Jerrald King Goldsmith was an American composer and conductor most known for his work in film and television scoring. He composed scores for such films as Star Trek: The Motion Picture and four other films within the Star Trek franchise, The Sand Pebbles, Logan's Run, Planet of the Apes, Papillon, The Wind and the Lion, The Omen, The Boys from Brazil, Capricorn One, Outland, The Secret of NIMH, Hoosiers, Total Recall, Basic Instinct, Air Force One, L. A. Confidential, The Mummy, three Rambo films, Explorers, he collaborated with some of film history's most accomplished directors, including Robert Wise, Howard Hawks, Otto Preminger, Joe Dante, Richard Donner, Roman Polanski, Ridley Scott, Michael Winner, Steven Spielberg, Paul Verhoeven, Franklin J. Schaffner, his work for Donner and Scott involved a rejected score for Timeline and a controversially edited score for Alien, where music by Howard Hanson replaced Goldsmith's end titles and Goldsmith's own work on Freud: The Secret Passion was used without his approval in several scenes.
Goldsmith was nominated for six Grammy Awards, five Primetime Emmy Awards, nine Golden Globe Awards, four British Academy Film Awards, eighteen Academy Awards. Goldsmith, was born February 1929, in Los Angeles, California, his family was Romanian Jewish. His parents were Tessa, a school teacher, Morris Goldsmith, a structural engineer, he started playing piano at age six, but only "got serious" by the time. At age thirteen, he studied piano with concert pianist and educator Jakob Gimpel and by the age of sixteen he was studying both theory and counterpoint under Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, who tutored such noteworthy composers and musicians as Henry Mancini, Nelson Riddle, Herman Stein, André Previn, Marty Paich, John Williams. At age sixteen, Goldsmith saw the 1945 film Spellbound in theaters and was inspired by veteran composer Miklós Rózsa's soundtrack to pursue a career in music. Goldsmith enrolled and attended the University of Southern California where he was able to attend courses by Rózsa, but dropped out in favor of a more "practical music program" at the Los Angeles City College.
There he was able to coach singers, work as an assistant choral director, play piano accompaniment, work as an assistant conductor. In 1950, Goldsmith found work at CBS as a clerk typist in the network's music department under director Lud Gluskin. There he began writing scores for such radio shows as CBS Radio Workshop, Frontier Gentleman, Romance. In an interview with Andy Velez from BarnesandNoble.com, Goldsmith stated, "It was about 1950. CBS had a workshop, once a week the employees, whatever their talents, whether they were ushers or typists, would produce a radio show, but you had to be an employee. They needed someone to do music, I knew someone there who said I'd be great for this. I'd just gotten married and needed a job, so they faked a typing test for me. I could do these shows. About six months the music department heard what I did, liked it, gave me a job." He progressed into scoring such live CBS television shows as Climax! and Playhouse 90. He scored multiple episodes of the television series The Twilight Zone.
He remained at CBS until 1960, after which he moved on to Revue Studios and to MGM Studios for producer Norman Felton, whom he had worked for during live television and would compose music for such television shows as Dr. Kildare and The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. His feature film debut occurred, he continued with scores to such films as the 1957 western Face of a Fugitive and the 1959 science fiction film City of Fear. Jerry Goldsmith began the decade composing for such television shows as Dr. Kildare and Thriller as well as the 1960 drama film The Spiral Road. However, he only began receiving widespread name recognition after his intimate score to the 1962 classic western Lonely Are the Brave, his involvement in the picture was the result of a recommendation by veteran composer Alfred Newman, impressed with Goldsmith's score on the television show Thriller and took it upon himself to recommend Goldsmith to the head of Universal Pictures' music department, despite having never met him. That same year, Goldsmith composed the atonal and dissonant score to the 1962 pseudo-biopic Freud that focused on a five-year period of the life of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.
