Flight attendants or cabin crew are members of an aircrew employed by airlines to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, on select business jet aircraft, on some military aircraft. The role of a flight attendant derives from that of similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains, but it has more direct involvement with passengers because of the confined quarters on aircraft. Additionally, the job of a flight attendant revolves around safety to a much greater extent than those of similar staff on other forms of transportation. Flight attendants on board a flight collectively form a cabin crew, as distinguished from pilots and engineers in the cockpit; the German Heinrich Kubis was the world's first flight attendant, in 1912. Kubis first attended the passengers on board the DELAG Zeppelin LZ 10 Schwaben, he attended to the famous LZ 129 Hindenburg and was on board when it burst into flames. He survived by jumping out a window. Origins of the word "steward" in transportation are reflected in the term "chief steward" as used in maritime transport terminology.
The term purser and chief steward are used interchangeably describing personnel with similar duties among seafaring occupations. This lingual derivation results from the international British maritime tradition dating back to the 14th century and the civilian United States Merchant Marine on which US aviation is somewhat modeled. Due to international conventions and agreements, in which all ships' personnel who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries, the U. S. Merchant Marine assigns such duties to the chief steward in the overall rank and command structure of which pursers are not positionally represented or rostered. Imperial Airways of the United Kingdom had "cabin boys" or "stewards". In the US, Stout Airways was the first to employ stewards in 1926, working on Ford Trimotor planes between Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan. Western Airlines and Pan American World Airways were the first US carriers to employ stewards to serve food. Ten-passenger Fokker aircraft used in the Caribbean had stewards in the era of gambling trips to Havana, Cuba from Key West, Florida.
Lead flight attendants would in many instances perform the role of purser, steward, or chief steward in modern aviation terminology. The first female flight attendant was a 25-year-old registered nurse named Ellen Church. Hired by United Airlines in 1930, she first envisioned nurses on aircraft. Other airlines followed suit, hiring nurses to serve as flight attendants called "stewardesses" or "air hostesses", on most of their flights. In the United States, the job was one of only a few in the 1930s to permit women, coupled with the Great Depression, led to large numbers of applicants for the few positions available. Two thousand women applied for just 43 positions offered by Transcontinental and Western Airlines in December 1935. Female flight attendants replaced male ones, by 1936, they had all but taken over the role, they were selected not only for their knowledge but for their characteristics. A 1936 New York Times article described the requirements: The girls who qualify for hostesses must be petite.
Add to that the rigid physical examination each must undergo four times every year, you are assured of the bloom that goes with perfect health. Three decades a 1966 New York Times classified ad for stewardesses at Eastern Airlines listed these requirements: A high school graduate, single, 20 years of age. 5'2" but no more than 5'9", weight 105 to 135 in proportion to height and have at least 20/40 vision without glasses. Appearance was considered as one of the most important factors to become a stewardess. At that time, airlines believed that the exploitation of female sexuality would increase their profits. In the United States, they were fired if they decided to wed.. The requirement to be a registered nurse on an American airline was relaxed as more women were hired, disappeared entirely during World War II as many nurses joined military nurse corps. Ruth Carol Taylor was the first African-American flight attendant in the United States. Hired in December 1957, on February 11, 1958, Taylor was the flight attendant on a Mohawk Airlines flight from Ithaca to New York, the first time such a position had been held by an African American.
