A homburg is a hat of stiff wool felt, characterized by a single dent running down the center of the crown, a wide silk grosgrain hatband ribbon, a flat brim shaped in a "pencil curl", a ribbon-bound trim about the edge of the brim. It is in dark colours, although variations are common; the original homburg was of more generous proportions than seen in 21st-century versions. Although the homburg is considered a formal hat, it is not an equivalent alternative to the top hat for formal attire; the Homburg is worn with clothing appropriate for semi-formal occasions, as well as informal attire. The name originates from Bad Homburg in Hesse, from where it originates and was popularised in the late 19th century by King Edward VII; the Homburg was popularised in the 1890s by Edward VII after he visited Bad Homburg in Hesse and brought back a hat of this style. He was flattered when his hat style was mimicked, at times he insisted on being copied. Anthony Eden made the dark homburg so fashionable in the 1930s that it became known as "the Eden" on Savile Row.
At his 1953 inauguration, Dwight D. Eisenhower broke with tradition by wearing a black homburg instead of a top hat, he wore a homburg at his second inauguration, a hat that took three months to craft and was dubbed the "International Homburg" by hatters, since batters in ten countries participated in its manufacture. Like other formal Western male headgear, the homburg ceased to be as common in the 21st century as it once was. Al Pacino gained some renewed fame for the homburg by wearing one in the film The Godfather, for which reason the hat is sometimes called a "Godfather"; some Orthodox Jewish rabbis wear black homburgs, though this practice is in decline. The homburg was always considered to be more distinguished than the fedora. Anthony Eden hat Boss of the Plains Bowler hat Fedora Stetson Tyrolean hat Shovel hat List of headgear Cap <ref name=CBS>"Eisenhower Second Inaugural Speech". "Felt dress hats" at Hat History "Homburg Hat – Past and Future" at Gentleman's Gazette
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve
The Taunus is a mountain range in Hesse, Germany located north of Frankfurt. The tallest peak in the range is Großer Feldberg at 878 m; the Taunus range spans the districts of Hochtaunuskreis, Main-Taunus, Rheingau-Taunus, Limburg-Weilburg, Rhein-Lahn. The range is known for its geothermal springs and mineral waters that attracted members of the European aristocracy to its spa towns; the car line. It is a low range, with smooth, rounded mountains covered with forest; the Taunus is bounded by the valleys of the Rhine and Lahn rivers and it is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains. On the opposite side of the Rhine, The Taunus range is continued by the Hunsrück. For geographical and geological purposes the Taunus is divided in three parts: Anterior Taunus in the south, next to the cities of Frankfurt am Main and Wiesbaden; this section is made up of old sedimentary rocks with phyllite and muscovite. The rocks are given a greenish hue by the presence of epidote and chlorites. High Taunus; the central region of the range where the highest peaks are found.
Its geological composition includes slates and sandstones. Farther Taunus at its northern end is the biggest part by area; the geological materials that compose it include greywacke and siltstones. The Taunus range originated during the Devonian period; the geological composition of the mountains was formed in a region covered by an ancient sea, a few hundred kilometers wide and are made up of phyllite, gneiss and sandstone. Großer Feldberg, Hochtaunuskreis. Being the highest point in the range, it provides the scenario for the Feldbergrennen hillclimbing and rallying contests, it should not be confused with the Feldberg in Hochtaunuskreis. It has an observatory on the summit. Altkönig, Hochtaunuskreis, it has the remains of a late Iron Age hill fort near the summit. Weilsberg, Hochtaunuskreis Glaskopf, Hochtaunuskreis Pferdskopf, Hochtaunuskreis Kolbenberg, Hochtaunuskreis Klingenkopf, Hochtaunuskreis Sängelberg, Hochtaunuskreis Pferdskopf, Hochtaunuskreis Weißeberg, Hochtaunuskreis Fauleberg, Hochtaunuskreis Großer Eichwald, Hochtaunuskreis Roßkopf, Hochtaunuskreis Kalte Herberge, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Hohe Wurzel, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Hohe Kanzel, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Hallgarter Zange, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Erbacher Kopf, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Steinkopf, Hochtaunuskreis Kuhbett, Kreis Limburg-Weilburg at Weilrod-Hasselbach Steinkopf, Wetteraukreis The Roman Limes was built across the Taunus.
