Chapati known as roti, shabaati and roshi, is an unleavened flatbread originating from the Indian subcontinent and staple in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, East Africa and the Caribbean. Chapatis are made of whole wheat flour known as atta, mixed into dough with water and optional salt in a mixing utensil called a parat, is cooked on a tava, it is a common staple in the Indian subcontinent as well as amongst expatriates from the Indian subcontinent throughout the world. Chapatis were introduced to other parts of the world by immigrants from the Indian subcontinent by Indian merchants to Central Asia, Southeast Asia, East Africa, the Caribbean islands; the word chapat means "slap","flat" which describes the traditional method of forming rounds of thin dough by slapping the dough between the wetted palms of the hands. With each slap, the round of dough is rotated. Chapati is noted in the 16th-century document Ain-i-Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, vizier of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Chapatis are one of the most common forms of wheat bread which are a staple food in the Indian subcontinent.
The carbonized wheat grains discovered at the excavations at Mohenjo-daro are of a similar variety to an endemic species of wheat still to be found in India today. The Indus valley is known to be one of the ancestral lands of cultivated wheat. Chapati is a form of rotta; the words are used interchangeably. Chapatis, along with rotis, were introduced to other parts of the world by immigrants from the Indian subcontinent by Indian merchants who settled in Southeast Asia and the Caribbean islands. Chapatis are made using a soft dough comprising Wheat flour and water, it is more finely ground than most western-style whole wheat flours. Traditionally, roti are prepared without salt to provide a bland background for spiced dishes. Chapati dough is prepared with'flour and water, kneaded with the knuckles of the hand made into a fist and left to proof for at least 10 or 15 minutes to an hour for the gluten in the dough to develop. After proofing, the dough becomes more pliable. Small portions of the dough are pinched off and formed into round balls that are pressed between the two palms to form discs which are dipped into flour and rolled out on a circular rolling board, using a rolling pin known as a velan or belan, into a flat disc.
There are automatic roti makers which automate the whole process. The rolled-out dough is thrown on the preheated dry tava and cooked on both sides. In some regions of the Indian subcontinent chapatis are only cooked on the skillet, put directly on a high flame, which makes them blow up like a balloon; the hot air cooks the chapati from the inside. In some parts of northern India and eastern Pakistan, this is called a phulka. In southern parts of India, it is called a pulka, it is possible to puff up the roti directly on the tava. Once cooked, chapatis are topped with butter or ghee. In western regions of Maharashtra, some oil is added inside rolled out dough and put on tava, this is distinct from paratha. Chapati diameter and thickness vary from region to region. Chapatis made in domestic kitchens are not larger than 15 centimetres to 18 centimetres in diameter since the tava on which they are made comes in sizes that fit comfortably on a domestic stovetop. Tavas were traditionally made of unglazed earthenware, but are now made from metal.
The shape of the rolling pin varies from region to region. Some households use a kitchen worktop as a sort of pastry board, but round flat-topped "boards" made of wood, stone, or stainless steel are available for rolling out chapatis. In most parts of the Indian subcontinent, there is a distinction made between a chapati and other related flatbreads eaten in the region like roti, kulcha and naan based on cooking technique and use of different types of flours. For example, parathas are either made layered by spreading with ghee and rolling out again into a disc which turns out flakey once cooked or is filled with spinach, dal or cooked radish or potato. Parathas are made using all-purpose flour instead of whole wheat flour. There are many regional varieties of chapati in India. Paneer chapati: Grated paneer is added to the usual chapati dough Radish or mullangi chapati: Grated radish and turmeric powder is added to the dough and the chapati is thick, it is eaten by lorry drivers who eat in roadside dhabas during long trips.
