Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
The backhand is a tennis shot in which one swings the racquet around one's body with the back of the hand preceding the palm. Except in the phrase backhand volley, the term refers to a groundstroke, it contrasts with the other kind of the forehand. The term is used in other racquet sports, other areas where a similar motion is employed; the backhand is performed from the baseline or as an approach shot. For a right-handed player, a backhand begins with the racquet on the left side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made with the ball, ends on the right side of the body, with the racquet over the right shoulder; the backhand can be a two-handed stroke. Due to the fact that the player's dominant hand "pulls" into the shot, the backhand lacks the power and consistency of the forehand, is considered more difficult to master. However, the two-handed backhand provides more stability and power for the shot, is used in the modern game. Beginner and club-level players have difficulty hitting a backhand, junior players may have trouble making the shot if they are not strong enough to hit it.
Many advanced players still have a better forehand than backhand, many strategies in tennis aim to exploit this weakness. For most of the 20th century, the backhand was hit with one hand using either an eastern or continental grip; the first notable players to use a two-handed backhand were the 1930s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich. Beginning with Mike Belkin, the first two-handed backhand player in the United States and Chris Evert in the 1960s, many players began to use a two-handed grip for the backhand. Pete Sampras and Stefan Edberg notably switched from the two-handed to the one-handed backhand late in their development. Players choose their backhand type based on their hand dominance—if the player is somewhat ambidextrous, the two-handed backhand might be best. Starting from the 1970s, many of the greatest players used the two-handed backhand and it has become more popular on the pro tour. Two-handed backhands have some important advantages over one-handed backhands: The backhands are more accurate because having two hands on the racquet makes the contact more stable.
This makes it somewhat easier to impart topspin on the ball allowing for more control of the shot, while one-handed backhands require finer motor skills to generate topspin and are less consistent in longer rallies. Two-handed backhands can more hit higher balls. Two-handed backhands have a chance to be closer in power and/or accuracy to the forehand even surpassing it, not the case with the one-handed. People with a noticeably weaker one-handed backhand tend to get balls returned to them on that wing, giving them a disadvantage with high kick serves and lefty slice serves. Two-handed backhands can be hit with an open stance, whereas one-handers have to have a closed stance, which adds further steps. Two-handed backhands can change direction more than one-handed backhands, due to having more stability over the shot with two hands, allowing the player to control the shot better and place the ball with more precision. Two-handed backhands are more easy to develop and require less motor skills than a one-handed backhand to perform all the basic shots.
Since the 70s, juniors have been taught two-handed backhands more than the one-handed backhand. However, one-handed backhands have some other important advantages over two-handed backhands: One-handed backhands allow greater reach while on the run. One-handed backhands are able to hit lower balls with more pace and penetration than two-handed backhands, they can generate more power when properly set up, can be penetrating when hit correctly. One-handed backhand players move to the net with greater ease than two-handed players because the shot permits greater forward momentum and has greater similarities in muscle memory to the preferred type of backhand volley; this is why a majority of volleyers employ a one-handed backhand. One-handed backhands should be hit more in front of the body than the forehand, which allows them to be hit with a deeper hit spot. One-handed-backhand players are much less to develop the habit of playing volleys with two hands, better for serve and volley play. One-handed backhands force players to hit high balls with slice, thus causing them to develop much better slice backhands than two-handed players.
One-handed backhands can be put away more than two-handed backhands for finishing shots due to their flatter, more penetrating nature. Both backhands are efficient at what they do; the biggest weakness cited by most coaches in regards to the one hander is the fact that it requires more time and steps to be set up properly - it requires an extra half step in order to execute a proper back-swing and have proper control over the point of contact. This hampers players who use a one handed backhand on fast surfaces as the high speed of most drive shots gives them little time for preparation and setting up their shot. There are however plenty of players who can set up their shots properly with little time for preparation and can hit effective backhands with one hand on fast surfaces (the most notable example is Roger Federer who can hit drives with his backhand on a
Overtime (ice hockey)
Overtime is a method of determining a winner in an ice hockey game when the score is tied after regulation. The main methods of determining a winner in a tied game are the overtime period, the shootout, or a combination of both. If league rules dictate a finite time in which overtime may be played, with no penalty shoot-out to follow, the game's winning team may or may not be determined. Overtime periods are extra periods beyond the third regulation period during a game, where normal hockey rules apply. Although in the past, full-length overtime periods were played, overtimes today are golden goal, meaning that the game ends when a player scores a goal. From November 21, 1942, when overtime was eliminated due to war time restrictions and continuing until the 1983–84 season, all NHL regular-season games tied after 60 minutes of play ended as ties. On June 23, 1983, the NHL introduced a regular-season overtime period of five minutes. If the five-minute overtime period ended with no scoring, the game ended as a tie.
