A survival kit is a package of basic tools and supplies prepared in advance as an aid to survival in an emergency. Civil and military aircraft and spacecraft are equipped with survival kits. Survival kits, in a variety of sizes, contain supplies and tools to provide a survivor with basic shelter against the elements, help him or her to keep warm, meet basic health and first aid needs, provide food and water, signal to rescuers, assist in finding the way back to help. Supplies in a survival kit contain a knife, tinder, first aid kit, fish hooks, sewing kit, a flashlight. Civilians such as forestry workers, surveyors, or bush pilots, who work in remote locations or in regions with extreme climate conditions may be equipped with survival kits. Disaster supplies are kept on hand by those who live in areas prone to earthquakes or other natural disasters. For the average citizen to practice disaster preparedness, some towns will have survival stores to keep survival supplies in stock; the American Red Cross recommends an emergency preparedness kit, easy to carry and use in the event of an emergency or disaster.
The general contents of an emergency survival kit depend on the location. Basic components in a survival kit address the needs of first aid, water, shelter and signalling. A variety of materials are recommended for emergency shelters, vary between geographic regions. Options included in survival kits may consist of: Reflective "aluminized" space blanket or survival blanket to retain body heat Lightweight poncho for protection against wind and rain "Tube tent" or bivvy bag Tarp with grommets or tie-tapes Large plastic trash bag as poncho, expedient shelter roof, or rain collector Ferrocerium rod and fire striker for fire-starting, Fire piston or Solar Spark Lighter Waterproof matches or lighter Cotton balls or pads smeared with petroleum jelly for fire starting Catalytic heater and bottled gas fuel Emergency sleeping bag great for shelter and warmth First aid kits will include a combination of the following: Bandages such as sterile combine dressing and gauze pads Adhesive tape, gauze tape or disinfectant pads A 30-day supply of personal prescription medication Antibiotic cream/Rubbing alcohol Burn cream Aspirin Sunscreen 100% UV protective sunglasses Surgical suture Most survival kits involve sustenance for short periods of time, to be used and replenished before contents spoil.
Water in sealed containers for dry areas, or water purification tablets or household bleach in areas where water is available but may be contaminated. For emergency water purification see: water purification techniques Canteen full of water, a filter if needed Heavy duty aluminum foil to create a distillation tube to remove salt from salt water during boiling/condensation. Must have another receptacle to collect condensation. Canned food, Meals Ready-to-Eat, high-energy foods such as chocolate or emergency food bars, or dry food items such as dried fruits, nuts or roasted grams Fishing line and gear Snare wire Gillnetting Spear tip Since the primary goal of a survival kit for lost or injured persons is rescue, this part of the kit may be considered the most essential. Key elements for rescue include: Distress radiobeacon Whistle Signal mirror High power LED light, white lens, with signaling capabilities. Strobe versions are available for some lights. Use lithium cells only, due to superior shelf life.
Flare: three fires in a triangle is the international distress signal Laser pointer with lithium batteries, for superior signaling range. Laser pointers have resulted in at least one rescue: during the night in August 2010 two men and a boy were rescued from marshland after their red laser pen was spotted by rescue teams. Surveyor's tape - orange or chartreuse for marking location for rescuers Pen/pencil and paper for leaving notes to rescuers about direction of travel Compass. Analog watch can be used to determine orientation when the sun is visible - See direction finding using a watch Trail maps/charts Survival manual for technique reference Glow stick Survival kit tools emphasize portability and versatility. Tools recommended for many types of survival kit include: Fixed-blade knife, or multitool such as a Swiss Army knife. Can opener such as the P-38 or the P-51 Heavy-duty needle and thread for repairing clothing and equipment Red or orange plastic bag or trash bags Sturdy cord or "550" parachute cord for setting up a tarpaulin and snaring small animals Hatchet with sheath for cold conditions, or machete for tropical conditions Camp stove or some type of gas burner and fuel such as bottled propane or Liquefied petroleum gas Candles for light, fire-starting Metal billycan or "water bottle" for water storage, purification, cooking Compact saw such as Japanese style backsaw with coarse teeth.
Bow saws can cut larger diameter limbs and small to medium thick trees, Folding saws can be small enough to fit into a kit, but big enough to cut small to medium diameter limbs, smaller trees
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail known as the Appalachian Trail or the A. T. is a marked hiking trail in the Eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted; the Appalachian Trail Conservancy describes the Appalachian Trail as the longest hiking-only trail in the world. More than 2 million people are said to take a hike on part of the trail at least once each year; the idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921. The trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue, it is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the nonprofit Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Most of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms, it passes through 14 states: Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine.
