The Return of Tarzan
The Return of Tarzan is a novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the second in his series of books about the title character Tarzan. It was first published in the pulp magazine New Story Magazine in the issues for June through December 1913. McClurg; the novel picks up soon after. The ape man, feeling rootless in the wake of his noble sacrifice of his prospects of wedding Jane Porter, leaves America for Europe to visit his friend Paul d'Arnot. On the ship he becomes embroiled in the affairs of Countess Olga de Coude, her husband, Count Raoul de Coude, two shady characters attempting to prey on them, Nikolas Rokoff and his henchman Alexis Paulvitch. Rokoff, it turns out, is the countess's brother. Tarzan thwarts the villains' scheme. In France, Rokoff tries time and again to eliminate the ape man engineering a duel between him and the count by making it appear that he is the countess's lover. Tarzan deliberately refuses to defend himself in the duel offering the count his own weapon after the latter fails to kill him with his own, a grand gesture that convinces his antagonist of his innocence.
In return, Count Raoul finds him a job as a special agent in the French ministry of war. Tarzan is assigned to service in Algeria. A sequence of adventures among the local Arabs ensues, including another brush with Rokoff. Afterward Tarzan sails for Cape Town and strikes up a shipboard acquaintance with Hazel Strong, a friend of Jane's, but Rokoff and Paulovitch are aboard, manage to ambush him and throw him overboard. Miraculously, Tarzan manages to swim to shore, finds himself in the coastal jungle where he was brought up by the apes, he soon rescues and befriends a native warrior, Busuli of the Waziri, is adopted into the Waziri tribe. After defeating a raid on their village by ivory raiders, Tarzan becomes their chief; the Waziri know of a lost city deep in the jungle, from which they have obtained their golden ornaments. Tarzan has them take him there, but is captured by its inhabitants, a race of ape-like men, is condemned to be sacrificed to their sun god. To Tarzan's surprise, the priestess to perform the sacrifice is a beautiful woman who speaks the ape language he learned as a child.
She tells him she is high priestess of the lost city of Opar. When the sacrificial ceremony is fortuitously interrupted, she hides Tarzan and promises to lead him to freedom, but the ape man escapes on his own, locates a treasure chamber, manages to rejoin the Waziri. Meanwhile, Hazel Strong has reached Cape Town where she meets Jane and her father, Professor Porter, together with Jane's fiancé, Tarzan's cousin William Cecil Clayton, they are all invited on a cruise up the west coast of Africa aboard the Lady Alice, the yacht of another friend, Lord Tennington. Rokoff, now using the alias of M. Thuran, ingratiates himself with the party and is invited along; the Lady Alice sinks, forcing the passengers and crew into the lifeboats. The one containing Jane, Clayton and "Thuran" is separated from the others and suffers terrible privations. Coincidentally, the boat makes shore in the same general area that Tarzan did; the three construct a rude shelter and eke out an existence of near starvation for some weeks until Jane and William Clayton are surprised in the forest by a lion.
Clayton loses Jane's respect by cowering in fear before the beast instead of defending her. But they are not attacked, discover the lion dead, speared by an unknown hand, their hidden savior is in fact Tarzan, who leaves without revealing himself, not realizing whom he was rescuing. Jane breaks off her engagement to William. Jane is kidnapped and taken to Opar by a party of the Oparian ape-men who were pursuing their escaped sacrifice, Tarzan; the ape man tracks them, managing to save her from being sacrificed by La.. La is crushed by Tarzan's spurning of her for Jane. Tarzan and Jane make their way up the coast to the former's boyhood cabin, where they encounter the remainder of the castaways of the Lady Alice and sound after having been recovered by Tarzan's friend D'Arnot in another ship. "Thuran" is arrested. Tarzan weds Jane and Tennington weds Hazel in a double ceremony performed by Professor Porter, ordained a minister in his youth, they all set sail for civilization, taking along the treasure Tarzan had found in Opar.
Burroughs' novel was the basis of two movies, the silent films The Revenge of Tarzan and The Adventures of Tarzan, based on the first and second parts of the book, respectively. The first film starred Gene Pollar as the ape man, the second Elmo Lincoln, the original movie Tarzan. Nikolas Rokoff and Alexis appears in The Legend Of Tarzan, in the episode “Tarzan and the Buried Treasure”; the book has been adapted into comic form on a number of occasions, both in the original Tarzan comic strip and comic books. Notable adaptations include those of Gold Key Comics in Tarzan no. 156, dated November 1966, of DC Comics in Tarzan nos. 219-223, dated April–September 1973, of Dynamite Entertainment in Lord of the Jungle nos. 9-14, dated 2012-2013. Science fiction writer and Burroughs enthusiast Philip José Farmer took up the city of Opar, as appearing in this and Tarzan novels, wrote the novels Hadon of Ancient Opar and Flight to Opar, depicting the city in its full glory many thousands of years in the past.
