Carmen (1915 Raoul Walsh film)
Carmen was a 1915 American silent drama film and directed by Raoul Walsh, which starred Theda Bara. It is based on the 1845 novella Carmen, the film was shot at the Fox Studio in New Jersey, it is now considered lost. Theda Bara as Carmen Einar Linden as Don Jose Carl Harbaugh as Escamillo James A. Marcus as Dancaire Emil De Varney as Captain Morales Elsie MacLeod as Michaela Fay Tunis as Carlotta Joseph P. Green List of lost films Carmen, surviving film adaption of Carmen released in November 1915 directed by Cecil B. DeMille 1937 Fox vault fire Carmen on IMDb Carmen at AllMovie Review from Motion Picture News, printed alongside a review for the DeMille production
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Mission to Moscow
Mission to Moscow is a 1943 film directed by Michael Curtiz, based on the 1941 book by the former U. S. ambassador to Joseph E. Davies; the movie chronicles the experiences of the second American ambassador to the Soviet Union and was made in response to a request by Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was made during World War II, when the Americans and Soviets were allies, takes an solicitous view of not only the USSR in general but of Stalinism and Stalinist repressions in particular. For that reason, it was scrutinized by the House Committee on Un-American Activities; the film is based on Joseph E. Davies' Memoir. About his time as the United States ambassador to the Soviet Union from November 1936 to June 1938, it was published by Simon & Schuster in 1941 and was a critical and commercial success—700,000 copies were sold, the book was translated into thirteen languages. The film chronicles ambassador Davies' impressions of the Soviet Union, his meetings with Stalin, his overall opinion of the Soviet Union and its ties with the United States.
It is made in a faux-documentary style, beginning with Davies meeting with president Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss his new appointment as United States ambassador to the Soviet Union, it continues to show the Davies' family's trip with stops in Europe. While in Moscow, the movie alternates between Davies' interpretations of Russian politics and communism and his family's impressions of Russian life, it includes a memorable scene with Mrs. Davies at a Russian department store; the movie gives Davies' perspective on various points in Soviet history. It begins with the real ambassador Davies stating, while seated in an armchair, "No leaders of a nation have been so misrepresented and misunderstood as those in the Soviet government during those critical years between the two world wars." The film cuts to Walter Huston and begins its narrative. Davies is shown witnessing the famous show trials conducted by Stalin in the 1930s, which are portrayed as trials of fifth columnists working for Germany and Japan.
The voice-overs continue throughout interspersing storyline with Davies' opinions. The film's narrative focuses on the journey of his family. First, their physical journey from the United States to the Soviet Union. And, their less tangible journey from skeptics of communism and the Soviet Union into converts and enthusiasts; the narrative of the movie and the book are identical. While the storylines of both the book and movie are identical, the movie uses cinematic techniques and dialogue changes to overstate or change some controversial points in the book—changes that were made with Davies' approval; the screenplay adaptation of the book was by Howard Koch. Its musical score was by its cinematography by Bert Glennon; the extensive montage sequences, which draw on footage from Soviet archives, were supervised by Don Siegel. The picture was distributed by Warner Bros.. Ambassador Davies introduces the film as himself. Ann Harding plays his wife Marjorie Davies, Gene Lockhart is Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, Henry Daniell his German counterpart Joachim von Ribbentrop, Dudley Field Malone plays Winston Churchill.
Most parts, bar those of Davies' family, are taken by character actors who look like the famous politicians they are representing. The film was the first pro-Soviet Hollywood film of its time and was followed by others, including Samuel Goldwyn's The North Star, MGM's Song of Russia, United Artists' Three Russian Girls, Columbia's The Boy from Stalingrad and Counter-Attack. Roosevelt himself approved the creation of the film meeting with Davies several times during the film's production to discuss its progress; as part of his contract with Warner Bros. Davies could veto any dialogue not to his liking. During production, Office of War Information officials reviewed screenplay revisions and prints of the film and commented on them. By reviewing the scripts and prints, OWI officials exercised authority over Mission to Moscow, ensuring that it promoted the "United Nations" theme. An administration official advised the film's producers to offer explanations for the Nazi-Soviet Pact and the Red Army's invasion of Finland.
After reading the final script, in November 1942 the OWI expressed its hope that Mission to Moscow would "make one of the most remarkable pictures of this war" and "a great contribution to the war information program". The OWI report on Mission to Moscow concluded that it would e a most convincing means of helping Americans to understand their Russian allies; every effort has been made to show that Russians and Americans are not so different after all. The Russians are shown to live comfortably, which will be a surprise to many Americans; the leaders of both countries desire peace and both possess a blunt honesty of address and purpose... One of the best services performed by this picture is the presentation of Russian leaders, not as wild-eyed madmen, but as far-seeing, responsible statesmen, they have proved good neighbors, this picture will help to explain why, as well as to encourage faith in the feasibility of post-war cooperation. Government information specialists were enthusiastic about the completed print.