In the first games to go to overtime, on October 5, 1983, the Minnesota North Stars and Los Angeles Kings skated to a 3–3 tie, the Detroit Red Wings and Winnipeg Jets tied 6–6. The first regular-season game decided by overtime was on October 8, 1983, as the New York Islanders beat the Washington Capitals 8–7. In 1987–88 and since 1995, the American Hockey League has awarded teams one point in the standings for an overtime loss. In 1998, the AHL introduced a rule where teams will play the five-minute overtime period with four skaters and a goaltender, rather than at full strength, except in two-man advantage situations. In a two-man advantage situation, the team with the advantage will play with five skaters against three skaters; the rule was popular and adopted by the ECHL the next season. Alex Ovechkin has the record for most NHL overtime goals with 20. In the Stanley Cup playoffs and in all one-game playoffs, overtime periods are played like regulation periods except for the golden goal rule – in an overtime period, the game ends when one team scores a goal.
Three of the game's legendary players, Mark Messier, Mario Lemieux, Gordie Howe never scored a playoff overtime goal. In many leagues and in international competitions, a failure to reach a decision in a single overtime may lead to a shootout; some leagues may eschew overtime periods altogether and end games in shootout should teams be tied at the end of regulation. In the ECHL, the AHL, the Southern Professional Hockey League, regular season overtime periods are played three on three for one five-minute period, with penalties resulting in the opponents skating one additional player on ice for each penalty. Prior to the 2014–15 season, the AHL set the overtime period at seven minutes, but reverted to the now-standard five-minute period the following year; the idea of using 3-on-3 skaters for the entirety of a five-minute overtime period for a regular season game was adopted by the NHL on June 24, 2015, for use in the 2015–16 NHL season. In IIHF play, rules for overtime depend on the stage of the competition.
For a round robin or preliminary round game that goes to overtime, the teams will play a maximum of 5 minutes of 3-on-3 hockey in the "golden goal" format. If no one scores in the five minute overtime, a three-round shootout will decide the winner. In the case of a playoff game or a bronze medal game, the teams will play a maximum of 10 minutes of 4-on-4 hockey in the "golden goal" format. If there is no score in the overtime, a five-round shootout will decide the winner. If the gold medal game of a top category IIHF championship goes to overtime, the teams will play a maximum of 20 minutes of 5-on-5 hockey in the "golden goal" format. If there is no winner after the overtime, a five-round shootout will decide the winner. In all cases, the teams must change ends, defend the same side that they did in the second period. In international competition, are used; each coach selects three skaters from their team to take penalty shots one at a time against the opposing goaltender, with teams alternating shots.
Each team gets one shot per round. The winner is the team with more goals after three rounds or the team that amasses an unreachable advantage before then. If the shootout is tied after three rounds, tie-breaker rounds are played one at a time until there is a winner; the IIHF first adopted the game-winning-shot procedure in 1992 when a new playoff procedure in the Winter Olympics and World Championships required a winner for each game. At that time, the shootout was five rounds and only used for knock-out games. In 2006, it was reduced to three rounds and used for all games, eliminating the possibility of tied games at IIHF events. Tie-breaker rounds are still used as needed, the same or new players can take the tie-break shots, done in reverse order; as of May 2016, all IIHF preliminary round games that are not decided by overtime, are decided by a three-round shootout. However, all playoff, bronze medal games and gold medal games of IIHF top level championships (especiall
Penalty shot (ice hockey)
In ice hockey, a penalty shot is a type of penalty awarded when a team loses a clear scoring opportunity on a breakaway because of a foul committed by an opposing player. A player from the non-offending team is given an attempt to score a goal without opposition from any defending players except the goaltender; this is the same type of shot used in a shootout to decide games in some leagues. A penalty shot is awarded to a player, deemed to have lost a clear scoring chance on a breakaway by way of a penalty infraction by an opposing player. A breakaway, in this case, means that there are no other players between the would-be shooter and the goaltender of the defending team; the penalty shot is awarded in lieu of what would be a minor penalty, so the fouled team will not get both a penalty shot and a power play from a single infraction if they did not score on the former. According to National Hockey League rules, various infractions during a breakaway that can lead to a penalty shot being awarded include a goaltender deliberately dislodging a goal-post, a defending player using a stick or any other part of his body to interfere with the attacking player, a goaltender or other player throwing his stick to distract or hinder the attacking player, or any other foul committed against the attacking player from behind.