Thru-hikers attempt to hike the trail in its entirety in a single season. The number of thru-hikes per year has increased with 715 northbound and 133 southbound thru-hikes reported for 2017. Many books, documentaries and fan organizations are dedicated to the pursuit; some hike from one end to the other turn around and thru-hike the trail the other way, known as a "yo-yo". An extension known as the International Appalachian Trail continues northeast, crossing Maine and cutting through Canada to Newfoundland, with sections continuing in Greenland, through Europe, into Morocco. Other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail; the Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called "An Appalachian Trail, A Project in Regional Planning"—shortly after the death of his wife in 1921.
MacKaye's idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. In 1922, at the suggestion of Major William A. Welch, director of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, his idea was publicized by Raymond H. Torrey with a story in the New York Evening Post under a full-page banner headline reading "A Great Trail from Maine to Georgia!" The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7, 1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, New York, was opened. MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C; this meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference. A retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. In 1929, a member of the Connecticut Forest and Park Association and its Blue Blazed Trails committee, found Ned Anderson, a farmer in Sherman, who took on the task of mapping and blazing the Connecticut leg of the trail.
It ran from Dog Tail Corners in Webatuck, New York, which borders Kent, Connecticut, at Ashley Falls, 50 miles through the northwest corner of the state, up to Bear Mountain at the Massachusetts border. Anderson's efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, Avery was able to bring other states on board. Upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail, he and MacKaye clashed over the ATC's response to a major commercial development along the trail's path. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952. Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATC shifted its focus toward protecting the trail lands and mapping the trail for hikers. Many of the trail's present highlights were not part of the trail in 1937: Roan Mountain, North Carolina and Tennessee. Except for places where the Civilian Conservation Corps was brought in, the original trail climbed straight up and down mountains, creating rough hiking conditions and a treadway prone to severe erosion.
The ATC's trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. In 1936, a 121-day Maine to Georgia veteran's group funded and supported thru-hike was reported to have been completed, with all but three miles of the new trail cleared and blazed, by six Boy Scouts from New York City and their guides; the completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association. In 1938, the trail sustained major damage from a hurricane; this happened right before the start of World War II
Camping is an outdoor activity involving overnight stays away from home in a shelter, such as a tent. Participants leave developed areas to spend time outdoors in more natural ones in pursuit of activities providing them enjoyment. To be regarded as "camping" a minimum of one night is spent outdoors, distinguishing it from day-tripping and other short-term recreational activities. Camping can be enjoyed through all four seasons. Luxury may be an element, as in early 20th century African safaris, but including accommodations in equipped fixed structures such as high-end sporting camps under the banner of "camping" blurs the line. Camping as a recreational activity became popular among elites in the early 20th century. With time, it grew more democratic, varied. Modern campers frequent publicly owned natural resources such as national and state parks, wilderness areas, commercial campgrounds. Camping is a key part of many youth organizations around the world, such as Scouting, which use it to teach both self-reliance and teamwork.
Camping describes a range of approaches to outdoor accommodation. Survivalist campers set off with as little as possible to get by, whereas recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped with their own electricity and patio furniture. Camping may be combined with hiking, as in backpacking, is enjoyed in conjunction with other outdoor activities such as canoeing, climbing and hunting. Fastpacking involves both running and camping. There is no universally held definition of what is not camping. Just as with motels which serve both recreational and business guests, the same campground may serve recreational campers, migrant workers, homeless at the same time. Fundamentally, it reflects the nature of activities involved. A children's summer camp with dining hall meals and bunkhouse accommodations may have "camp" in its name but fails to reflect the spirit and form of "camping" as it is broadly understood. A homeless person's lifestyle may involve many common camping activities, such as sleeping out and preparing meals over a fire, but fails to reflect the elective nature and pursuit of spirit rejuvenation that are integral aspect of camping.
Cultures with itinerant lifestyles or lack of permanent dwellings cannot be said to be "camping", it is just their way of life. The history of recreational camping is traced back to Thomas Hiram Holding, a British travelling tailor, but it was first popularised in the UK on the river Thames. By the 1880s large numbers of visitors took part in the pastime, connected to the late Victorian craze for pleasure boating; the early camping equipment was heavy, so it was convenient to transport it by boat or to use craft that converted into tents. Although Thomas Hiram Holding is seen as the father of modern camping in the UK, he was responsible for popularising a different type of camping in the early twentieth century, he experienced the activity in the wild from his youth, when he had spent much time with his parents traveling across the American prairies. He embarked on a cycling and camping tour with some friends across Ireland, his book on his Ireland experience and Camp in Connemara led to the formation of the first camping group in 1901, the Association of Cycle Campers to become the Camping and Caravanning Club.