Bleiler, Everett. The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. P. 32. ERBzine.com Illustrated Bibliography: The Return of Tarzan Text of the novel at Project Gutenberg The Return of Tarzan public domain
Jungle Tales of Tarzan
Jungle Tales of Tarzan is a collection of twelve loosely connected short stories by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, comprising the sixth book in order of publication in his series about the title character Tarzan. Chronologically the events recounted in it occur within Chapter 11 of the first Tarzan novel, Tarzan of the Apes, between Tarzan's avenging of his ape foster mother's death and his becoming leader of his ape tribe; the stories ran monthly in Blue Book magazine, September 1916 through August 1917 before book publication in 1919. The book is a collection of twelve loosely connected short stories of Tarzan's late teenage years, set within a year or two before Tarzan first sees white people including Jane Porter. According to Tarzan Alive, Philip José Farmer's study of the ape man's life and career, the incidents of this book occurred from February, 1907-August, 1908. "Tarzan's First Love". Tarzan's courtship of the female ape Teeka ends in failure when her preference turns to their mutual friend, the male ape Taug.
Tarzan wrestles with his humanness versus his ape-ness. The allusion to Helen of Troy enriches the story, making Tarzan and Taug's fight over Teeka take on symbolic proportions. Stan Galloway writes: "when Burroughs chooses to name Helen as an objective correlative for Teeka, he expects both literal and emotional connections to occur." Tarzan's final claim of the story -- "Tarzan is a man. He will go alone."—echoes the plight of Adam in the Garden of Eden. "The Capture of Tarzan". Tarzan is taken captive by the warriors of a village of cannibals which has established a village near the territory of the ape tribe, he is saved from them by the elephant. "The Fight for the Balu". Teeka and Taug have a baby, which Teeka names will not allow Tarzan near, she changes her mind. "The God of Tarzan". Tarzan discovers the concept of "God" in the books preserved in the cabin of his dead parents, to which he pays regular visits, he inquires among members of his ape tribe for further elucidation without success, continues his investigation among the cannibals of the nearby village and the natural phenomena of his world, such as the sun and moon.
He concludes that God is none of these, but the creative force permeating everything. Somehow, the dreaded snake Histah falls outside this. "Tarzan and the Black Boy". Jealous of Taug and Teeka's relationship with their baby, Tarzan kidnaps Tibo, a little boy from the neighboring village to be his own "balu", he tries with indifferent success to teach the homesick child ape ways. Meanwhile, Tibo's mother does everything she can think of to find and recover her son visiting the hermit witch-doctor Bukawai, a terrible, diseased exile who keeps two fearsome hyenas as pets, he names a price for recovering Tibo she cannot afford, she leaves disappointed. Afterwards, Tarzan, moved by Tibo's distress and his mother's love, returns the boy to her. "The Witch-Doctor Seeks Vengeance". Bukawai attempts to claim credit for Tibo's return and extort payment from the boy's mother, but is rebuffed, he is thwarted by the ape man. In this story Tarzan's life in the wild is contrasted with scenes from the civilized existence of his cousin in England, living the life he might have had had his parents not been marooned in Africa.
The cousin does not shine in the comparison. "The End of Bukawai". Bukawai, finding Tarzan unconscious after a storm, takes the ape man captive and stakes him out for his hyenas to devour. Escaping, Tarzan leaves the witch doctor in the same trap, in which Bukawai suffers the fate he had intended for his enemy. "The Lion". Tarzan vainly attempts to impress on his ape tribe the necessity of maintaining a strict watch against the hazards and perils surrounding them. To drive home the lesson, he dons a lionskin he has taken from Mbonga's village and appears among them, only to find them more vigilant than he had thought, as they mob him and nearly beat him to death, he is saved only by the courage of his monkey friend Manu, which he had previously under-rated, who risks all to reveal to Teeka and Taug that the "lion" is Tarzan. "The Nightmare". Having been unsuccessful hunting, Tarzan robs the native village of some rotten elephant meat, which he eats. Becoming ill from the tainted meal, he has a horrible nightmare, in which he dreams himself menaced by a lion, an eagle, huge snake with the head of a village native.
He is carried off by a giant bird but wakes in the fall from its graps, finding himself back in the tree where he'd gone to sleep. He realizes. Subsequently attacked by a gorilla, he assumes that this too is a product of his fevered imagination, until wounded and hurt, he is left to wonder what is real and what is fantasy. The only thing he is certain of is. "The Battle for Teeka". Discovering bullet cartridges in his deceased father's cabin, Tarzan takes them with him as curios. Subsequently, Teeka is taken by an ape from another tribe, Tarzan and Taug join forces to trail the kidnapper and rescue her; when they catch up, they are surrounded by the enemy tribe and nearly overwhelmed, until Teeka throws the cartridges at their foes in an futile effort to help. When some of them hit a rock, they explode, frightening the hostile apes and saving her "rescuers". "A Jungle Joke". As part of his campaign of torment and trickery against the native village, whose members he holds responsible for his ape foster mothe
Edgar Rice Burroughs bibliography
The following is the complete bibliography of Edgar Rice Burroughs. The titles are listed chronologically as written. Note: Numbers in parentheses following years indicate months Edgar Rice Burroughs C. H. A. S. E. R. Encyclopedia Chronology of the Life and Works of Edgar Rice Burroughs
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Land of Terror
Land of Terror is a 1944 fantasy novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the sixth in his series about the fictional "hollow earth" land of Pellucidar. It is the penultimate novel in the last to be published during Burrough's lifetime. Unlike most of the other books in the Pellucidar series, this novel was never serially published in any magazine because it was rejected by all of Burroughs's usual publishers; the novel relates the adventures of David Innes on his return from Lo-Har to Sari in the wake of the events of Back to the Stone Age. It is divided into five adventures: The Oog Women Among the Jukans With the Azar giants Captured by the giant Ants On the Floating Island of Ruva The copyright for this story has expired in Australia, thus now resides in the public domain there; the text is available via Project Gutenberg Australia. Free Ebook from Project Gutenberg of Australia Edgar Rice Burroughs Summary Project Page for Land of Terror
Androcles, is the main character of a common folktale, included in the Aarne–Thompson classification system as type 156. The story reappeared in the Middle Ages as "The Shepherd and the Lion" and was ascribed to Aesop's Fables, it is numbered 563 in the Perry Index and can be compared to Aesop's The Lion and the Mouse in both its general trend and in its moral of the reciprocal nature of mercy. The earliest surviving account of the episode is found in Aulus Gellius's 2nd century Attic Nights; the author relates there a story told by Apion in his lost work Aegyptiacorum, the events of which Apion claimed to have witnessed in Rome. In this version, Androclus, is a runaway slave of a former Roman consul administering a part of Africa, he takes shelter in a cave, which turns out to be the den of a wounded lion, from whose paw he removes a large thorn. In gratitude, the lion becomes henceforward shares his catch with the slave. After three years, Androclus craves a return to civilization but is soon imprisoned as a fugitive slave and sent to Rome.
There he is condemned to be devoured by wild animals in the Circus Maximus in the presence of an emperor, named in the account as Gaius Caesar Caligula. The most imposing of the beasts turns out to be the same lion, which again displays its affection toward Androclus. After questioning him, the emperor pardons the slave in recognition of this testimony to the power of friendship, he is left in possession of the lion. Apion, who claimed to have been a spectator on this occasion, is quoted as relating: Afterwards we used to see Androclus with the lion attached to a slender leash, making the rounds of the tabernae throughout the city; the story was repeated a century by Claudius Aelianus in his work On the Nature of Animals. Versions of the story, sometimes attributed to Aesop, began to appear from the mid-sixth century under the title "The Shepherd and the Lion". In Chrétien de Troyes' 12th-century romance, "Yvain, the Knight of the Lion", the knightly main character helps a lion, attacked by a serpent.
The lion becomes his companion and helps him during his adventures. A century the story of taking a thorn from a lion's paw was related as an act of Saint Jerome in the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine. Afterwards the lion joins him in the monastery and a different set of stories follows; the retelling, "Of the Remembrance of Benefits", in the Gesta Romanorum of about 1330 in England, has a mediaeval setting and again makes the protagonist a knight. In the earliest English printed collection of Aesop's Fables by William Caxton, the tale appears as The lyon & the pastour or herdman and reverts to the story of a shepherd who cares for the wounded lion, he is convicted of a crime and taken to Rome to be thrown to the wild beasts, only to be recognised and defended from the other animals by the one that he tended. A Latin poem by Vincent Bourne dating from 1716–17 is based on the account of Aulus Gellius. Titled Mutua Benevolentia primaria lex naturae est, it was translated by William Cowper as “Reciprocal kindness: the primary law of nature”.