Goldsmith's score went on to garner him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score, though he lost to fellow first-time nominee Maurice Jarre for his music to Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, Goldsmith composed a score to The Stripper, his first collaboration with director Franklin J. Schaffner for whom Goldsmith would score the films Planet of the Apes, Patton and The Boys from Brazil. Following his success with Lonely Are the Brave and Freud, Goldsmith went on to achieve more critical recognition with the theme music to The Man from U. N. C. L. E. and scores to such films as the 1964 western Rio Conchos, the 1964 political thriller Seven Days in May, the 1965 romantic drama A Patch of Blue, the 1965 epic war film In Harm's Way, the 1966 World War I air combat film The Blue Max, the 1966 period naval war epic The Sand Pebbles, the 1967 thriller Warning Shot, the 1967 western Hour of the Gun, the 1968 controversial mystery The Detective. His score for The Blue Max is regarded by many Goldsmith aficionados as one
Night Call Nurses
Night Call Nurses is a 1972 film directed by Jonathan Kaplan. It is the third in Roger Corman's "nurses" cycle of films, starting with The Student Nurses. Three young nurses work in a psych ward at a hospital. Barbara comes under the influence of a charismatic sex therapist and is stalked by a mysterious nurse. Janis has an affair with a truck-driving patient, addicted to drugs. Sandra becomes politicised through an affair with a black militant and helps a prisoner escape from the hospital. Patty Byrne as Barbara Alana Hamilton as Janis Mittie Lawrence as Sandra Clint Kimbrough as Dr. Bramlett Felton Perry as Jude Stack Pierce as Sampson Richard Young as Kyle Toby Martin Ashe as Bathrobe Benny Bob Brogan as George Tris Coffin as Miles Bailey Dennis Dugan as Kit Lynne Guthrie as Cynthia Bobby Hall as Warden Kelley Barbara Keene as Chloe Christopher Law as Zach Dick Miller as driver Corman offered the film to Kaplan on the recommendation of Martin Scorsese, who had made Boxcar Bertha for Corman and had taught Kaplan at New York University.
Kaplan's student film Stanley had just won a prize at the National Student Film Festival and he was working as an editor in New York. Corman allowed Kaplan to rewrite the script and edit the film. Kaplan says the only lead member of the cast selected when he came on board was then-model Alana Hamilton. Kaplan: I'd never seen a Nurses movie, he laid out the formula. I had to find a role for Dick Miller, show a Bulova watch, use a Jensen automobile in the film, and he explained that there would be three nurses: a blonde, a brunette, a nurse of colour. The last thing he said was "There will be nudity from the waist up, total nudity from behind, no pubic hair - now get to work!" Kaplan brought out Danny Opatoshu from New York to help him work on the script. The film was a big hit, launching Kaplan's directing career. Kaplan recalled "There's some stuff in Night Call Nurses that's so stupid and so dumb, I just get a warm feeling thinking about it. It's so silly and sweet and naive and awful." List of American films of 1972 Night Call Nurses on IMDb
Over the Edge (film)
Over the Edge is an American coming-of-age crime drama film directed by Jonathan Kaplan and released in May 1979. The film, based on actual events, had a limited theatrical release but has since achieved cult film status, it was Matt Dillon's film debut. A group of teenagers are living in an isolated planned community called New Granada, east of Denver, Colorado, their needs were not considered by those who designed the community, so there is nothing for them to do but go to school and hang out at the local recreation center, which closes at six o‘clock. The kids turn to drugs and petty crime as a way to kill their boredom, but their outcry falls on deaf ears; the adults are too concerned with pursuing wealth and stomping out the senseless behavior to understand the reasons why the adolescents are misbehaving. After one of the kids is shot and killed by a police officer, the youths violently rebel against their parents and the authorities, an uprising that results in fiery mayhem in and around the junior high school.