She was let go within six months as a result of Mohawk's then-common marriage ban. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of age discrimination, weight requirements, bans on marriage. In 1968, the EEOC declared age restrictions on flight attendants’ employment to be illegal sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the EEOC ruled that sex was not a bona fide occupational requirement to be a flight attendant; the restriction of hiring only women was lifted at all airlines in 1971 due to the decisive court case of Diaz vs. Pan Am; the no-marriage rule was eliminated throughout the US airline industry by the 1980s. The last such broad categorical discrimination, the weight
International Association of Travel Agents Network
The International Airlines Travel Agent Network is an industry association in the USA designed to represent the interests of its member companies and the U. S. travel distribution network. It is an independent department of the International Air Transport Association. In addition, it is the body responsible for the standard international codes for airlines, hotels and car rental firms; these codes provide a method to link international travel network with international suppliers. American Society of Travel Agents IATA airport code International Air Transport Association List of airports Travel agency
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. Wheelchairs come in a wide variety of formats to meet the specific needs of their users, they may include specialized seating adaptions, individualized controls, may be specific to particular activities, as seen with sports wheelchairs and beach wheelchairs. The most recognised distinction is between powered wheelchairs, where propulsion is provided by batteries and electric motors, manually propelled wheelchairs, where the propulsive force is provided either by the wheelchair user/occupant pushing the wheelchair by hand, or by an attendant pushing from the rear; the earliest records of wheeled furniture are an inscription found on a stone slate in China and a child's bed depicted in a frieze on a Greek vase, both dating between the 6th and 5th century BCE. The first records of wheeled seats being used for transporting disabled people date to three centuries in China. A distinction between the two functions was not made for another several hundred years, until around 525 CE, when images of wheeled chairs made to carry people begin to occur in Chinese art.
Although Europeans developed a similar design, this method of transportation did not exist until 1595 when an unknown inventor from Spain built one for King Phillip II. Although it was an elaborate chair having both armrests and leg rests, the design still had shortcomings since it did not feature an efficient propulsion mechanism and thus, requires assistance to propel it; this makes the design more of a modern-day highchair or portable throne for the wealthy rather than a modern-day wheelchair for the disabled. In 1655, Stephan Farffler, a 22-year-old paraplegic watchmaker, built the world's first self-propelling chair on a three-wheel chassis using a system of cranks and cogwheels. However, the device had an appearance of a hand bike more than a wheelchair since the design included hand cranks mounted at the front wheel; the invalid carriage or Bath chair brought the technology into more common use from around 1760. In 1887, wheelchairs were introduced to Atlantic City so invalid tourists could rent them to enjoy the Boardwalk.
Soon, many healthy tourists rented the decorated "rolling chairs" and servants to push them as a show of decadence and treatment they could never experience at home. In 1933 Harry C. Jennings, Sr. and his disabled friend Herbert Everest, both mechanical engineers, invented the first lightweight, folding, portable wheelchair. Everest had broken his back in a mining accident. Everest and Jennings saw the business potential of the invention and went on to become the first mass-market manufacturers of wheelchairs, their "X-brace" design is still albeit with updated materials and other improvements. The X-brace idea came to Harry from the men’s folding “camp chairs / stools”, rotated 90 degrees, that Harry and Herbert used in the outdoors and at the mines. There are a wide variety of types of wheelchair, differing by propulsion method, mechanisms of control, technology used; some wheelchairs are designed for general everyday use, others for single activities, or to address specific access needs. Innovation within the wheelchair industry is common, but many innovations fall by the wayside, either from over-specialization, or from failing to come to market at an accessible price-point.
The iBot is the best known example of this in recent years. A self-propelled manual wheelchair incorporates a frame, one or two footplates and four wheels: two caster wheels at the front and two large wheels at the back. There will also be a separate seat cushion; the larger rear wheels have push-rims of smaller diameter projecting just beyond the tyre. Manual wheelchairs have brakes that bear on the tyres of the rear wheels, however these are a parking brake and in-motion braking is provided by the user's palms bearing directly on the push-rims; as this causes friction and heat build-up on long downslopes, many wheelchair users will choose to wear padded wheelchair gloves. Manual wheelchairs have two push handles at the upper rear of the frame to allow for manual propulsion by a second person, however many active wheelchair users will remove these to prevent unwanted pushing from people who believe they are being helpful. Everyday manual wheelchairs come in two major varieties, folding or rigid.
