east south, into West Tisbury, Massachusetts to feed the Tisbury Great Pond, which in turn empties into the Atlantic Ocean from the island's southern shore. Martha's Vineyard Watersheds Vineyard Gazette: Tiasquam River Reservation
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
The Jones River is a 7.5-mile-long river running through Kingston, Massachusetts. The river has its source in Silver Lake and drains into Kingston Bay. Land surrounding the river is 52 % forested. There is a USGS stream gauge along 16 square miles of the river and it has measured the flow at 0.7 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area. The Pilgrims named the river after Christopher Jones, captain of the Mayflower in 1620. On some years the Forge Pond Dam on Lake Street prevents any water from flowing into the river from the lake. Silver Lake is supposed to contribute about twenty percent of the river's flow as its main source; the decreased flow results in slower water, higher water temperature, decreased river mass and less sediment flushing. These unhealthy river characteristics make it harder for diadromous fish and other river animals to survive; the river has been dammed at Elm Street where a fish ladder exist. The river is navigable only by small boats below that, the river below it is effected by the tides.
It winds through marshes below that before emptying into Kingston Bay. The Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife has stocked the Jones River with trout. Jones River Brook, Furnace Brook, Pine Brook, Russell Brook, Smelt Brook, Halls Brook and Fountainhead Brook are among the tributaries of the Jones River. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Jones River Jones River Watershed Study Maps showing extent of marsh at Jones River mouth
Gulf of Maine
The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America. It is bounded by Cape Cod at the eastern tip of Massachusetts in the southwest and by Cape Sable Island at the southern tip of Nova Scotia in the northeast; the gulf includes the entire coastlines of the U. S. states of New Hampshire and Maine, as well as Massachusetts north of Cape Cod, the southern and western coastlines of the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, respectively. The gulf was named for the adjoining English colonial Province of Maine, in turn named by early explorers after the Province of Maine in France. Massachusetts Bay, Penobscot Bay, Passamaquoddy Bay, the Bay of Fundy are included within the Gulf of Maine system; the Gulf of Maine is a rectangular depression with a surface area of around 36,000 square miles, enclosed to the west and north by the North American mainland and communicating with the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. The region's glaciation by the Laurentide Ice Sheet stripped sedimentary soil away from the coastline, leaving a shore, predominantly rocky and scenic, lacking the sandy beaches found to the south along the Eastern Seaboard.
The only significant coastal developments are located in the Boston, Portsmouth and Saint John metropolitan areas. The underwater features of the seabed sculptured during the lower sea levels of the ice ages make the gulf a semi-enclosed sea bounded to the south and east by underwater banks. Georges Bank in particular, on its southern end, shelters the gulf from the Gulf Stream. Gulf of Maine waters are more influenced by the Labrador Current, making the gulf waters colder and more nutrient-rich than those found to the south. Undersea valleys in the central basin can reach depths of 1,500 feet while undersea mountains rise up 800 feet from the sea floor reaching the surface in some locations, or exceeding it, creating islands. There are three major basins contained within the Gulf of Maine: Wilkinson Basin to the west, Jordan Basin in the northeast, Georges Basin in the south, which are isolated from each other beneath the 650 foot isobath. Georges Basin, just north of Georges Bank, is the deepest of the three at just over 1200 feet and generates a pocket at the end of the Northeast Channel, a deep fissure between Georges Bank and Browns Bank, the southwestern edge of the Nova Scotian Shelf.
The Northeast Channel is the rest of the Northwest Atlantic. A secondary, shallower connection to the rest of the Atlantic is the Great South Channel, located between Georges Bank and the Nantucket Shoals; the cold waters, extreme tidal mixing, diverse bottom of the Gulf make it one of the most productive marine environments in the North Atlantic, it furnishes habitat for many diverse species including most notably haddock, the Acadian redfish, the Atlantic herring and the American lobster, which grows to famously large sizes in the Gulf. The waters of the Gulf of Maine system at the boundary with the Bay of Fundy are home to the summering grounds for many different bird and whale species, most notably the endangered North Atlantic right whale; the gulf was home to the sea mink until its extinction in the late 1800s. Due to rapid warming of the Gulf of Maine, the water has become too hot for cod. This, along with past overfishing, has helped pushed stocks towards collapse and hampered its recovery despite deep reductions in the number of fish caught, according to a study conducted by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute.