In addition to this, a penalty shot is awarded to the opposing team if a non-goalie player intentionally covers the puck in his own team's goal crease. In the Southern Professional Hockey League, since its inception in 2004, a penalty shot is automatically awarded for a minor penalty in the final two minutes of overtime; this rule was changed prior to the 2008–09 season when the SPHL changed their overtime rules, shortening minor penalties in overtime to one minute. Now any infraction occurring in the final minute of overtime will result in a penalty shot; this rule only applies to regular season games. Upon observing any of the above scenarios, an official will signal a penalty shot by raising his crossed arms above his head with his fists clenched, point to centre ice. In the NHL, officials signal a penalty shot by just pointing to centre ice. A player is picked to take the shot; this is the player, fouled on the preceding play. In some cases, the captain of the attacking team may pick a player from those on the ice at the time of the infraction.
Only a goaltender or alternate goaltender may be selected to defend the penalty shot, although the original goaltender stays in the net. According to NHL rules, if an infraction which would attract a penalty shot occurs while the defending team's goaltender is off the ice, a goal shall be awarded. Following the announcement of the penalty shot, the official places the puck at centre ice; the identified shooter is allowed to skate a short distance to the puck in order to gain momentum and unlike penalty kicks in soccer and penalty strokes in field hockey, the player is allowed to skate with the puck before shooting. All players other than the selected shooter and the selected goaltender must move to either side of the ice surface in front of their respective benches. If a penalty shot is awarded and the penalized team had pulled their goaltender in favour of an extra attacker, the player fouled is automatically awarded a penalty shot goal, regardless of whether the puck went in; the goaltender must remain in the crease until the attacking player has gained possession of the puck.
After this point he may move out of the crease to gain a better defending position. If the goaltender exits the crease prior to the attacker touching the puck, the official allows the play to continue, any goal scored stands. If the penalty shot is unsuccessful, the puck is returned to centre ice and the shot is re-taken, thus penalizing the goaltender by giving another penalty shot. During the attempt, the puck must move continuously towards the goal once touched. A goal may not be scored from a rebound off of the goaltender, the goal itself or the end boards. Once the puck crosses the end line, the attempt is considered over, regardless of whether a shot was taken; the goaltender may attempt to stop the shot using any means, except throwing his stick or any other object. Should the goaltender throw any object during the attempt, a goal is automatically awarded. If the penalty shot is successful, the puck is placed at center play resumes as normal. If the shot is unsuccessful, the puck is placed at either of the faceoff positions in the zone where the play occurred, play resumes.
The time necessary to complete the penalty shot is not taken off of the game clock. Strategy is considered to be important during penalty shots and overtime shootouts for both the shooter and the goaltender. Both shooters and goaltenders consult their teammates and coaches for advice on the opposing player's style of play. Shooters consider the goaltender's strengths and weaknesses, preferred goaltending style and method of challenging the shooter. Goaltenders consider the shooter's shot preference, expected angle of attack, a patented move a shooter uses and handedness of the shooter. Most shooters attempt to out-deke the goaltender. Minnesota Wild forward Mikko Koivu, Detroit Red Wings forward Pavel Datsyuk, Washington Capitals forward TJ Oshie and New York Rangers forward Martin St. Louis are examples of players who use this strategy. However, it is not uncommon for a shooter to shoot
Breakaway (ice hockey)
A breakaway is a situation in ice hockey in which a player with the puck has no defending players, except for the goaltender, between themselves and the opposing goal, leaving them free to skate in and shoot at will. A breakaway is considered a lapse on the part of the defending team. If a player's progress is illegally impeded by an opposing player or if the goalie throws their stick at the oncoming player, the breakaway player is awarded a penalty shot. If a player faces an empty net and is illegally impeded by an opposing player, they are automatically awarded a goal for their team instead of taking a penalty shot. One theory about the best way for the goalie to react to a breakaway is called the "Y" theory. In this theory the goalie comes out to somewhere between halfway between the faceoff circle hashes and the crease or up to the hashes. From there the goalie lines up to skates backwards, following the puck. Based on the player's actions, the goalie can drop and take the shot. If the player goes diagonally with the puck, the goalie splits off from going straight back and goes diagonal either way.
The "Y" comes from the going straight back and the diagonal movement. That forms a "Y" representing how a goalie can play that breakaway. Another way the goalie can respond is to follow the blade of the stick. If it is more towards one side or the other, the goalie can anticipate where the shot is going to hit, yet another way is that if the shot is going to be high, the goalie can move up to cut off the angle on the player, go down right before the shot is taken. This way, there is more of a chance. A goalie can go up to the player, dive down sideways, collide with the player, forcing them to chip the puck over the goalie, or deke. Though this strategy for goalies can be risky, it can work, considering that the player's head is down looking at the puck, allowing the goalie to surprise the player; this term is collectively known as the "two-pad stack" or the "Hextall" because Ron Hextall was famous for diving and stacking the pads to take out opposing players' legs. This is not recommended though at youth hockey levels as it can be dangerous.