Folding chairs are low-end designs, whose predominant advantage is being able to fold by bringing the two sides together. However this is an advantage for part-time users who may need to store the wheelchair more than use it. Rigid wheelchairs, which are preferred by full-time and active users, have permanently welded joints and many fewer moving parts; this reduces the energy required to push the chair by eliminating many points where the chair would flex and absorb energy as it moves. Welded rather than folding joints reduce the overall weight of the chair. Rigid chairs feature instant-release rear wheels and backrests that fold down flat, allowing the user to dismantle the chair for storage in a car. A few wheelchairs attempt to combine the features of both designs by providing a fold-to-rigid mechanism in which the joints are mechanically locked when the wheelchair is in use. Many rigid models are now made with ultralight materials such as aircraft-grade aluminium and titanium, wheelchairs of
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is defined as an aeroplane intended for carrying multiple passengers or cargo in commercial service; the largest of them are wide-body jets which are called twin-aisle because they have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. These are used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities. A smaller, more common class of airliners is the single-aisle; these are used for short to medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts. Regional airliners seat fewer than 100 passengers and may be powered by turbofans or turboprops; these airliners are the non-mainline counterparts to the larger aircraft operated by the major carriers, legacy carriers, flag carriers, are used to feed traffic into the large airline hubs. These regional routes form the spokes of a hub-and-spoke air transport model.
The lightest of short-haul regional feeder airliner type aircraft that carry a small number of passengers are called commuter aircraft, commuterliners and air taxis, depending on their size, how they are marketed, region of the world, seating configurations. The Beechcraft 1900, for example, has only 19 seats; when the Wright brothers made the world’s first sustained heavier-than-air flight, they laid the foundation for what would become a major transport industry. Their flight in 1903 was just 11 years before what is defined as the world’s first airliner; these airliners have had a significant impact on global society and politics. In 1913, Igor Sikorsky developed the first large multi-engine airplane, the Russky Vityaz, refined into the more practical Ilya Muromets with dual controls for a pilot plus copilot and a comfortable cabin with a lavatory, cabin heating and lighting; the large four-engine biplane was derived in a bomber aircraft, preceding subsequent transport and bomber aircraft.
Due to the onset of World War I, it was never used as a commercial airliner. It first flew on December 10, 1913 and took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard on February 25, 1914. In 1915, the first airliner was used by Elliot Air Service; the aircraft was a Curtiss JN 4, a small biplane, used in World War I as a trainer. It was used as a tour and familiarization flight aircraft in the early 1920s. In 1919, after World War I, the Farman F.60 Goliath designed as a long-range heavy bomber, was converted for commercial use into a passenger airliner. It could seat 14 passengers from 1919, around 60 were built. Several publicity flights were made, including one on 8 February 1919, when the Goliath flew 12 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble to RAF Kenley, near Croydon, despite having no permission from the British authorities to land. Another important airliner built in 1919 was the Airco DH.16. In March 1919, the prototype first flew at Hendon Aerodrome. Nine aircraft were built, all but one being delivered to the nascent airline, Aircraft Transport and Travel, which used the first aircraft for pleasure flying, on 25 August 1919, it inaugurated the first scheduled international airline service from London to Paris.
One aircraft was sold to the River Plate Aviation Company in Argentina, to operate a cross-river service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Meanwhile, the competing Vickers converted its successful WWI bomber, the Vickers Vimy, into a civilian version, the Vimy Commercial, it was redesigned with a larger-diameter fuselage, first flew from the Joyce Green airfield in Kent on 13 April 1919. The world's first all-metal transport aircraft was the Junkers F.13 from 1919, with 322 built. The Dutch Fokker company produced the Fokker F. II and the F. III; these aircraft were used by the Dutch airline KLM when it reopened an Amsterdam-London service in 1921. The Fokkers were soon flying to destinations across Europe, including Bremen, Brussels and Paris, they proved to be reliable aircraft. The Handley Page company in Britain produced the Handley Page Type W as the company's first civil transport aircraft, it housed two crew in 15 passengers in an enclosed cabin. Powered by two 450 hp Napier Lion engines, the prototype first flew on 4 December 1919, shortly after it was displayed at the 1919 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget.
