Woorabinda is an Aboriginal community in Central Queensland, inland about two hours' west drive of Rockhampton. At the 2006 census, Woorabinda had a population of 851. Woorabinda was first established in 1927, with land gazetted from the County of Waroona, as a replacement for the Taroom Aboriginal Settlement; the land at Taroom was repossessed for the development of proposed Nathan Dam for the Dawson River Irrigation Scheme, never built. Central Queensland had a high level of frontier violence and Aboriginal deaths, such as at Cullin-La-Ringo at nearby Springsure and Hornet Bank along the Dawson River. There was a forcible relocation of dispossessed survivors into government-controlled settlements starting from 1897, with the introduction of the Aboriginals Protection Act—initially at Taroom, Woorabinda. Peoples from at least 17 different language groups were placed within the camp, some from as far as Mornington Island, were under the control of a local Superintendent beneath the state Chief Protector of Aborigines.
The movement of 300 Taroom residents occurred via foot and hired truck over the 250 km. This walk from Taroom to Woorabinda was commemorated by the community with a supported re-enactment in 2014; the Woorabinda community is the only DOGIT Aboriginal community within the Central Queensland region. DOGIT communities have a special type of land tenure which applies only to former Aboriginal reserves; the land title is a system of community level land trusts and administered by the local council. Woorabinda is a township with the seasonal Mimosa Creek nearby a source of local water. During rainy season, the township can be isolated due to road flooding. Access is via the Fitzroy Developmental Road, sealed north towards Duaringa and where it meets the Capricorn Highway to Rockhampton. To the south, it is gravel road to Bauhinia Downs, where it meets the Dawson Highway and access to Gladstone. East is the sealed Baralaba-Woorabinda Road, seasonally cut off by flooding. West has a number of cattle properties until the base of the Blackdown Tablelands, serviced by gravel roads.
There is a sealed airstrip along the north road into town, used by chartered flights and aeromedical retrieval services. No commercial flights operate to the airstrip. In May 1942, during World War II, a Lutheran Aboriginal mission at Cape Bedford on Cape York in far North Queensland was closed to become used as an army camp; the relocation has been attributed to governmental fears of Aboriginal loyalty to the German Lutheran pastor and against non-Aboriginal Australian interests in favour of the Japanese. The 254 Aboriginal residents, of Guugu Yimithirr identity, were forcibly relocated; this trip was poorly provisioned and people arrived at their end destination having been deprived of food and blankets during the winter overland trip. There was tension between the Cape Bedford evacuees and the residents of Woorabinda due to the strong Lutheran Christian beliefs held by those from Cape Bedford. However, the evacuees experienced many cultural experiences unavailable to them because of the strong church presence, such as corroborrees.
During this time, informal Lutheran church services and ministering were maintained by the evacuees to hold onto their Christian beliefs, creating a core strength of spiritual leadership within this group. Choral singing started during this time within the Guugu Yimithirr language from translated hymns as part of their services, which became a core part of their future church identity, they maintained a separate identity to the Woorabinda residents during the seven years they spent within the community. Many died from sickness and exposure due to the poor sanitation and inadequate shelter from the frost and cold winter nights of the inland climate, which the Guugu Yimithirr peoples would not have experienced, as they were from a warm, humid coastal climate; the official number of deaths during this period was 33, but could have been up to 48. There were 13 recorded births during that time. During their time at Woorabinda, the Cape Bedford peoples experienced paid labour and schooling for the first time.
The survivors were allowed to return to Cape Bedford in 1949, after the war, to what is now known as Hopevale. Most returned north, however, a small contingent remained, which maintained a presence and link to the north which remains to this day; the latest figures identify Woorabinda residents as having a mean annual income of $27,924, as compared to the mean Australia-wide income of $42,081 in the same census. Unemployment is at 70%. Woorabinda has been identified as amongst Queensland's most disadvantaged suburbs, the others of which are Indigenous townships. Government service providers are the main source of employment, with local industry in the form of the takeaway cafe and Woorabinda Pastoral Company, owned by the council; the satellite Foleyvale Station is just north of Duaringa, is included in the Woorabinda lands used pastorally. In 2008, the community and council voted for the total ban of alcohol consumption within the town limits to become a "dry" community; the town has had a significant decrease in alcohol-fuelled violence since the Alcohol Management Plan was introduced.
As of 2013, there has been ongoing movement within the community for a reintroduction of alcohol, with a community-led vote majority for its reintroduction. This has been as part of a larger movement within Aboriginal communities of Queensland for Alcohol Management Plan reviews; the town als
Carmila is a coastal town and locality in the Isaac Region, Australia. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 398. Carmila is situated 65 kilometres south of the town of Sarina; the North Coast railway line passes through the town, served by the Carmila railway station. The Bruce Highway passes through the town as well. A large portion of the north west of Carmila belongs to the West Hill State Forest. Along the coast, the West Hill National Park was established in 1971; the major land uses are sugar cane farming and cattle grazing. Professional fishing occurs off the coast. Carmila State School opened on 9 July 1923. Carmila Post Office opened by March 1924. Carmila West State School opened on 18 August 1924 and closed on 31 December 1965. Carmila Police Station opened in 1933; the Carmila Library opened in 1978. Carmila has a number including the Carmila Cane Lift at 49 Hindles Road; the Isaac Regional Council operates a public library at 16 Music Street. Camila State School is a government co-education primary school.
In 2014, it had 32 students enrolled with 2 teachers. The nearest secondary school is in Sarina. Carmila State School, Golden jubilee celebration, 1923-1973, Carmila State School: souvenir booklet, Carmila State School, ISBN 978-0-9598337-0-6 "Carmila". Isaac Regional Council. Retrieved 23 March 2009
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A billabong is an Australian term for an oxbow lake, an isolated pond left behind after a river changes course. Billabongs are formed when the path of a creek or river changes, leaving the former branch with a dead end; as a result of the arid Australian climate in which these "dead rivers" are found, billabongs fill with water seasonally. The etymology of the word billabong is disputed; the word is most derived from the Wiradjuri term bilabaŋ, which means "a watercourse that runs only after rain". It is derived from bila, meaning "river", It may have been combined with bong or bung, meaning "dead". One source, claims that the term is of Scottish Gaelic origin. Billabongs were significant. Banjo Paterson's popular song. Mary Grant Bruce wrote a series of books, known as The Billabong Series, depicting the adventures of the Linton family, who live at Billabong station from around 1911 until the late 1920s. Both Aboriginal Australians and European artists use billabongs as subject matter in painting.
For example, Aboriginal painter Tjyllyungoo has a watercolour entitled Trees at a billabong. American avant-garde filmmaker Will Hindle produced a short film titled Billabong in 1969. Billabong is the name of an Australian brand of sportswear for surf and snowboard. Guelta Limnology Meander Media related to Billabongs of Australia at Wikimedia Commons
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Baralaba is a small town and rural locality in the Shire of Banana in central Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Baralaba had a population of 314 people; the Dawson River forms the western boundary of the locality. The town is located in the north-west corner of the locality beside the river; the Neville Hewitt weir on the river at the town creates a wide river for recreation. The town is located 33 kilometres west of the Leichhardt Highway; the local economy revolves around beef production. The town's name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning "high mountain" referring to nearby Mount Ramsay. Baralaba Provisional School opened on 19 August 1918, it became a state school on 1 March 1922. In 1964, a secondary department was added. Baralaba Post Office opened by April 1924. In May 1941, an Honour Board commemorating those who served in World War II was unveiled at the Returned and Services League of Australia Memorial Hall in Stopford Street. Outside of the Memorial Hall is a white cross commemorating those who served in all wars and conflicts.
Two coal mines once operated in the Baralaba region. Both closed, but mining operations recommenced at one mine in 2005; the mobile library service commenced in 2004. Baralaba State School is a government co-educational primary and partial secondary school located at 1 Power Street. In 2012, the school had an enrolment of 98 students with 14 teachers; as Baralaba State School only provides secondary education to Year 10, the nearest secondary schools offering Years 11 and 12 are located in Moura and Biloela. Baralaba Golf Club is located on Alberta Road. Banana Shire Council operate a fortnightly mobile library service to Baralaba; every March, there is a campdrafting competition at Baralaba. The annual Baralaba agricultural show is held in May; the Saratoga Fishing Competition is held each September. Baralaba has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Morgan Street and The Esplanade: Dawson Valley Colliery In the 2011 census, Baralaba had a population of 479 people; this was in increase from the 2006 census, when Baralaba had a population of 290.
Media related to Baralaba, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Baralaba Banana Shire Council Town map of Baralba, 1980