He wrote The Campers Handbook in 1908, so that he could share his enthusiasm for the great outdoors with the world. The first commercial camping ground in the world was Cunningham’s camp, near Douglas, Isle of Man, which opened in 1894. In 1906 the Association of Cycle Campers opened its first own camping site, in Weybridge. By that time the organization had several hundred members. In 1910 the Association was merged into the National Camping Club. Although WW1 was responsible for a certain hiatus in camping activity, the association received a new lease of life after the war when Sir Robert Baden-Powell became its president. In the US, camping may be traced to William Henry Harrison Murray 1869 publication of Camp-Life in the Adirondacks resulting in a flood of visitors to the Adirondacks that summer; the International Federation of Camping Clubs was founded in 1932 with national clubs from all over the world affiliating with it. By the 1960s camping had become an established family holiday standard and today camp sites are ubiquitous across Europe and North America.
Different types camping may be named after their form of transportation, such as with Canoe camping, car camping, RVing, backpacking, which can involve ultralight gear. Camping is labeled by lifestyle: Glamping combines camping with the luxury and amenities of a home or hotel, has its roots are in the early 1900s European and American safaris in Africa. Workamping allows campers to trade their labor variously for discounts on campsite fees, campground utilities, some degree of pay. Migrant camps are formed not as a temporary housing arrangement. Campgrounds for custom harvesters in the United States may include room to park combines and other large farm equipment. Another way of describing camping is by the manner of arrangement: reservation camping vs. drop camping. Campgrounds may require campers to check in with an employee or campground host prior to setting up camp, or they may allow "drop camping, where this is not required. Drop-in campsites may be free or a drop-box may be provided to accept payments on the honor system.
Although drop camping is specifically allowed by law, it may exist in a legal grey area, such as at California's Slab City. Social media oriented towa
The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines in Northern England in the historic county of Yorkshire, most of it in the Yorkshire Dales National Park created in 1954. The Dales comprises river valleys and the hills, rising from the Vale of York westwards to the hilltops of the Pennine watershed. In Ribblesdale and Garsdale, the area extends westwards across the watershed, but most of the valleys drain eastwards to the Vale of York, into the Ouse and the Humber; the extensive limestone cave systems are a major area for caving in the UK and numerous walking trails run through the hills and dales. The word dale, like dell, is derived from the Old English word dæl, it has cognates in the Nordic/Germanic words for valley, occurs in valley names across Yorkshire and Northern England. Usage here may have been reinforced by Nordic languages during the time of the Danelaw. Most of the dales are named after their stream; the best-known exception is Wensleydale, named after the small village and former market town of Wensley, rather than the River Ure, although an older name for the dale is Yoredale.
River valleys all over Yorkshire are called "+dale"—but only the more northern valleys are included in the term "The Dales". The Yorkshire Dales are surrounded by the North Pennines and Orton Fells in the north, the Vales of York and Mowbray in the east, the South Pennines in the south, the Lake District and Howgill Fells to the west, they spread to the north from the market and spa towns of Settle, Skipton and Harrogate in North Yorkshire, to the southern boundary in Wharfedale and Airedale. Natural England define the area as most of the Yorkshire Dales National Park with fringes of the Nidderdale AONB, but without the towns listed above apart from Settle; the lower reaches of Airedale and Wharfedale are not included in the area, Calderdale, south of Airedale and in the South Pennines, is not considered part of the Dales though it is a dale, is in Yorkshire, its upper reaches are as scenic and rural as many further north. Additionally, although the National Park includes the Howgill Fells and Orton Fells, they are not considered part of the Dales.
Most of the larger southern dales, Ribblesdale and Airedale, Wharfedale and Nidderdale, run parallel from north to south. The more northerly dales and Swaledale run from west to east. There are many other smaller or lesser known dales such as Arkengarthdale, Clapdale, Kingsdale, Langstrothdale, Raydale and the Washburn Valley whose tributary streams and rivers feed into the larger valleys, Barbondale, Dentdale and Garsdale which feed west to the River Lune; the characteristic scenery of the Dales is green upland pastures separated by dry-stone walls and grazed by sheep and cattle. A survey carried out in 1988, estimated that there were just over 4,971 miles of dry-stone walling in the Yorkshire Dales. Many upland areas consist of heather moorland, used for grouse shooting from 12 August. Much of the rural area is used for agriculture, with residents living in small villages and hamlets or in farmsteads. Miles of dry stone walls and much of the traditional architecture has remained, including some field barns, though many are no longer in active use.