The film was inspired by events described in a 1973 San Francisco Examiner article entitled "Mousepacks: Kids on a Crime Spree" by Bruce Koon and James A. Finefrock; the article reported on young kids vandalizing property in California. The middle class planned. Screenwriters Charles S. Haas and Tim Hunter began work shortly after the article's publication, including field research in the town itself where they interviewed some of the kids. Hunter said that the script reflected the article with the exception of a more violent ending. Orion Pictures helped finance the film. Director Jonathan Kaplan, just 30 when hired, took a documentary approach to filming, using unknown actors. Among them was Matt Dillon age 14, who the filmmakers discovered in a middle school in Westchester County, New York; this was Dillon's feature film debut. Shooting took place over 20 days in 1978 in two cities in Colorado. Due to the negative publicity surrounding a wave of recent youth gang films such as The Warriors and Boulevard Nights, Over the Edge had a limited theatrical release in 1979.
But the film has since gained cult film status. In late 1981, it was shown at "Film at Joseph Papp's Public Theater" as part of a program called "Word of Mouth", devoted to films, overlooked because of poor marketing or distribution; this screening led to it being listed on critical top-10 lists and was favorably reviewed by Vincent Canby at The New York Times. The film re-emerged in the 1980s with showings on cable, including HBO. Director Richard Linklater said the film influenced his film Confused. Over the Edge was an inspiration for the music videos for the songs "Smells Like Teen Spirit" by Nirvana and "Evil Eye" by Fu Manchu. Side one "Surrender" – Cheap Trick "My Best Friend's Girl" – The Cars "You Really Got Me" – Van Halen "Speak Now or Forever Hold Your Peace" – Cheap Trick "Come On" – Jimi HendrixSide two "Just What I Needed" – The Cars "Hello There" – Cheap Trick "Teenage Lobotomy" – Ramones "Downed" – Cheap Trick "All That You Dream" – Little Feat "Ooh Child" – Valerie Carter Over the Edge received critical acclaim from critics.
Vincent Canby of The New York Times gave the movie a positive review, stating, "It's to Mr. Kaplan's credit that he makes New Granada look just as boring and alienated to us as it does to the unfortunate children who live there." Over the Edge has since become a cult classic, in part for the acting debut of Matt Dillon, who would become a successful actor in the following years, starting in teen movies such as Tex, The Outsiders. Over the Edge on IMDb Over the Edge at AllMovie Over the Edge at Rotten Tomatoes An interview with co-writer Tim Hunter
Salvatore "Robert" Loggia was an American actor and director. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Jagged Edge and won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor for Big. In a career spanning over sixty years, Loggia performed in many films including The Greatest Story Ever Told, Revenge of the Pink Panther, An Officer and a Gentleman, Prizzi's Honor, Oliver & Company, Innocent Blood, Independence Day, Lost Highway, Return to Me, Tim and Eric's Billion Dollar Movie, he appeared on television series including the Walt Disney limited series, The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca, Mancuso, FBI, Malcolm in the Middle, The Sopranos, Men of a Certain Age, was the star of the 1966-67 NBC martial arts / action series, T. H. E. Cat. Salvatore Loggia, an Italian American, was born in Staten Island, New York on January 3, 1930, to Biagio Loggia, a shoemaker born in Palma di Montechiaro, Province of Agrigento and Elena Blandino, a homemaker born in Vittoria, Province of Ragusa, Sicily.
He grew up in the Little Italy neighborhood. He attended New Dorp High School before going to Wagner College, he started courses towards a degree in journalism at the University of Missouri, but still switched to drama courses with Alvina Krause at Northwestern University. After serving in the United States Army, he married Marjorie Sloan in 1954 and began a long career at the Actors Studio, studying under Stella Adler. At age 25, he made his debut on Broadway in The Man With the Golden Arm in 1955. Although Loggia made his first film in 1956, in an uncredited appearance, it was not until he was cast as a New Mexico lawman Elfego Baca, two years that he made a breakthrough in Hollywood. Loggia was a radio and TV anchor on the Southern Command Network in the Panama Canal Zone, he came to prominence playing a real-life sheriff in The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca, a series of Walt Disney TV shows, he starred as the proverbial cat-burglar-turned-good circus artist Thomas Hewitt Edward Cat in a short-lived detective series called T.