Traditional calculations "consistently over-estimated the abundance of cod." From 2004, temperatures rose by more than 0.4 °F per year, culminating in an ocean heat wave in the northwest Atlantic in 2012-13. The watershed of the gulf encompasses an area of 69,000 sq mi, including all of Maine, 70% of New Hampshire, 56% of New Brunswick, 41% of Massachusetts, 36% of Nova Scotia; the watershed includes a small southern portion of the Canadian province of Quebec. Significant rivers that drain into the Gulf include, from east to west, the Annapolis, Salmon, Saint John, Magaguadavic, St. Croix, Kennebec, Piscataqua and Charles rivers; the gulf's relative proximity to Europe made it an early destination for European colonization. French settlers founded a settlement on St. Croix Island in 1604. English settlers founded the Popham Colony on an island in the Kennebec River in 1607, the same year as the Jamestown settlement, followed by the Plymouth Colony on the shores of Massachusetts Bay in 1620. In the 1960s and 1970s there was a dispute between Canada and the United States over fishing and other resource rights in the Gulf of Maine the Georges Bank region.
This dispute was taken to the International Court of Justice, which delineated a maritime boundary through the Gulf in 1984. Canada and the U. S. continue to disagree on the sovereignty of Machias Seal Island and the waters surrounding it in the northeastern part of the gulf. In recognition of the Gulf's importance to marine habitat, both nations maintain complementary embargoes against offshore oil and gas exploration activities on Georges Bank in the southern part of the gulf. British colonization of the Americas French colonization of the Americas Gulf of Maine Research Institute Gulf of Maine Research Institute Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment
The Westport River lies between Narragansett Bay and Buzzards Bay in Westport, Massachusetts. The Westport River has two branches; the smaller West Branch is 7.0 miles long, rising from a confluence of brooks near the village of Adamsville, Rhode Island. It flows in a southeastward direction, passing around several small islands before meeting Westport Harbor west of Westport Point; the West Branch separates the village of Acoaxet from the rest of the town. The larger East Branch is 11.5 miles long, rising at the town line of Westport and Dartmouth at Lake Noquochoke, fed by the Copicut and Shingle Island rivers. After a short length the river meets the Bread and Cheese Brook before reaching the Head of Westport village, where the river widens and deepens. From here the river continues southward, being fed by several brooks before an initial widening to between 100-400 yards at Widows Point. From Widows Point, the river flows due southward, crossing under the Hix Bridge before passing Gull Rock and widening at Cadman's Neck to a half mile wide.
The river flows southward, with several larger islands dotting the path, before meeting the Horseneck Channel at Westport Point. The East Branch flows under the Normand Edward Fontaine Bridge and into Westport Harbor. Once in Westport Harbor, the combined branches bend around Horseneck Point across from The Knubble before flowing into Rhode Island Sound, just west of Horseneck Beach State Reservation and the point where Rhode Island Sound meets Buzzards Bay; the Westport River estuary has long been known for its wildlife. Deer, coyotes and turkeys can all be spotted at different times along the shore. Ospreys are prevalent. There were 41 nesting sites confirmed in 1980. Now the population has spread to over 300 statewide, due to the Westport River estuary nesting program. MassWildlife continues to provide technical assistance to monitor a sample of the nesting population to determine productivity
The Sippican River is a short river in Massachusetts, United States. The Sippican River is 6.2 miles long, arising from east and west branches in the towns of Mattapoisett and Rochester, Massachusetts. Each branch flows through a complex system of cranberry bogs and reservoirs, empties a short distance away through Wareham into Buzzards Bay near the Weweantic River mouth; as of 2006, efforts are underway to restore the native alewife population to the river
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe