A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Russian Federal State Statistics Service is the governmental statistics agency in Russia. Since 2017, it is again part of the Ministry of Economic Development, having switched several times in the previous decades between that ministry and being directly controlled by the federal government. Goskomstat was the centralised agency dealing with statistics in the Soviet Union. Goskomstat was created in 1987 to replace the Central Statistical Administration, while maintaining the same basic functions in the collection, analysis and distribution of state statistics, including economic and population statistics; this renaming amounted to a formal demotion of the status of the agency. In addition to overseeing the collection and evaluation of state statistics, Goskomstat was responsible for planning and carrying out the population and housing censuses, it carried out seven such censuses, in 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1980, 1989. House No. 39, on Ulitsa Myasnitskaya, Tsentrosoyuz building, home to Goskomstat, was designed by the Swiss-born architect, Le Corbusier.
Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation
Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia, or Dauria is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" Lake Baikal in Russia. The steppe and wetland landscapes of Dauria are protected by the Daurian Nature Reserve, which forms part of a World Heritage Site named "The Landscapes of Dauria"; the alternative name, Dauria, is derived from the ethnonym of the Daur people. It stretches for 1,000 km from north to south from the Patomskoye Plateau and North Baikal Plateau to the Russian state border; the Transbaikal region covers more than 1,000 km from west to east from Baikal to the meridian of the confluence of the Shilka and Argun Rivers. The ancient proto-Mongol Slab Grave Culture occurred around Lake Baikal in the Transbaikal territory. In Imperial Russia, Dauria was itself an oblast with its capital at Nerchinsk at Chita and became part of the short lived Far Eastern Republic between 1920 and 1922, it is divided into Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai and makes up nearly all of the territory of these two federal subjects.
The region has given its name to various animal species including Daurian hedgehog, the following birds: Asian brown flycatcher, Daurian jackdaw, Daurian partridge, Daurian redstart, Daurian starling, Daurian shrike and the red-rumped swallow. The Mongolian wild ass is regionally extinct from the region; the common name of the famous Dahurian larch as well as that of the Dahurian buckthorn are derived from the same source. Oktyabrsky village, Amur Oblast, near the Russia-China border is a large site of uranium mining and processing facilities. Part of the area is protected by the Dauria Nature Reserve. Kropotkin, Peter. "Transbaikalia". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 169–170. WWF Russia
Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov
Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, or Semenov, was a Japanese-supported leader of the White movement in Transbaikal and beyond from December 1917 to November 1920, Lieutenant General and Ataman of Baikal Cossacks. Semyonov was born in the Transbaikal region of eastern Siberia, his father, Mikhail Petrovich Semyonov, was of partial Buryat descent. Semyonov was a fluent Buryat language speaker, he joined the Imperial Russian Army in 1908, graduated from Orenburg Military School in 1911. He was commissioned as a yesaul and distinguished himself in battle against the Germans and Austro-Hungarians in World War I, earning the Saint George's Cross for courage. According to Pyotr Wrangel: Semenov was a Transbaikalian Cossack – dark and thickset, of the rather alert Mongolian type, his intelligence was of a Cossack calibre, he was an exemplary soldier courageous when under the eye of his superior. He knew how to make himself popular with Cossacks and officers alike, but he had his weaknesses in a love of intrigue and indifference to the means by which he achieved his ends.
Though capable and ingenious, he had received no education, his outlook was narrow. I have never been able to understand, he was somewhat of an outsider among his fellow officers because of his ethnicity. While serving in the Caucasus in World War I he met another officer shunned by his peers, Baron Ungern-Sternberg, whose eccentric nature and disregard of the rules of etiquette and decorum repelled others, he and Sternberg tried to organize a regiment of Assyrian Christians to aid in the fight against the Turks. In July 1917 Semyonov left the Caucasus and was appointed Commissar of the Provisional Government in the Baikal region, responsible for recruiting a regiment of Buryat volunteers. After the October Revolution Semyonov stirred up an anti-Soviet rebellion, but was defeated and fled to the northeastern Chinese city of Harbin. In August 1918 he managed to consolidate his positions in the Transbaikal region with the help of the Czechoslovak Legions and imposed his ruthless regime. In his rule over this region, he has been described as a "plain bandit drew his income from holding up trains and forcing payments, no matter what the nature of the load nor for whose benefit it was being shipped."