H. E. Cat, first broadcast in 1966. At first, T. H. E. Cat appeared to be a success, Loggia said: "We're drawing about a 30 per cent share of the audience, which NBC considers fine for a new show with a new star." After NBC cancelled the series when viewing figures failed to deliver, Loggia went into a mid-life crisis—a "Dante-esque descent into the inferno", as he called it later. For six years his career foundered, his marriage fell apart. Restless and unnerved riddled with self-doubt, a chance meeting with Audrey O'Brien was his saving grace, she helped him out of the crisis, they married. Despite playing Frank Carver on the CBS soap opera The Secret Storm in 1972, he took a new course when he decided to begin a career in directing, he carried on acting and amassed many television credits in a variety of roles, including appearances on Overland Trail, Target: The Corruptors!, The Untouchables, The Eleventh Hour, Breaking Point, Combat!, Columbo, Ellery Queen, The High Chaparral, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, The Big Valley, The Wild Wild West, Little House on the Prairie,"The Rockford Files", Starsky & Hutch, Charlie's Angels, Magnum, P.
I. Quincy, M. E. Kojak, Hawaii Five-0, The Bionic Woman, Falcon Crest, The Sopranos and Oliver Stone's miniseries Wild Palms; the director Blake Edwards cast Loggia in his films in minor or supporting roles. These included Revenge of the Pink Panther. O. B., a satire about Hollywood. Loggia acted in several acclaimed films such as An Officer and a Gentleman, Prizzi's Honor, Independence Day. Other films starring Loggia include Over The Top, Necessary Roughness, Return to Me. Loggia was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of crusty private detective Sam Ransom in the crime thriller Jagged Edge, he was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, his first such honor, for portraying FBI agent Nick Mancuso in the TV series Mancuso, FBI, a follow-up to the previous year's miniseries Favorite Son. Loggia appeared as a mobster in multiple films, including Bill Sykes, the immoral loanshark and shipyard agent in Disney's animated film Oliver & Company, Salvatore "The Shark" Macelli in John Landis' Innocent Blood, Mr. Eddy in David Lynch's Lost Highway, Don Vito Leoni in David Jablin's The Don's Analyst.
Additionally, he played violent mobster Feech La Manna in several episodes of The Sopranos. In 1998, Loggia appeared in a television commercial lampooning obscure celebrity endorsements. In it, a young boy names Loggia as someone he would trust to recommend Minute Maid orange-tangerine blend. Loggia appears and endorses the drink, to which the boy exclaims, "Whoa, Robert Loggia!" The commercial was referenced in a Malcolm in the Middle episode in which Loggia made a guest appearance as "Grandpa Victor". In addition to voicing Sykes in Disney's Oliver & Company, Loggia had several other voice acting roles, in multiple media, including: Admiral Petrarch in the computer game FreeSpace 2, the narrator of the Scarface: The World is Yours game adaptation and the anime movie The Dog of Fla
Truck Turner known as Black Bullet, is a 1974 blaxploitation film, starring Isaac Hayes and Yaphet Kotto, directed by Jonathan Kaplan. The screenplay was written by Michael Allin, Jerry Wilkes, Oscar Williams. Hayes scored the music for the soundtrack; the film was released by American International Pictures as a double feature with Foxy Brown. Mack "Truck" Turner is a former professional football player who becomes a Los Angeles-based bounty hunter after an injury. Truck visits his girlfriend, in jail and wants to leave LA when released. Truck and his partner Jerry Barnes go to collect their bounty from Nate Dinwiddie, a bail bondsman, who refers them to Fogarty, a bail bondsman after a pimp who skipped bail named Gator; the two visit Dorinda. Truck and Jerry wait for Gator to visit, chase him, but Gator escapes. A tip from Truck's friend Duke allows them to locate Gator again, kill Gator when he attempts to shoot Truck. Dorinda threatens Gator's former whores to keep them in line. Dorinda offers Gator's competing pimps a deal: whoever kills Truck gets to replace Gator while she runs the stable.