The Saalburg, a restored Roman castellum, now houses a museum. After the fall of the Limes, the Alamanni settled in the range and for this reason there are some Alemannic cemeteries in the southern foothills of the Taunus; this area of the Taunus became part of the Frankish confederation of Germanic tribes after the Battle of Tolbiac around 500 AD. In past centuries the Taunus became famous among aristocrats for its therapeutic hot springs. Certain towns in the area, such as Bad Homburg vor der Höhe with its Kurpark, have geothermal spas that were renowned. Other spa towns in the Taunus range are Bad Schwalbach mentioned in documents dating back to the 16th century, Bad Ems, one of the most reputed therapeutic spas in Germany since the 17th century, as well as Bad Weilbach, where a spring reached wide fame for some time. By the 19th century the most famous spa towns in the area were Wiesbaden, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Bad Nauheim, Bad Soden am Taunus. Media related to Taunus at Wikimedia CommonsThere is literature about Taunus in the Hessian Bibliography Umweltatlas Hessen: → Natur und Landschaft → Die Naturräume Hessens bzw.
Naturräumliche Gliederung – Naturraum-Haupteinheit 30, auf atlas.umwelt.hessen.de Fremdenverkehrsinformationen, Taunus Tourist Service at taunus.info Webcams at taunus.info Taunus Nature Park at naturpark-taunus.de Feldberg Roman Fort circular path, at feldbergkastell.de Summits in the Taunus by isolation and prominence, at thehighrisepages.de Wehrheim, das Tor zur Bronzezeit im Usinger Land, Infos zu archäologischen Funden in Wehrheim, auf geschichtsverein-usingen.de Das Vortaunusmuseum at vortaunusmuseum.de map and aerial photo of the Taunus with boundaries and all important summits, at geographie.giersbeck.de#Taunus Placemarks
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble; this is distinct from a palace, not fortified. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits, were commonplace. European-style castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes; these nobles built castles to control the area surrounding them and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures. Although their military origins are emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration and symbols of power.
Urban castles were used to control the local populace and important travel routes, rural castles were situated near features that were integral to life in the community, such as mills, fertile land, or a water source. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced by stone. Early castles exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits and relying on a central keep. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged; this led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castle's firepower; these changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts. Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power.
Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. Although gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 14th century, it did not affect castle building until the 15th century, when artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. While castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live; as a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of mock castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military purpose; the word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, a number of words in other languages derive from castellum.
The word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a private fortified residence"; this contrasts with earlier fortifications, such as Anglo-Saxon burhs and walled cities such as Constantinople and Antioch in the Middle East. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for military service and the expectation of loyalty, the lord would grant the vassal land. In the late 20th century, there was a trend to refine the definition of a castle by including the criterion of feudal ownership, thus tying castles to the medieval period. During the First Crusade, the Frankish armies encountered walled settlements and forts that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which would not be considered as such under the modern definition. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military and domestic.
As well as defensive structures, castles were offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. Castles were established by Norman invaders of England for both defensive purposes and to pacify the country's inhabitants; as William the Conqueror advanced through England, he fortified key positions to secure the land he had taken. Between 1066 and 1087, he established 36 castles such as Warwick Castle, which he used to guard against rebellion in the English Midlands. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, castles tended to lose their military significance due to the advent of powerful cannons and permanent artillery fortifications. A castle could act as a stronghold and prison but was a place where a knight or lord could entertain his peers. Over time the aesthetics of the design became more important, as the castle's appearance and size began to refle
The Homburg Railway is an 18 km line from Frankfurt am Main to Bad Homburg in the German state of Hesse. It was opened in 1860 as one of the first railway lines in Germany, it is now part of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn line S5 to Friedrichsdorf. Early on, there was support in Homburg for an efficient transport connection from Frankfurt in order to increase patronage to its spa and casino. In 1850 a horse-drawn omnibus provided an hourly service from Frankfurt to Homburg, but this soon was not enough to meet the needs of travellers. Projects to build railways failed in 1836, 1845, 1851 and 1856, caused by funding problems and the number of small states that the line would have to run through: the line as built was only 18 km long but it ran across the territories of four independent countries: the Free City of Frankfurt, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau and the Landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg. Nassau had concerns; the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel's opposition forced the line to avoid Bockenheim, in Hesse-Kassel territory on the Main-Weser Railway, just outside Frankfurt.