Judging it "a magnificent contribution" to wartime propaganda, the OWI believed the picture would "do much to bring understanding of Soviet international policy in the past years and dispel the fears which many honest persons have felt with regard to our alliance with Russia". That was particula
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
George Raft was an American film actor and dancer identified with portrayals of gangsters in crime melodramas of the 1930s and 1940s. A stylish leading man in dozens of movies, today Raft is known for his gangster roles in the original Scarface, Each Dawn I Die, Billy Wilder's 1959 comedy Some Like It Hot, as a dancer in Bolero, a truck driver in They Drive by Night. Raft said. "I wanted to be me", he said. George Raft was born in Hell's Kitchen, New York City, to a Catholic family of German descent, the son of Eva, a German immigrant, Conrad Ranft, born in Massachusetts to German immigrant parents, his parents were married on November 1895, in Manhattan. George's elder sister, known as "Katie", was born on April 18, 1896. Most obituaries cited Raft's year of birth as 1895, which the actor had stated was correct when he appeared on The Mike Douglas Show, 7 months prior to his death. However, Raft is recorded in the New York City Birth Index as having been born on September 26, 1901, in Manhattan as "George Rauft".
On the 1910 census, he is listed as being eight years old. A boyhood friend of gangsters Owney Madden and Bugsy Siegel, a "wheel man" for the mob, Raft acknowledged having narrowly avoided a life of crime. Raft worked as an errand boy and a fishwrapper after school, his parents sent him to live at his grandparents' house on 164th Street. He left school at the age of 12, left home aged 13, he worked as an apprentice electrician for a year boxed professionally for two years. As "Dutch Rauft", he had 14 bouts: nine victories, three defeats and two draws. In 1911, he was a minor league baseball player for Springfield of the Eastern League, as a utility outfielder with pitching aspirations. However, his batting was poor and he was dropped. "I was just trying to find something that I liked that would make me a living", said Raft later. "I saw guys fighting, so I fought. I saw guys playing ball, so I played ball. I saw guys dancing... and getting paid for it!" Raft had been taught how to dance by his mother and had danced at outdoor amusement parks and carnivals with his parents.
Following his baseball career, he began working as a taxi dancer in the poorer sections of New York. At first he struggled financially, but he won a Charleston competition and was launched professionally, he started doing exhibition dances in the afternoon at Healy's, Murray's, Rectors and Churchills in New York. He started working in New York City nightclubs in the same venues as Rudolph Valentino before Valentino became a movie actor. Raft toured with his dancing and helped popularise the tango in Paris, Rome and New York, he had a great success as a dancer in London in 1926, the Duke of Windsor was "an ardent fan and supporter." Fred Astaire, in his autobiography Steps in Time, says Raft was a lightning-fast dancer and did "the fastest Charleston I saw." Raft became part of the stage act of flamboyant speakeasy and night club hostess Texas Guinan at the 300 Club. His success led him to Broadway, his stage performances included The City Chap, Gay Paree, Palm Beach Nights and Padlocks of 1927.
He made a semiautobiographical film called Broadway about this period, in which he plays himself. He worked on the Paramount Publix circuit, performing in stage shows that were presented before movies. Owney Madden told him he ought to be in movies, Raft decided to try it after being threatened by the husband of a woman he had been seeing. In 1927, Raft relocated to Hollywood, it took him a while to establish himself, he danced in clubs to pay the bills. In October 1928, he appeared in a stage show presented by Texas Guinan; the Los Angeles Times said Raft "scores a tremendous individual hit."His screen debut was in Queen of the Night Clubs, starring Guinan, who insisted Raft have a small role. The film is lost now. However, he appeared in stage shows supporting the film. One reviewer called him "a clever dancer". Raft followed this with small roles in Gold Diggers of Broadway and Side Street, dancing with some chorus girls, he was spotted by director Rowland Brown, who used him to good effect, including a solo dance sequence in a substantial supporting gangster role as Spencer Tracy's character's sidekick in Quick Millions.