As a part Buryat Mongol, Ataman Semyonov declared a "Great Mongol State" in 1918 and had designs to unify the Oirat Mongol lands, portions of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Tannu Uriankhai, Hulunbei'er and Tibet into one Mongolian state. The White Siberian Provisional Government appointed Semyonov commander of a detached unit with headquarters in Chita. Adm. Aleksandr Kolchak refused to recognize Semyonov's authority, but he had no choice and had to accept Semyonov as de facto leader and confirm him as Commander-in-Chief of the Chita military district. In early 1919 Semyonov declared himself Ataman of the Transbaikal Cossack Host with support from the Imperial Japanese Army, elements of, deployed to Siberia; the region under his control called Eastern Okraina, extended from Verkhne-Udinsk near Lake Baikal to the Shilka River and the town of Stretensk, to Manzhouli, where the Chinese Eastern Railway met the Chita Railway, northeast some distance along the Amur Railway. Semyonov handed out copies of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to the Japanese troops he became associated with.
After the fall of Kolchak's Siberian government, the admiral transferred power to Semyonov in the Far East. However, Semyonov was unable to keep his forces in Siberia under control: they stole, burned and raped, developed a reputation for being little better than thugs. In July 1920 the Japanese Expeditionary Corps started a limited withdrawal in accordance with the Gongota Agreement signed with the Far Eastern Republic, undermining support for Semyonov. Transbaikal partisans, internationalists and the 5th Soviet Army under Genrich Eiche launched an operation to retake Chita. In October 1920 units of the Red Army and guerrillas forced Semyonov's army out of the Baikal region. After having retreated to Primorye, Semyonov tried to continue fighting the Soviets, but was forced to abandon all Russian territory by September 1921. After failing to settle in Nagasaki via Harbin, Semyonov stayed in the United States for a period of time, where he was soon accused of committing acts of violence against the American soldiers of the Expeditionary Corps.
He was acquitted and returned to China, where he was given a monthly 1000-yen pension by the Japanese government. In Tianjin he had ties with the Japanese intelligence community and mobilized exiled Russian and Cossack communities, planning to overthrow the Soviets, he was employed by Puyi, the dethroned Emperor of China, whom he wished to restore to power. Semyonov was captured in Dalian by Soviet paratroopers in September 1945 during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, when the Soviet Army conquered Manchukuo, he was charged with counterrevolutionary activities and sentenced to death by hanging by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR. He was executed on August 29, 1946. Paine, S. C. M.. Imperial Rivals: China and Their Disputed Frontier. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 1563247240. Retrieved 24 April 2014. White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian – Website for the book White Terror
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai
Chita is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers east of Irkutsk. Population: 324,444 . Pyotr Beketov's Cossacks founded Chita in 1653. After 1825, several of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita. According to George Kennan, "Among the exiles in Chita were some of the brightest, most cultivated, most sympathetic men and women that we had met in Eastern Siberia."When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one wooden, church. He estimated Chita's population at under 1,000, but predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. By 1885, Chita's population had reached 5,728, by 1897 it increased to 11,500. In 1945, the last Emperor of China, some of his associates were held prisoner in the city, in a former sanatorium for officers. Chita is the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Chitinsky District, to which it is subordinated.
As a municipal division, the city of Chita together with one rural locality in Chitinsky District is incorporated as Chita Urban Okrug. The city is subdivided into four administrative districts: Chernovsky, Ingodinsky and Zheleznodorozhny. Chernovsky Administrative District used to be a mining settlement, incorporated into Chita in 1941. Chernovskiye mines themselves are a geological nature monument of international status. Chita is served by Kadala Airport, situated 15 km to the west. Chita is home to several facilities of higher education: Transbaikal State University Chita State Academy of Medicine Chita Northwest air base is located nearby, as well as the 101st Communications Brigade and the 53rd Material Support Regiment. FC Chita is Chita's association football club. An indoor arena for speed skating is planned. Chita experiences a borderline subarctic climate/humid continental climate with cold dry winters and warm, wet summers. Chita is twinned with: Ulan-Ude, Russia. 1 января 2014 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Забайкальского края», в ред.
Распоряжения №209-р от 10 июня 2014 г... Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №316-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №770-ЗЗК от 26 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г.. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chita". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 247. Official website of Chita Account of Englishman's life in Chita, 2005-2006 Old Chita, website of local history
Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25; the census was scheduled for October 2010, before being rescheduled for late 2013, citing financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009, Prime Minister Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as scheduled. Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population had decreased by 2.3 million. According to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is 73.7%. The median age is 38 years; the ethnic composition is dominated by Russians. Demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census