It was the world's first airliner to be designed with an on-board lavatory. Meanwhile in France, the Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a great success throughout the 1920s serving the Paris-London route, on continental routes. The enclosed cabin could carry four passengers with an extra seat in the cockpit. By 1921, aircraft capacity needed to be larger for the economics to remain favourable; the English company de Havilland, therefore built the 10-passenger DH.29 monoplane, while starting work on the design of the DH.32, an eight-seater biplane with a less powerful but more economical Rolls-Royce Eagle engine. Owing to the urgent need for more capacity, work on the DH.32 was stopped and the DH.34 biplane was designed, accommodating 10 passengers. The Fokker trimotor was an important and popular transport, manufactured under license in Europe and America. Throughout the 1920s, companies in Britain and France were at the forefront of the civil airliner industry considerably aided by governme
Ground support equipment
Ground Support Equipment is the support equipment found at an airport on the apron, the servicing area by the terminal. This equipment is used to service the aircraft between flights; as the name suggests, ground support equipment is there to support the operations of aircraft whilst on the ground. The role of this equipment involves ground power operations, aircraft mobility, cargo/passenger loading operations. Many airlines subcontract ground handling to an airport or a handling agent, or to another airline. Ground handling addresses the many service requirements of a passenger aircraft between the time it arrives at a terminal gate and the time it departs for its next flight. Speed and accuracy are important in ground handling services in order to minimize the turnaround time. Small airlines sometimes subcontract maintenance to a much larger and reputable carrier, as it is a short-term cheaper alternative to setting up an independent maintenance base; some airlines may enter into a Maintenance and Ground Support Agreement with each other, used by airlines to assess costs for maintenance and support to aircraft.
Most ground services are not directly related to the actual flying of the aircraft, instead involve other service tasks. Cabin services ensure passenger safety, they include such tasks as cleaning the passenger cabin and replenishment of on-board consumables or washable items such as soap, tissues and magazines. Security checks are made to make sure no threats have been left on the aircraft. Airport GSE comprises a diverse range of vehicles and equipment necessary to service aircraft during passenger and cargo loading and unloading and other ground-based operations; the wide range of activities associated with aircraft ground operations lead to an wide-ranging fleet of GSE. For example, activities undertaken during a typical aircraft gate period include: cargo loading and unloading, passenger loading and unloading, potable water storage, lavatory waste tank drainage, aircraft refueling and fuselage examination and maintenance, food and beverage catering. Airlines employ specially designed GSE to support all these operations.
Moreover, electrical power and conditioned air are required throughout gate operational periods for both passenger and crew comfort and safety, many times these services are provided by GSE. Dollies for loose baggage are used for the transportation of loose baggages, oversized bags, mail bags, loose cargo carton boxes, etc. between the aircraft and the terminal or sorting facility. Dollies for loose baggage are fitted with a brake system which blocks the wheels from moving when the connecting rod is not attached to a tug. Most dollies for loose baggage are enclosed except for the sides which use plastic curtains to protect items from weather. In the US, these dollies are called Baggage Cart, but in Europe Baggage Cart means passenger baggage trolleys. Dollies for unit load device and cargo pallets are standard sized flatbed trolley or platform, with many wheels, roller bars or ball bearings protruding above the top surface for easy loading and unloading of ULD and cargo pallets respectively.
Since ULD/pallet rest on ball bearings, these dollies are equipped with hinge/locks to secure the position of the ULD/pallet on them during tugging transportation. The aviation industry adopted ULD/pallets to be lightweight containers and supporting platforms intended to be loaded into aircraft and fly along with their loads, they need to be minimum in weight and thus do not have wheels or strong base structure; the ULD/pallets have stringent dimensional standard following the aircraft cargo bay dimension. Therefore, these dollies are custom designed to complement the ULD/pallet's dimension, hinge/fixture position, weak overall physical strength and transportation need. Advanced dollies for ULD and pallets, such as those used on an airport apron, may have the following specialized facilities: Rollers - Dollies have built-in rollers or balls bearings on the deck to assist in the moving of containers or pallets. Advance dollies have two sets of power driven rollers, one set moves the container forward and backward, the other move it left and right.