This was followed by Hush Money and the Eddie Cantor musical Palmy Days. In Taxi!, starring James Cagney and Loretta Young, Raft has a colorful unbilled dancing role as Cagney's competitor in a dance contest, who wins only to be knocked down by Cagney. He was third-billed as a gangster in Dancers in the Dark, below Miriam Hopkins as a dancer and Jack Oakie as a bandleader. Raft's big break came when cast as the second lead, alongside Paul Muni as Tony Camonte, in Scarface, directed by Howard Hawks, he plays second-in-command Guino Rinaldo, who falls in love with Camonte's sister and is murdered by him. Raft's performance was notable for his character flipping a coin during scenes, which became an iconic trope in gangster films; the film was shot in September 1931, but not released by United Artists until the following year. It was a landmark hit
Betrayed (1917 film)
For other films of the same title, see Betrayed. Betrayed is a silent drama film directed and written by Raoul Walsh, starring Hobart Bosworth, Miriam Cooper, Monte Blue, released by Fox Film Corporation, it is not known if the film survives, which suggests that it is a lost film. Carmelita Carrito, a young Mexican girl, is an aristocrat at heart despite the coarseness exhibited by her father Carpi. Although she has a lover named Pepo, Carmelita finds herself attracted to the bandit Leopoldo Juares when he takes refuge in her house. After his departure, Carmelita watches wistfully after him falling asleep by the window. A U. S. Army officer, William Jerome, comes searching for Juares, Carmelita, fascinated by the gringo, tells him that Juares is to meet her at the brook. Discovering her duplicity, Juares forces Carmelita to don his coat. Jerome, mistaking Carmelita for the bandit, shoots the girl and is ordered to be executed before a firing squad. Carmelita awakens from her dream and discovers that United States troops, led by Pepo, are converging upon her house to arrest Juares, hiding there.
Pepo wins a large reward as well as Carmelita's affections. Miriam Cooper as Carmelita Carrito James Marcus as Carpi Hobart Bosworth as Leopoldo Juares Monte Blue as Pepo Esparenza Wheeler Oakman as William Jerome Like many American films of the time, Betrayed was subject to cuts by city and state film censorship boards; the Chicago Board of Censors cut an attack on a man and two rioting scenes in store, attack on driver, shooting man off horse, last part of love scene, shooting girl and shooting man. Betrayed on IMDb
Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War. Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied by Amorites since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; this is when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is a part of the Amorite state of Yamhad, is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. For centuries, Aleppo was the largest city in the Syrian region, the Ottoman Empire's third-largest after Constantinople and Cairo; the city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia.
When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. In the 1940s, it lost its main access to the sea, Antakya and İskenderun to Turkey; the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage, it won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks. The Battle of Aleppo occurred in the city during the Syrian Civil War, many parts of the city suffered massive destruction. Affected parts of the city are undergoing reconstruction. Modern-day English-speakers refer to the city as Aleppo, it was known in antiquity as Khalpe, to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea. During the Crusades, again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923–1946, the name Alep was used.
Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this. The original ancient name, has survived as the current Arabic name of the city, it is of obscure origin. However, the term Ḥalab might be derived from related to a folktale of Abraham, who milked his sheep to feed the poor. Others have proposed that Ḥalab means "iron" or "copper" in Amorite languages, since the area served as a major source of these metals in antiquity. Another possibility is that Ḥalab means'white', as this is the word for'white' in Aramaic, the local language which preceded regional Arabization; this may explain how Ḥalab became the Hebrew word for milk or vice versa, as well as offers a possible explanation for the modern-day Arabic nickname of the city, ash-Shahbaa, which means "the white-colored mixed with black" and derives from the famous white marble of Aleppo. Abraham is said to have camped on the acropolis which, long before his time, served as the foundation of a fortress where the Aleppo citadel is standing now, he milked his grey cow there, hence Aleppo's name "Halab Al-Shahba".
From the 11th century it was common rabbinic usage to apply the term "Aram-Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, many Syrian Jews continue to do so. Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists; the site has been occupied from around 5000 BC. Aleppo appears in historical records as an important city much earlier than Damascus; the first record of Aleppo comes from the third millennium BC, in the Ebla tablets when Aleppo was referred to as Ha-lam. Some historians, such as Wayne Horowitz, identify Aleppo with the capital of an independent kingdom related to Ebla, known as Armi, although this identification is contested; the main temple of the storm god Hadad was located on the citadel hill in the center of the city, when the city was known as the city of Hadad. Naram-Sin of Akkad mention his destruction of Ebla and Armani/Armanum, in the 23rd century BC. but the identification of Armani in the inscription of Naram-Sim as Armi in the Eblaite tablets is debated, as there was no Akkadian annexation of Ebla or northern Syria.
In the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Empire period, Aleppo's name appears in its original form as Ḥalab for the first time. Aleppo was the capital of the important Amorite dynasty of Yamḥad; the kingdom of Yamḥad, alternatively known as the'land of Ḥalab,' was one of the most powerful in the Near East during the reign of Yarim-Lim I, who formed an alliance with Hammurabi of Babylonia against Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria. Yamḥad was devastated by the Hittites under Mursilis I in the 16th century BC. However, it soon resumed its leading role in the Levant when the Hittite power in the region waned due to internal strife. Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the region, king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni instigated a rebellion that ended the life of Yamhad last king Ilim-Ilimma I in c. 1525 BC, Parshatatar conquered Aleppo and the city found itself on the frontline in the struggle between the Mitanni, the Hittites and Egypt. Niqmepa of Alalakh who descends from the old Yamhadite kings controlled the city as a vassal to Mitanni and was attacked by Tudhaliya I of the Hittites as a retaliation for his alliance to