Vegetable-stuffed chapati: Mashed carrot, potato and fenugreek are sautéed into a masala gravy. These chapatis are served rolled, many households prepare them using their own combinations of available vegetables. In the Maldives, chapatis are traditionally eaten for breakfast along with a dish known as mas huni; the Indian breads are tasty and nutritious. The chapatis or Indian flatbread is a part of Indian staple food. Chapatis go well accompanies with curries, dry sabjis, chutneys or dal
Haleem is a stew popular in the Middle East, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent. Although the dish varies from region to region, it always includes wheat or barley, sometimes meat and/or lentils. Popular variations include keşkek in Turkey, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and northern Iraq. Americans have a similar dish called Farina. Haleem is made of wheat, meat and spices, sometimes rice is used; this dish is slow cooked for seven to eight hours, which results in a paste-like consistency, blending the flavors of spices, meat and wheat. The origin of haleem lies in the popular Arabian dish known as Harees. According to Shoaib Daniyal, writing in The Sunday Guardian, the first written recipe of Harees dates back to the 10th century, when Arab scribe Abu Muhammad al-Muzaffar ibn Sayyar compiled a cookbook of dishes popular with the "kings and caliphs and lords and leaders" of Baghdad. "The version described in his Kitab Al-Tabikh, the world’s oldest surviving Arabic cookbook, is strikingly similar to the one people in the Middle East eat to this day" it reported.
The Harees was cooked. Harees was introduced in the Indian subcontinent by the Arab soldiers of the Hyderabad Nizam's army to the city. Today, Harees is still available in the Arab quarter of Hyderabad, an area called Barkas, where the dish is called Jareesh. On, the people of Hyderabad modified it to suit their palate thus creating modern haleem. Haleem is sold as a snack food in bazaars throughout the year, it is a special dish prepared throughout the world during the Ramadan and Muharram months of the Muslim Hijri calendar among Pakistanis and Indian Muslims. In India, haleem prepared in Hyderabad during the Ramadan month, is transported all over the world through a special courier service. Haleem is traditionally cooked in wood-fired cauldrons. Haleem is very popular in Bangladesh during the holy month of Ramadan, when it is a staple dish. In Pakistan, Haleem is available all year round, as well as in most Pakistani restaurants around the world. Haleem is sold as a snack street food in Pakistani bazaars throughout the year.
Haleem has become a popular dish in the cities of Hyderabad and Aurangabad, Maharashtra in India. Originating from an Arabic dish called Harees, Haleem was introduced to the region during the Mughal period by foreign migrants. In the Indian subcontinent, both haleem and khichra are made with same ingredients. In khichra, the chunks of meat remain as cubes, while in haleem the meat cubes are taken out of the pot, bones are removed, meat is crushed and put back in the pot, it is further cooked until the meat blends with the lentils and barley mixture. A traditional haleem is made by firstly soaking wheat and gram lentil overnight. A spicy meat gravy called; the wheat and gram are boiled in salt water until they are tender. The cooked wheat and lentils are mixed with the meat gravy and blended with a heavy hand mixer to obtain a paste-like consistency; the cooking procedure takes about 6 hours to be completed. However, haleem preparation varies in different regions. A high-calorie dish, haleem provides protein from the meat and fibre and carbohydrates from the various combinations of grains and pulses.
Haleem can be served with chopped mint leaves, lemon juice, coriander leaves, fried onions, chopped ginger root or green chilies. In some regions of Pakistan, Haleem is eaten with any type of bread or rice. List of stews List of Pakistani soups and stews Food portal Karan, Pratibha. A Princely Legacy, Hyderabadi Cuisine. New Delhi: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-81-7223-318-1
Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, now divided between Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley. With an emphasis on fish and lentils are served with rice as a staple diet. Bengali cuisine is known for its varied use of flavours, as well as the spread of its confectioneries and desserts, it has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once. Annaprashana, or "grain initiation", is a Samskara in which a baby consumes its first solid meal, which consists of some form of rice payesh, as it is easiest to swallow. In Bengali, it can be referred to as "Mukhe Baat", which translates to "rice in mouth". Families are expected to use silver or bronze dishes and cutlery, dress their children in traditional attire that depends on their gender.