George Bernard Shaw's play Androcles and the Lion makes Androcles a tailor. The first film adaptation of the story in the US was made in 1912. Afterwards there were several others for both cinema and TV. Rob Englehart's The Lion, the Slave and the Rodent was a much American approach to the fable. A one-act chamber opera for five voices, it combined the story of Androcles with the fable of “The Lion and the Mouse”. Renaissance prints of the story are based on the Classical accounts. Agostino Veneziano depicts the slave Androcles being freed by the Emperor in a work from 1516–17 now in the LACMA collection. There is an early pen and wash drawing by Baldassare Peruzzi dating from the 1530s in the Hermitage Museum. Dependent on the account by Aulus Gellius, it depicts Androcles walking through a doorway with the lion on a lead at his heel. Other artists have preferred the scene of Androcles pulling the thorn from the lion's paw, as in Bernhard Rode's print of 1784. A American example is Walter Inglis Anderson's block print scroll of 1950, based on his 1935 painting.
Paintings of the subject began in the 18th century. That by Charles Meynier, exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1795, is now lost. However, a study for the painting has been discovered and shows Androcles as a nearly naked warrior brandishing his sword in the stadium while the lion lies on the ground and is, following the account of Aulus Gellius, "gently licking his feet". There are studies for an unachieved painting by American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner dating from his student years in 1885-6, they include a kneeling and grey-bearded Androcles. At mid-century in 1856 comes “Androcles and the Lion” by the English artist Alexander Davis Cooper. There a young man in Arab dress looks towards the viewer as he walks across a desert landscape with his hand in the lion’s mane. In the 20th century, Jean-Léon Gérôme depicted Androcles in a painting tentatively dated 1902 and now in the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes. There Androcles is sitting cross-legged on the floor of the cave as he draws the thorn from the lion's paw while it roars in agony.
Briton Riviere's 1908 painting of him stan
Adventure fiction is fiction that presents danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement. In the Introduction to the Encyclopedia of Adventure Fiction, Critic Don D'Ammassa defines the genre as follows:.. An adventure is an event or series of events that happens outside the course of the protagonist's ordinary life accompanied by danger by physical action. Adventure stories always move and the pace of the plot is at least as important as characterization and other elements of a creative work. D'Ammassa argues. Indeed, the standard plot of Medieval romances was a series of adventures. Following a plot framework as old as Heliodorus, so durable as to be still alive in Hollywood movies, a hero would undergo a first set of adventures before he met his lady. A separation would follow, with a second set of adventures leading to a final reunion. Variations kept the genre alive. From the mid-19th century onwards, when mass literacy grew, adventure became a popular subgenre of fiction. Although not exploited to its fullest, adventure has seen many changes over the years – from being constrained to stories of knights in armor to stories of high-tech espionages.
Examples of that period include Sir Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas, père, Jules Verne, Brontë Sisters, H. Rider Haggard, Victor Hugo, Emilio Salgari, Louis Henri Boussenard, Thomas Mayne Reid, Sax Rohmer, Edgar Wallace, Robert Louis Stevenson. Adventure novels and short stories were popular subjects for American pulp magazines, which dominated American popular fiction between the Progressive Era and the 1950s. Several pulp magazines such as Adventure, Blue Book, Top-Notch, Short Stories specialized in this genre. Notable pulp adventure writers included Edgar Rice Burroughs, Talbot Mundy, Theodore Roscoe, Johnston McCulley, Arthur O. Friel, Harold Lamb, Carl Jacobi, George F. Worts, Georges Surdez, H. Bedford-Jones, J. Allan Dunn. Adventure fiction overlaps with other genres, notably war novels, crime novels, sea stories, spy stories, science fiction and Westerns. Not all books within these genres are adventures. Adventure fiction takes the setting and premise of these other genres, but the fast-paced plot of an adventure focuses on the actions of the hero within the setting.
With a few notable exceptions adventure fiction as a genre has been dominated by male writers, though female writers are now becoming common. Adventure stories written for children began in the 19th century. Early examples include Johann David Wyss' The Swiss Family Robinson, Frederick Marryat's The Children of the New Forest, Harriet Martineau's The Peasant and the Prince; the Victorian era saw the development of the genre, with W. H. G. Kingston, R. M. Ballantyne, G. A. Henty specializing in the production of adventure fiction for boys; this inspired writers who catered to adult audiences to essay such works, such as Robert Louis Stevenson writing Treasure Island for a child readership. In the years after the First World War, writers such as Arthur Ransome developed the adventure genre by setting the adventure in Britain rather than distant countries, while Geoffrey Trease, Rosemary Sutcliff and Esther Forbes brought a new sophistication to the historical adventure novel. Modern writers such as Mildred D. Taylor and Philip Pullman have continued the tradition of the historical adventure.
The modern children's adventure novel sometimes deals with controversial issues like terrorism and warfare in the Third World. Lost world Men's adventure Nautical fiction Picaresque novel Robinsonade Thriller War novel