The locals called the line with some exaggeration the "six nation railway". When, after tough negotiations, at the end of June 1859 an acceptable route was found and the Homburg casino agreed to finance it, all countries concerned granted a concession to the British railway entrepreneur, Sir Samuel Morton Peto and the Homburg Railway Company was founded. Construction under the direction of the famous railway engineer Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg was carried out quickly and on 10 September 1860 the first passenger trains ran, the first goods train on 6 October 1860. In Frankfurt it connected with the Main-Weser station on the Gallusanlage, ran along the Taunus Railway to the old vineyards west of Frankfurt, where it branched off to Rödelheim, it went ran via Weisskirchen and Oberursel to Homburg, where it ended at a terminal station in Louisenstraße. At its opening it had 28 first to third class carriages and luggage and freight wagons and four locomotives with a 1B wheel arrangement, supplied by Henschel with works numbers 46 to 49.
In 1870, a similar locomotive was procured from Henschel with the works number 290. The number of carriages had been increased to 36. Eight pairs of trains ran daily; the Prussian annexations after the War of 1866 simplified the situation for the railway. The whole route now ran except for one small piece at Weißkirchen station; the closing of the casino by the Prussian state in 1872 led to a significant fall in passenger numbers. In 1873 and 1874 the Kronberg Railway was built by a private railway company: it branched off after Rödelheim to Kronberg. On 1 January 1880 the railway was sold to Prussia because the company could not afford and did not want the changes to the line required for connection to the planned new Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, it thus became part of the Prussian state railways. The line was diverted to connect at Bockenheim station, which had to be avoided in 1860, on the nationalised Main-Weser Railway; the diversion, opened on 10 May 1884, shortened the line to 15.6 km from Frankfurt West.
The old line through the vineyards was removed. In 1895, the Usingen line from Homburg via Friedrichsdorf to Usingen was opened and some years extended to Weilburg and Wetzlar on the Lahn Valley Railway. In Homburg a second terminal station was built in Louisenstraße, 200 to 300 metres from the first station, on the site of the current town hall. A link line between the two stations enabled shunting. Planning of a line to Friedberg began in 1868, although construction did not start until 1898 and the line was commissioned on 15 July 1901, it branched off the line to Usingen in Friedrichsdorf. In 1907, the old Homburg stations were replaced with the current station, creating a through line to Friedrichsdorf. In 1912, Homburg was renamed Bad Homburg. Between 1907 and 1912 the entire route from Frankfurt to Friedrichsdorf and Friedberg was duplicated. On 1 September 1905, a link was opened at the request of Emperor Wilhelm II through the Frankfurt vineyards only for freight and special trains, it branched off the Homburg line south of Rödelheim towards Höchst and was used from 1908 by passenger trains on the Bad Nauheim–Wiesbaden line between the spa towns of Wiesbaden, Bad Homburg and Bad Nauheim.
A link between this line and Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof was opened on 15 March 1927 and is still used by trains connecting to the Taunusbahn to the north of Bad Homburg. The curve from Homburg to Höchst was demolished in 1963 during motorway construction. After repairs to war damage the line recovered its importance for handling commuter traffic to Frankfurt. On 23 May 1954 a regular interval half-hourly timetable was introduced hauled by class 78 steam locomotives and class V 80 and V 100 diesel locomotives; the extension to Friedberg was downgraded to a single-track branch line due to war damage and a loss of profitability. Following the completion of electrification on 26 September 1970 services were operated by trains hauled by class 141 electric locomotives. From 25 September 1977 S-Bahn services were operated by electric multiple units of class 420 terminating in Friedrichsdorf. Since 2003 the newer class 423; the Homburg line is now used by S-Bahn S5 services between Frankfurt South and Friedrichsdorf, Hessische Landesbahn RB 15 services on the Taunusbahn between Frankfurt and Friedrichsdorf and Brandoberndorf.
S-Bahn line S3 and