The precise movement is needed to align the center of gravity of the container to the center of the deck, or else the dollies may turn over when in motion. In addition, the containers or pallets on dollies are secured with built-in locks. Revolving platform - Some dollies have a revolving platform to facilitate rotating the ULDs to the correct orientation before transferring them onto a cargo conveyor belt or ULD/pallet lift leading to the aircraft bay; some revolving platforms are power assisted. Brakes - Dollies have mechanical brakes which automatically lock the dolly wheels when the towbar is in the parked orientation, automatically release the dolly wheels when the towbar is in the towing orientation. No explicit manual locking/unlocking action by the operator is needed. Dolly fleet management is an issue specific to the airport ground support industry. Dollies are not inexpensive consumable equipment like a hand trolley. Dollies are numerous on a large airport apron. An airport has more than one dolly fleet operator, using dollies not different in appearance, each operator is using many types of dollies simultaneously.
The apron is a large area. A dolly in operation needs frequent re-attachment from the tug and other dollies, it is not access controlled. It is not always supervised
A bicycle called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence at a given time; these numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions, they provide a popular form of recreation, have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitness and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing and bicycle stunts. The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. However, many details have been improved since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design; these have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling.
The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that played a key role in the development of the automobile were invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels; the word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysées and Bois de Boulogne". The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle a carriage; the design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used with some degree of overlap for a time. Other words for bicycle include "bike", "pushbike", "pedal cycle", or "cycle". In Unicode, the code point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2; the entity 🚲. The "Dandy horse" called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais.
It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner. Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his or her feet while steering the front wheel; the first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is disputed. He is associated with the first recorded instance of a cycling traffic offense, when a Glasgow newspaper in 1842 reported an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow and was fined five shillings. In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel; this was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.
Several inventions followed using rear-wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. In that same year, bicycle wheels with wire spokes were patented by Eugène Meyer of Paris; the French vélocipède, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing". It featured a tubular steel frame on; these bicycles were difficult to ride due to poor weight distribution. In 1868 Rowley Turner, a sales agent of the Coventry Sewing Machine Company, brought a Michaux cycle to Coventry, England, his uncle, Josiah Turner, business partner James Starley, used this as a basis for the'Coventry Model' in what became Britain's first cycle factory. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive, connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel.
These models were known as safety bicycles, dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's 1885 Rover, manufactured in Coventry is described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon the seat tube was added. Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres in 1889, winning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and England. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed; this refinement led to the 1890s invention of coaster brakes. Dérailleur gears and hand-operated Bowden cable-pull brakes were developed during these years, but were only adopted by casual riders; the Svea Velocipede with vertical pedal arrangement and
Frankfurt–Hahn Airport is an international airport in the municipality of Hahn, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The airport is 10 km from 20 km from both Simmern and Traben-Trarbach; the airport is equidistant between Luxembourg -- about 120 km to each city by road. The closest major cities are Mainz at about 90 km; the airport served 2.47 million passengers in 2017, down from 2.60 million in 2016. Frankfurt-Hahn Airport charges its airline operators less than Frankfurt Airport; the only airlines that operate commercial passenger service to/from the airport are Ryanair and Wizzair, both of which are low-cost carriers. It is a prominent cargo airport as a result of its location and 24-hour operating licence, it had a turnover of 126,753 tons of cargo in 2017. The airport is 82.5% owned by HNA Group, a Fortune Global 500 company based in China and 17.5% owned by the state of Hesse. The airport is not profitable and the European Commission has agreed to allow Rhineland-Palatinate to cover up to €25.3 million of losses between 2017 and 2021 while HNA makes improvements to the airport.
During the Cold War, at which time an invasion of West Germany was a possibility, Hahn Air Base was a frontline air base, home of the United States Air Force 50th Tactical Fighter Wing, in various designations, as part of the United States Air Forces in Europe. It was one of several USAFE bases in Germany within 100 kilometres of each other including Zweibrücken, Ramstein Air Base, Bitburg Air Base, Spangdahlem Air Base, Rhein-Main Air Base; these air bases were well situated to reach all locations within the Mediterranean Basin. Hahn Air Base had three squadrons of F-16 tactical fighters. At the end of the Cold War, the United States was left with a huge excess capacity of expensive airfields in Europe; as a result, the squadrons at the base were inactivated: the 496th Tactical Fighter Squadron was inactivated on 15 May 1991, the 313th Tactical Fighter Squadron was inactivated on 1 July 1991, the 10th Tactical Fighter Squadron was inactivated on 30 September 1991. The 50th Tactical Fighter Wing was inactivated on 30 September 1991 and activated as the 50th Space Wing at Falcon AFB in Colorado on 30 January 1992.
The inactivations had a significant effect on the local economy. Most of Hahn Air Base was returned to civil German authorities on 30 September 1993, though USAFE retained a small portion as a radio communications site until its final return to German authorities in 2012, it is still used for military charters operated by, amongst others, Atlas Air, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines. The German government decided to turn Hahn Air Base into a civil airport with the goal of reducing traffic to Frankfurt International Airport. One of the main investors in the development of the airport was Fraport AG, the operator of Frankfurt International Airport, which received a 65% ownership stake in the airport. In 1996, the faculty and police training school of the Rheinland-Pfalz State Police were combined at a new joint facility located at the air base's former housing area. In 2001, Ryanair began using it as a second base for its European operations. At the request of Ryanair, the name of the airport was changed from Hahn Airport to Frankfurt–Hahn Airport.
Lufthansa began legal proceedings against Ryanair in 2002, claiming the usage of "Frankfurt" in the name to be false advertising. Ryanair was allowed to keep the name but was forced to clarify in its advertising that the airport is 120 kilometers by road from Frankfurt. In 2003, the airport reported a loss of €17 million, compared to €20 million in 2002. In 2007, Etihad Cargo switched its German freighter services from Frankfurt International airport to Frankfurt-Hahn airport. Effective 1 January 2009, Fraport sold its 65% interest in the airport to the government of Rhineland-Palatinate for the symbolic price of €1; the airport had been losing money and Fraport did not want to continue to fund losses. The transaction increased the stake owned by the government to 82.5%. In 2009, a cargo flight departing from Hahn using the Antonov 225 made the world record for the heaviest single piece of air cargo, a 189.98 metric tonne generator for a Fossil-fuel power station in Armenia. In 2013, Etihad Cargo, a major customer of the airport, announced the relocation of its cargo operations from Hahn to Frankfurt Airport.
In January 2014, the airport announced it had accumulated debts of €125 million while passenger and cargo traffic were decreasing. The same year, the government pledged € 80 million to the airport. In February 2014, security staff at the airport initiated a strike action. In the summer of 2014, Ryanair reduced capacity on several routes for and removed 3 of 9 aircraft based at the airport. In March 2015, Yangtze River Express, the largest freight customer of the airport with 4 cargo destinations and accounting for 50,000 of the airport's 130,000 tons of annual volume, announced it would cease its cargo operations at Frankfurt–Hahn Airport in favor of Munich Airport. Months earlier, Qatar Airways and Aeroflot had ceased their cargo operations at the airport. In June 2016, the cargo subsidiary of Air France-KLM announced it would shut down its cargo reloading point at the airport, used to collect freight and transfer it to Paris by truck. In August 2016, RAF-Avia from Latvia announced basing two aircraft at the airport to operate ad-hoc charter flights.
In June 2016, the government of Rhineland-Palatinate announced the sale of its 82.5% in