Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Loch Kishorn is a sea loch in the north-west Highlands of Scotland. Kishorn is a collective name used to refer to a group of populated settlements located next to the loch. Loch Kishorn is a northern branch of Loch Carron about 1.5 kilometres wide and 4 kilometres long, with a maximum recorded depth of around 92 metres. It is fed by the river Abhainn Cumhag a' Ghlinne and the River Kishorn which flows from the north and enters through a small estuary. To the north and west of the loch is the Applecross peninsula; the mouth of the loch is marked by the Garra Islands, the largest of, Kishorn Island. There are several small settlements located in the vicinity of the loch: Sanachan, Courthill, Achintraid and Rhunasoul, it is common to refer to these populated settlements collectively as Kishorn. Sanachan is a little inland at the head of the loch, it contains a small gift shop, "Patterns of Light", the award-winning "Kishorn Seafood Bar" and the "Kishorn Selfie Box", a new lease of life for the red telephone box.
A Scottish Episcopal chapel is located at Courthill between Tornapress. The A896 road passes through Sanachan, a minor road leads off to the other settlements. Ardarroch is on the lochside, next to a small shingly beach; the next settlement, Achintraid, is further up the loch. It consists of a line of whitewashed cottages built to house crofters evicted in the Highland Clearances. Rhunasoul is the final populated settlement at the end of the minor road. Achintraid and Rhunasoul are noted for the extensive views of the Applecross peninsula, with the Corbetts of Sgurr a' Chaorachain and Beinn Bhàn and the pass of the Bealach na Ba being prominent. East of Kishorn are two small Marilyns: An Bad a' Chreamha. At Tornapress there is the "Bealach Cafe and Gallery"; this is where the junction to the Bealach na Ba is located. Kishorn Yard is a fabrication yard at Loch Kishorn for oil platforms and other offshore facilities, with an associated port and dry-dock facility, it is jointly owned by two companies, Ferguson Transport and Leiths.
The yard was owned by Howard Doris between 1975 and 1987. In 1975 work began on the construction yard and dock for the production of oil platforms on the north side of the loch; this lay at the end of a 2-mile stretch of road built to provide access in just 12 days, by 1977 over 3,000 people were working here, housed in temporary accommodation on site and in two accommodation ships moored in the loch: the former car ferries Rangatira and Odysseus. Loch Kishorn offers a clear depth of up to 80 metres, the yard was therefore well suited to build the 600,000 tonne concrete Ninian Central Platform, built in 1978. Material was supplied by sea and when complete the platform needed seven tugs to tow it to its operating position in the North Sea; the Ninian Central Platform still holds the record as the largest movable object created by man. Mindful of the controversy surrounding an earlier proposal to develop a yard at Drumbuie, a condition of the planning permission was that the site had to be treated as an island: a self-contained village for 2,000 workers was created, all deliveries would arrive by sea, rather than by road.
A depot for transferring deliveries from rail to sea was built at Stromeferry, on the Kyle of Lochalsh Line. These conditions, though relaxed by the end of the yard's life, had the intended effect of not altering the surrounding area much, though some might have liked it if money had instead been spent on improving the poor single track, roads in the area. By 1980 the construction yard was diversifying in an effort to escape a downturn in oil exploration and production and at the time was building the Phillips Maureen hi-deck, but its days were numbered. Two thousand people were still employed in 1984, but bankruptcy in 1986 was followed by closure in 1987 and clearance of most of the buildings on the site. One lasting impact is the Howard Doris Trust. Amongst other things, it has provided a lot of funding for the Howard Doris Centre in nearby Lochcarron, which provides care for the elderly. In 1992 the dry dock was put to use in the construction of the 2,300 tonne bridge footings for the Skye Bridge that links Kyle of Lochalsh with the Isle of Skye.
The 120m quayside, split into the East gate and West gate, is used by Ferguson Transport & Shipping as a port for fish farming supplies, forestry products, round wood, road salt and fertilizer. In 2006, Leiths Ltd commenced quarrying operations on the site, supplying concrete for precast blocks for the Raasay Ferry Terminal. Leiths and Ferguson Transport have created a new joint venture company, Kishorn Port Limited to promote the regeneration of the Yard and the dry dock as a manufacturing centre for the offshore renewables industry. In January 2017, it was announced that Kishorn Port Ltd had been awarded £500,000 to test and revamp the dry dock gates; the East gate has not been moved since 1992 when the caissons for the Skye Bridge were built in the dry dock. The West gate has not been moved since the Maureen Articulated Loading Column vacated the dock in 1982; the dry dock itself has since been drained and inspected now that the gates are back in place and sealed. It took a week of 24 hour pumping to drain all the water, an estimated 7 million gallons.
Gordon Menzies of the folk band Gaberlunzie wrote a well known song called "The Kishorn Commandos", the chorus to which is: We're the Kishorn Commandos way up in Wester Ross We've never had a gaffer, we've never had a boss But we'll build the biggest oi
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have played a key role in trade and both human and animal migration throughout Earth's history. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass; the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet, China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col. A topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by contour lines with an hourglass shape, which indicates a low spot between two higher points. Passes are found just above the source of a river, constituting a drainage divide. A pass may be short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.
Roads have long been built through passes, as well as railways more recently. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath a nearby mountainside to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year; the top of a pass is the only flat ground in the area, is a high vantage point. In some cases this makes it a preferred site for buildings. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is on the border, there may be a border control or customs station, a military post as well. For instance Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 kilometres long; the border runs north -- south with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level; as well as offering easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass.
Passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps; some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, which will make snow blow off the road. There are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is common in the West, the word gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England, saddle in northern Idaho. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach. In the Lake District of north-west England, the term hause is used, although the term pass is common—one distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is that highest part flattened somewhat into a high-level plateau. There are thousands of named passes around the world, some of which are well-known, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass at 2,473 metres in the Alps, the Chang La at 5,360 metres, the Khardung La at 5,359 metres in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border appear to be world's two highest motorable passes. Khunjerab Pass between Pakistan and China at 4,693 metres is a high-altitude motorable mountain pass. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Achintraid is a small remote crofting township, situated at the eastern end of the sea loch Loch Kishorn, in Strathcarron, Ross-shire, Scottish Highlands and is in the Scottish council area of Highland. The small hamlet of Ardarroch is located 0.25 miles northwest along the coast road. The community website: Kishorn Online
Loch Carron is a sea loch on the west coast of Ross and Cromarty in the Scottish Highlands, which separates the Lochalsh peninsula from the Applecross peninsula, from the headland east of Loch Kishorn. It is the point at which the River Carron enters the North Atlantic Ocean. According to the marine charts, the tidal currents reach 3 knots in the narrows, although not much water disturbance is visible in the flow. At the narrows, the depth of water is less than 20 metres, but in the basins on either side, it extends to a depth of more than 100 metres. Beneath the cliffs at Strome Castle is a colony of flame shells. Tourism is a significant industry in the Highlands of Scotland and one that generates important local economic activity, it provides employment for local people and attracts many visitors to Wester Ross in general and Lochcarron in particular because of its traditional seaside location. The Kyle of Lochalsh Line runs along the south side of the loch, with railway stations at Attadale, Stromeferry and Plockton.
River Carron Lochcarron, a village on the loch Stromeferry, situated on the south side at the narrows Plockton, village with harbour at the west end from which boat service takes tourists to the seal colony on the islands 2528 Loch Gairloch, Loch Kishorn and Loch Carron. UK Hydrographic Office. Dive Magazine article