The Gulden or forint was the currency of the lands of the House of Habsburg between 1754 and 1892, when it was replaced by the Krone/korona as part of the introduction of the gold standard. In Austria, the Gulden was divided into 60 Kreuzer, in Hungary, the forint was divided into 60 krajczár; the currency was decimalized in 1857, using the same names for the subunit. The name Gulden was used on the pre-1867 Austrian banknotes and on the German language side of the post-1867 banknotes. In southern Germany, the word Gulden was the standard word for a major currency unit; the name Florin was used on Austrian coins and forint was used on the Hungarian language side of the post-1867 banknotes and on Hungarian coins. It comes from the city of Florence, Italy where the first florins were minted, from 1252 to 1533; until 1806, Austria was the leading state of the Holy Roman Empire. With the introduction of the Conventionsthaler as the principal currency of the Empire in 1754, when it began to replace the Reichsthaler.
The Gulden was defined as half of a Conventionsthaler, it was the equivalent of 1⁄20 of a Cologne mark of silver. The Gulden was subdivided into 60 Kreuzer. Following the winding up of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Gulden became the standard unit of account in the Habsburg Empire and remained so until 1892. In 1857, the Vereinsthaler was introduced across the German Confederation and Austria-Hungary, with a silver content of 16 2⁄3 grams; this was less than 1 1⁄2 times the silver content of the Gulden. Austria-Hungary adopted a new standard for the Gulden, containing two-thirds as much silver as the Vereinsthaler; this involved a debasement of the currency of 4.97%. Austria-Hungary decimalized at the same time, resulting in a new currency system of 100 Kreuzer = 1 Gulden and 1 1⁄2 Gulden = 1 Vereinsthaler. In 1892 the Austro-Hungarian Gulden was replaced by the Krone, at a rate of 2 Krone = 1 Gulden. In 1946 the Hungarian Forint is the official currency in Hungary. Copper coins were issued in denominations of 1 Heller up to 1 Kreuzer, with silver coins in denominations from 3 Kreuzer up to 1 Conventionsthaler.
The Turkish and Napoleonic Wars led to token issues in various denominations. These included a 12 Kreuzer coin which only contained 6 Kreuzer worth of silver and was overstruck to produce a 7 Kreuzer coin. In 1807, copper coins were issued in denominations of 30 Kreuzer by the Wiener Stadt Banco; these issues were tied in value to the bank's paper money. The coinage returned to its prewar state after 1814; when the Gulden was decimalized in 1857, new coins were issued in denominations of 1⁄2, 1 and 4 Kreuzer in copper, with silver coins of 5, 10 and 20 Kreuzer, 1⁄4, 1 and 2 Florin and 1 and 2 Vereinsthaler and gold coins of 4 and 8 Florin or 10 and 20 francs. Vereinsthaler issues ceased in 1867. Vereinsthaler = 1 1⁄2 Florins Following the forint's introduction, Hungary issued few coins compared to Austria, but the Kingdom of Hungary started minting its own golden coins called, depending on the language, florins/forints, Guldens, in 1329; the only copper coin was a poltura worth 1 1⁄2 krajczár, whilst there were silver 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 krajczár and 1⁄2 and 1 Conventionsthaler.
All issues ceased in 1794 and did not resume until 1830, when silver coins of 20 krajczár and above were issued. Only in 1868, following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, did a full issue of coins for Hungary begin. Denominations were fewer than in Austria, with copper 1⁄2, 1 and 4 krajczár, silver 10 and 20 krajczár and 1 forint and gold 4 and 8 forint. Between 1759 and 1811, the Wiener Stadt Banco issued paper money denominated in Gulden. However, the banknotes were not tied to the coinage and their values floated relative to one another. Although the notes did have a slight premium over coins early on, in years, the notes fell in value relative to the coins until their value was fixed in 1811 at one fifth of their face value in coins; that year, the Priviligirte Vereinigte Einlösungs und Tilgungs Deputation began issuing paper money valued at par with the coinage, followed by the "Austrian National Note Bank" in 1816 and the "Privileged Austrian National Bank" between 1825 and 1863.
In 1858, new notes were issued denominated in "Austrian Currency" rather than "Convention Currency". From 1866, the K. K. Staats Central Casse issued banknotes, followed from 1881 by the K. K. Reichs Central Casse which issued the last Gulden banknotes, dated 1888. Geldschein.at - Picture gallery of Austrian gulden banknotes
Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German gulden shortened from Middle High German guldin pfenninc "gold penny". This was the term that became current in the southern and western parts of the Holy Roman Empire for the Fiorino d'oro. Hence, the name has been interchangeable with florin; the term gulden was used in the Holy Roman Empire during the 14th to 16th centuries in generic reference to gold coins. Currency became more standardized with the imperial reform of 1559. In the early modern period, the value of a gulden was expressed in standardized form, in some instances, silver coins were minted designed to have the value corresponding to one gulden; the Rhenish gulden was issued by Trier and Mainz in the 14th and 15th centuries. Basel minted its own Apfelgulden between 1429 and 1509. Bern and Solothurn followed in the 1480s, Fribourg in 1509 and Zürich in 1510, other towns in the 17th century, resulting in a fragmented system of local currencies in the early modern Switzerland.