Breeding of sheep and rearing of cattle remains common. To supplement their incomes, many farmers have diversified, with some providing accommodations for tourists. A number of agricultural shows are held each year. Lead mining was common in some areas of the Dales in the 19th century during 1821 to 1861, some industrial remains can still be found, such as the Grassington miners’ cottages. Certain former mining sites are maintained by Historic England; the Grassington Moor Lead Mining Trail, with its many remaining structures, has received funding from a variety of sources. The National Parks Service provides an app for those. In this agricultural area, tourism has become an important contributor to the economy. In 2016, there were 3.8 million visits to the Yorkshire Dales National Park including 0.48 million who stayed at least one night. The parks service estimates that this contributed £252 million to the economy and provided 3,583 full time equivalent jobs; the wider Yorkshire Dales area received 9.7 million visitors who contributed £644 million to the economy.
Visitors are attracted by the hiking trails, including some that lead to beautiful waterfalls and by the picturesque villages. The latter include Kirkby Lonsdale, Appletreewick, Clapham, Long Preston and Malham; the 73 mile-long Settle–Carlisle line railway, operated by Network Rail, runs through the National Park using tunnels and viaducts, including Ribblehead. The top-rated attractions according to travellers using the Trip Advisor site include Aysgarth Falls, Malham Cove and Ribblehead Viaduct; the dales are'U' and'V' shaped valleys, the former enlarged and shaped by glaciers in the most recent Devensian ice age. The underlying rock is Carboniferous Limestone, which results in a large areas of karst topography, in places overlain with shale and sandstone and topped with Millstone Grit, although to the north and west of the Dent Fault the hills are formed from older Silurian and Ordovician rocks; the underlying limestone in parts of the Dales has extensive cave systems, including the 87-kilometre long Three Counties System, making it a major area for caving in the UK.
There are over 2500 known caves. Visitors can try caving
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. A few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory; the study of bacteria is known as a branch of microbiology. There are 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. There are 5×1030 bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Data reported by researchers in October 2012 and published in March 2013 suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, with a depth of up to 11 kilometres, is the deepest known part of the oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 580 metres below the sea floor under 2.6 kilometres of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. According to one of the researchers, "You can find microbes everywhere—they're adaptable to conditions, survive wherever they are."The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. There are 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body.
This means that although they do have the upper hand in actual numbers, it is only by 30%, not 900%. The largest number exist in the gut flora, a large number on the skin; the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, anthrax and bubonic plague; the most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.
Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor; these evolutionary domains are called Archaea. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον, the diminutive of βακτηρία, meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped; the ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species.
However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago. Bacteria were involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves related to the Archaea; this involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alphaproteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still found in all known Eukarya. Some eukaryotes that contained mitochondria engulfed cyanobacteria-like organisms, leading to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants; this is known as primary endosymbiosis. Bacteria display a wide diversity of sizes, called morphologies.
Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is an American national park located in the western Sierra Nevada of Central California, bounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 747,956 acres and sits in four counties: centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its granite cliffs, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, mountains, meadows and biological diversity. 95% of the park is designated wilderness. On average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, most spend the majority of their time in the 7 square miles of Yosemite Valley; the park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864.
John Muir led a successful movement to have Congress establish a larger national park by 1890, one which encompassed the valley and its surrounding mountains and forests, paving the way for the National Park System. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, the park supports a diversity of plants and animals; the park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones: chaparral and oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% are within Yosemite; the park contains suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes.
The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode; the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name "Yosemite" referred to the name of a renegade tribe, driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion; the area had been called "Ahwahnee" by indigenous people. Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, although humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahnechee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee." They are related to the Northern Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, who lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers.
A major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today; the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley, he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya.
Bunnell wrote. The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be violent because of their frequent territorial disputes; the Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers". Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area. Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were captured and their village burned; the chief and some others were allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, moved east to flee law enforcement. Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute, they stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe. After these wars, a number of Native Americans continued to live within the boundaries of Yosemite.
A number of Indians supported the growing tourism industry by worki