The only pimp interested in the violence is Harvard Blue. Truck survives several ambushes by Blue's goons; when Blue points out that Dorinda will not be able to deal with Truck, they agree to share the cost of getting rid of Truck, Blue will take over more control of Gator's stable. Blue's men force Nate to tell him that there is a big job. Truck does not feel sober enough after a night of partying, so he calls Jerry, who dies in Blue's ambush. Nate warns Truck of the hit out on him. Truck frames Annie for shoplifting, the police arrest her. Truck visits Nate again in the hospital. Truck gives Nate Jerry's gun for protection, they shoot Blue's goons when they burst in. Blue flees. Blue dies a few minutes in the driver's seat of his car. Truck confronts Dorinda and more goons at her house, kills her when she reaches for a gun. Truck makes up with Annie. All of his belongings are packed in the car, he promises he will go away with her, right away, if she takes him back, they drive off together. Isaac Hayes — Mack Truck Turner Yaphet Kotto — Harvard Blue Alan Weeks — Jerry Barnes Annazette Chase — Annie Nichelle Nichols — Dorinda Sam Laws — Nate Dimwiddie Paul Harris — Richard Leroy "Gator" Johnson Charles Cyphers — Drunk John Kramer — Desmond Scatman Crothers — Duke Dick Miller — Fogarty Bob Harris — Snow Jac Emil — Reno Edna Richardson — Frenchie Stan Shaw — Fontana Wendell Tucker — Wendell Earl Maynard — Panama Tara Strohmeier — Turnpike Henry Kingi - Candy Man The film started as a script by Leigh Chapman about a caucasian bounty hunter.
It was bought by Fred Weintraub, in partnership with Larry Gordon. Chapman recalled, "I remember going into the office and, with my usual insouciance? Arrogance? announced that, in that case, I wasn’t going to do any freebie re-writes. The response? That’s OK, he doesn’t want you on the project anyway.... And it became a blaxloitation film … about pimps and whores, right? I don’t think any of, in my script and I’m not sure why I received a story credit. I used Jerry Wilkes [as a pseudonym. That’s part of my ex-husband’s name." Kaplan says the film was written for Robert Mitchum, or Ernest Borgnine. "Larry Gordon at AIP said, "Well, we can't get any of them so now it's a black picture." Isaac Hayes was cast and that's how that came about." In 2001 it was released on DVD. In 2010, it was digitized in High Definition and broadcast on MGM HD. On July 7, 2015, Truck Turner was released on Blu-ray. In 2004, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Queen Latifah's production company, Flavor Unit Entertainment, attempted to remake the film, to have been written by Chris Frisina.
The soundtrack for Truck Turner was composed by Isaac Hayes. Although many regard it as Shaft's equal in composition, the soundtrack never managed to reach the mass popularity of the Shaft soundtrack due to the financial decline of Stax Records and was released on a double record album on vinyl which are found in the "bargain bins". However, in 1993, it was released in a double-CD album alongside Hayes' other lesser-known soundtrack for the movie Three Tough Guys and again released on its own CD in 2002; some of the music score was used by filmmaker Quentin Tarantino in the Kill Bill series. Track listing: "Main Title" "House Of Beauty" "Blue's Crib" "Driving In The Sun" "Breakthrough" "Now We're One" "The Duke" "Dorinda's Party" "Pursuit Of The Pimpmobile" "We Need Each Other Girl" "A House Full Of Girls" "Hospital Shootout" "You're In My Arms Again" "Give It To Me" "Drinking" "The Insurance Company" "End Theme" List of American films of 1974 List of blaxploitation films Truck Turner on IMDb Truck Turner at AllMovie Truck Turner at Rotten Tomatoes
A prison escape is the act of an inmate leaving prison through unofficial or illegal ways. When this occurs, an effort is made on the part of authorities to recapture them and return them to their original detainers. Escaping from prison is a criminal offense in some countries, such as the United States and Russia, it is likely to result in time being added to the inmate's sentence, as well as the inmate being placed under increased security. Aggravating factors include. Many prisons use security features such as motion sensors, CCTV, barred windows, high walls, barbed wire and electric fencing to prevent escapes. Numerous methods have been used to escape prison over time. Many escapes have been conducted by inmates who have invented their own methods. Weaknesses that are found as prisoners escape are corrected at numerous prisons around the world to prevent future escapes in a similar manner; this leads inmates to finding new ways. Since prisoners have a lot of time in which they are doing nothing, this gives them plenty of time to think, allowing them to devise plans and figure out ways to escape.