With standardized currencies in the early modern period, gulden or guilder became a term for various early modern and modern currencies, detached from actual gold coins, in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Netherlands Indies gulden was introduced in 1602, at the start of the United East Indies Company; the Dutch guilder originated in 1680 as a 10.61 g silver coin with a silver purity of 91.0%, minted by the States of Holland and West Friesland. The British Guianan guilder was in use in British Guiana, 1796 to 1839. In 1753, Bavaria and Austria-Hungary agreed to use the same conventions; the result was the Austro-Hungarian gulden, the Bavarian gulden. A Danzig gulden was in use 1923 to 1939; the Dutch guilder remained the national currency of the Netherlands until it was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2002. The Netherlands Antillean guilder is the only guilder in use, which after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles remained the currency of the new countries Curaçao and Sint Maarten and the Caribbean Netherlands.
Surinamese guilder Netherlands Indies gulden Netherlands New Guinean guldenThe Caribbean guilder is a proposed currency for Curaçao and Sint Maarten. Other coin names that are derived from the gold of which they were once made: Öre, øre Złoty Hungarian forint
The złoty, the masculine form of the Polish adjective'golden', is the currency of Poland. The modern złoty is subdivided into 100 groszy; the recognised English form of the word is zloty. The currency sign, zł, is composed of the Polish lower-case letters z and ł; as a result of inflation in the early 1990s, the currency underwent redenomination. Thus, on 1 January 1995, 10,000 old złotych became one new złoty. Since the currency has been stable, with an exchange rate fluctuating between 3 and 4 złoty for a United States dollar; the predecessors of the złoty were the kopa. The grzywna was a currency, equivalent to 210 g of silver, in the 11th century, it was in use until sometime in the 14th century. At the same time, first as a complement to the grzywna, as the main currency, came the grosz and the kopa. Poland made the grosz as an imitation of the Prague groschen. A grzywna was worth 48 groszy; the złoty is a traditional Polish currency unit dating back to the late Middle Ages. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the name was used for all kinds of foreign gold coins used in Poland, most notably Venetian and Hungarian ducats.
One złoty at the beginning of their introduction cost 12–14 groszy. In 1496 the Sejm approved the creation of a national currency, the złoty, its value was set at 30 groszy, a coin minted since 1347 and modelled on the Prague groschen, a ducat, whose value was 1 1⁄2 złoty; the 1:30 proportion stayed, but the grosz became cheaper and cheaper, because the proportion of silver in the coin alloy diminished over time. In the beginning of the 16th century, 1 złoty was worth 32 groszy; the name złoty was used for a number of different coins, including the 30-groszy coin called the polski złoty, the czerwony złoty and the złoty reński, which were in circulation at the time. However, the value of the Polish złoty dropped over time relative to these foreign coins, it became a silver coin, with the foreign ducats circulating at 5 złotych; the matters were complicated by the intricate system of coins, with denominations as low as 1⁄3 groszy and as high as 12,960 groszy fit into one coin. There were no usual decimal denominations we use today: the system used 4, 6, 8, 9 and 18 groszy, which are now most uncommon.
Moreover, there was no central mint, apart from Warsaw mint, there were the Gdańsk, Elbląg and Kurland separate mints which did not produce the same denomination coins with the same materials. For example, the szeląg had 1.3g of copper while minted in either Kraków or Warsaw, but the local Gdańsk and Elbląg mints made it using only 0.63g of copper. This facilitated forgeries and wreaked havoc in the Polish monetary system Following the monetary reform carried out by King Stanisław II Augustus which aimed to simplify the system, the złoty became Poland's official currency and the exchange rate of 1 złoty to 30 copper groszy was confirmed; the king established the system, based on the Cologne mark. Each mark was divided into 10 Conventionsthaler of the Holy Roman Empire, 1 thaler was worth 8 złotych; the system was in place until 1787. Two devaluations of the currency occurred in the years before the final partition of Poland. After the third partition of Poland, the name złoty existed only in Russian lands.
Prussia had introduced the mark instead. On 8 June 1794 the decision of the Polish Supreme Council offered to make the new banknotes as well as the coins. 13 August 1794 was the date. At the day there was more than 6.65 million złotych given out by the rebels. There were banknotes with the denomination of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 złotych, as well as 5 and 10 groszy, 1 and 4 złoty coins However, it did not last for long: on 8 November, Warsaw was held by Russia. Russians declared them invalid. Russian coins and banknotes replaced the Kościuszko banknotes, but the division on złote and grosze stayed; this can be explained by the fact the Polish monetary system in the deep crisis, was better than the Russian stable one, as Poland used the silver standard for coins. That is why Mikhail Speransky offered to come to silver monometalism in his work План финансов in Russia, he argued that: "... at the same time... forbid any other account in Livonia and Poland, this is the only way to unify the financial system of these provinces in the Russian system, as well they will stop, at least, the damage that pulls back our finances for so long."
The złoty remained in circulation after the Partitions of Poland and the Duchy of Warsaw issued coins denominated in grosz, złoty and talar, worth 6 złoty. Talar banknotes were issued. In 1813, while Zamość was under siege, Zam
The Gulden was the currency of Bavaria until 1873. Between 1754 and 1837 it was a unit of account, worth 5⁄12 of a Conventionsthaler, used to denominate banknotes but not issued as a coin; the Gulden was 60 Kreuzer Landmünze. The first Gulden coins were issued in 1837, when Bavaria entered into the South German Monetary Union, setting the Gulden equal to four sevenths of a Prussian Thaler; the Gulden was subdivided into 60 Kreuzer. In 1857, the Gulden was set equal to four sevenths of a Vereinsthaler; the Gulden was replaced by the Mark at a rate of 1 Mark = 35 Kreuzer