Until the mid-2010s, a way to avoid a threatening breakaway would be to deliberately move the goalposts to stop play. Most leagues began increasing the severity of the penalty on this tactic after goaltender David Leggio exploited it twice. Goaltender Overtime Penalty shot Andrew; the Complete Hockey Dictionary. Fenn Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55168-309-6
A hockey stick is a piece of sport equipment used by the players in all the forms of hockey to move the ball or puck either to push, hit, flick, launch or stop the ball/puck during play with the objective being to move the ball/puck around the playing area using the stick. Stick is a generic term for the equipment since the different disciplines of hockey require significant differences in both the form and the size of the stick used for it to be effective in the different sports. Field/Ice/Roller hockey all have a visually similar form of stick with a long shaft or handle which can be held with two hands, a curved and flattened end. A modern underwater hockey stick bears little resemblance to any field/ice/roller hockey stick since it massively smaller to enable it to be used in one hand, it has to be produced in one of two colours in order to identify which of the competing teams a player is playing for. Field hockey sticks have an end which varies in shape depending on the player's position.
In general, there are four main variations on the head: The'short' is used by players wishing control over the ball, increase their maneuverability. This specific head is most associated with the mid-field position. The'Midi' is used by players who will be hitting the ball and need to be strong on their'reverse side'; this specific head is most associated with ` up-front' position. The'Maxi' is similar to the'Midi' as it has an increased surface area, useful for hitting. However, its strength allows it to be used much more for stopping the ball; this head is used by'defenders' and'attackers'. The'J Hook' again has a large surface area; however does not have the effectiveness of the'Midi' for striking the ball, it has an increased thickness making it ideal for stopping the ball. This head is most used by'defenders'. Field hockey sticks vary in length and price, ranging from 26" to 38.5". The main brands of sticks include TK, Slazenger, Kookaburra, Dita, Adidas, uber hockey, Brabo, Mazon, Tempest, King Karachi, NedStar, The Indian Maharaja, Wasa, No Fear, BHP, Wasp, Princess, IHSAN, Chryso, Rage and Edge.
The size of the stick, most effective for a specific player is judged by that player's height. A 28" stick would be used by a player under 4' most whereas a 38" stick would be used by players over 5'10". However'defenders' like to have a longer stick than'attackers' as this can be used for a greater reach when stopping a moving ball. The'attackers' prefer a shorter stick. Sticks have traditionally been made from wood, but in recent years, sticks made of more expensive materials such as aluminum, fiberglass, carbon fiber, other composite materials have become common. In addition to weighing less, composite sticks can be manufactured with more consistent flexibility properties than their wooden counterparts, they do not have the natural variations that wooden sticks possess therefore a batch of the same sticks will all perform the same. There are die-hard NHL professionals; some of these sticks have replaceable wood or composite blades, while others are one piece sticks without a replaceable blade.
Composite sticks, despite their greater expense, are now commonplace at nearly all competitive levels of the sport, including youth ice hockey. Some of the top brands of composite sticks include Bauer, Reebok/CCM, Warrior. Many professionals are using composite stick technology rather than wooden sticks; these new sticks are lighter and provide a quicker release of the puck, resulting in a harder, more accurate shot. Although the new materials do enable harder shots, the improved durability and lighter materials can make the transition from wooden to composite stick more difficult for less experienced players. A shortcut used by numerous players is to use a weighted system, such as kwik hands, to adjust to the new sticks. More expensive ice hockey sticks are the lightest sticks on the market. In addition to the increased torque that these composite sticks possess, the sticks do not warp or absorb moisture like their wooden counterparts; when the player is standing on his skates with the stick upright, on the toe, perpendicular to the ice, the top of the shaft should stop just below or above the chin, depending on personal preference.
Defensemen tend to use longer sticks. Ice hockey sticks are used in rinkball. In the event of roller hockey, one-piece sticks are the same as ice hockey sticks, but when graphite shafts are used with replacement blades, it's quite common for the replacement blades to be made of fiberglass with a narrow wood core. Fiberglass shaves down over time on concrete, sport court and blacktop surfaces where traditional wooden ice hockey replacement blades are more to splinter, split and/or crack on those surfaces; the stick for this sport is short compared to that for Field/Ice/Roller hockey, should be coloured either white or black in