The following are methods that have been used by prisoners in escapes. In some instances, a combination of these are used. While some prisoners are allowed out of their cells at times, others remain locked in their cells most of the time those in solitary confinement. Many prisoners who are kept in their cells must find ways out of the cells; those who are allowed out of their cells at times still have plans that involve escape from their cells. Cell escapes occur through either the door, the window, the light, the ventilation system, by breaking down the walls, or by tunneling underground; some prisoners have escaped by picking the locks on their cells, creating keys to their cells, sawing bars off of the doors or windows, carving away the walls, or breaking away the vent. Breaking down or slipping through the physical containment of the prison, including that of the cell itself or the surrounding complex. Methods include destruction of the cell or compound walls, squeezing through tight spaces, or entering off-limits areas.
Prisoners destroy their containment with homemade tools, smuggled objects, or other contraband. Most prisons are contained on the outside by one or more fences topped with barbed wire or razor wire. Escapees manage to scale these fences or cut holes in the fences, damaging them; these fences are watched by one or more guards from a tower, but escapees manage to pass the fence when the guard is turned away, unable to see in the dark, or sleeping on the job. Outside the fences is a perimeter patrol conducted by an officer in a vehicle, which stands as the final line of defense. Escapees manage to evade this by studying the length of time between passes or waiting until it is on the other side or using the cover of darkness. A rare method, used at times involves the digging of a tunnel under the facility that exits outside the facility. Attacking guards with blunt force, homemade weapons, smuggled weapons, or weapons stolen from overtaken guards; some escapes involve one or more inmates taking over an entire unit or section of the prison, subduing guards, stealing weapons or other objects they can use to their advantage.
Deception may involve fooling one or more guards into believing the prisoner is authorized to depart prison grounds for a legitimate reason, or the prisoner disguising himself or herself as a worker or civilian who can exit prison grounds without arousing suspicion, or the creation of a ruse to mislead guards. In some escapes, inmates construct makeshift dummies to make guards believe they are in their cells in bed, when they are not; this enables the inmate to gain a head start from the prison before guards discover they are missing. Such dummies are constructed quite crudely using the inmate's or another's hair and miscellaneous materials for stuffing, hidden under a blanket to give the appearance a body is present. Finding holes in the security of the facility, taking advantage of them; this may include the discovery of overlooked security issues, or taking advantage of guards who are not following policies or procedures, or are otherwise not doing their jobs properly. Taking advantage of intentional wrongdoing on part of prison staff.
This may include the use of weapons or other contraband smuggled in by staff, or receiving assistance from staff who believe in that inmate's freedom and willingly assist. Some lower security inmates are permitted to leave prison grounds temporarily on the honor they will return; these include those who depart for employment outside the facility or furloughs that allow time outside for periods of time. Breaking while in custody outside facility grounds. Prisoners are transported for work duties, to be moved between facilities, attend court hearings, for hospitalization and medical appointments, other reasons. Receiving aid from an accomplice outside prison walls, including those who provide a ride to the inmate following their penetration, smuggle in contraband as visitors, use helicopters, among other methods; when a banned item is smuggled, it can either be slipped through or tossed over the fence from outside, hidden in a gift to the inmate, legal, or slipped past corrupt security officers.
In some cases, the staff are the source of the smuggling themselves. Escaping from an island prison brings another challenge of crossing the water to free land; this can be done by construction of a makeshift raft or receiving outside help from the owner of a boat. In the famed 1962 Alcatraz escape, a makeshift raft from rainc
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the