After the initial payesh, children are given a few drops of ghee, torkari, a variety of bhaja, chutney, a fish's head and tail. Nowadays, some parents forgo the additional food items and just stick to the payesh, as certain foods may not be good for the child's digestive system yet; the large-scale displacement along religious lines as a result of the partition led to changes in meal-taking, as to adhere to religious restrictions. In Bangladesh, moglai food is common, includes foods that are taboo in West Bengal, such as beef kebab. Additionally, more traditionally Islamic sweets such as zarda and firni-payesh are taken. In rural Bangladesh, many people eat makna fried, popped, or raw; as a whole, Bangladesh's cuisine remained traditional due to its geopolitical isolation. In West Bengal, the only restriction is beef, which applies only to Hindus, but due to recent laws affect Muslim communities. Access to Western food is higher in the West than the East, shortages of foodstuffs like milk and meat are non-existent.
During the colonial period, many Western food shops were established in Kolkata, making puff pastries, channa and chips popular. Dishes such as chop, gravy cutlet, sponge rasogolla, ledikeni; as a result of a more multi-cultural community than Bangladesh, West Bengal's cuisine continuously changes, takes heavy influence from Chinese and Marwari palates. Hindu widows were not allowed to leave the house, so their contribution to the household was restricted to the kitchen, creating a unique class of chefs in the Hindu community. While most Bengali castes ate meat and fish, this was barred for widows. Widows could not use "heating" foods such as shallot and garlic, but ginger was allowed; this style found a core place in Bengali curries in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Expensive spices such as saffron, cinnamon or cloves were used sparingly, if at all; as a result of all of these economic and social restrictions, Bengali widows created a brand new set of meals that utilized only vegetables and cheap spices.
Bengali cuisine can be subdivided into four different types of dishes, charbya, or food, chewed, such as rice or fish. The Nawabs of Dhaka had brought Moglai cuisine to Bengal, with it, many Islamic elements that were wholly retained by Bangladesh's culinary community. Due to the high costs of producing Moglai food, the recipes were limited to the elite classes in colonial India, expanded as Bangladesh's economy grew; the main focus on lamb, beef and mild spices define the taste of the style. Such dishes as kebab. Due to the high class of the food, using an excess amount of expensive ingredients like ghee, making the food melt in one's mouth were essential to the feel of the food. In Kolkata, many local street vendors own small shops from. Items like cheeses can be eaten as is, or can be made into sweet sandesh, rosogolla, or chanar payesh. Milk is used in Kolkata's various types of payesh, differing in use of different grains and additives like dates and berries. In addition to European foodstuffs like chocolate, Kolkata takes culinary influence from its Chinese diaspora.
Puchka known as panipuri, is a common kind of Bengali street food made with a fried dough casing and a potato and chickpea filling found alongside paan and masala chai. Ziafat or Mezban feasts are popular throughout the area, where characteristic "heavy" dishes—dishes rich in animal fat and dairy—are featured. Saltwater fish and seafood are quite prevalent in these areas. Shutki is more available in this region than in other parts of the country. Bangladesh's Southern region is popular worldwide for its fisheries industries with over 100 types of fishes exported every day from this region. Another characteristic of Bengali food is the use of the boti, it is a long curved blade on a platform held down by foot. The method gives effective control over the cutting process, can be used to cut anything from tiny shrimp to large pumpkins. A korai is a universal cooking vessel for most Bengali food, for m
Chana masala known as channay, chole masala, chole or chholay, is a dish originating from the Indian subcontinent. The main ingredient is a variety of chickpea called kala chana, they are twice the diameter of typical chickpeas with a stronger flavour and firmer texture after being cooked. Chole is the name for the larger and lighter coloured chickpea found in the West; these are known as kabuli chana in Hindustani. Chana masala is dry and spicy with a sour citrus note. Chana are replaced by chole in most restaurants, both versions are sold as snack food and street food in the Indian subcontinent. Along with chickpeas, the ingredients of chana masala include onion, chopped tomatoes, coriander seed, chillies, dried mango powder, crushed pomegranate seed, garam masala. In India, it is sold by street vendors and restaurants, may be eaten with puri, bhatoora or kulcha. Aloo chole is a Pakistani variation of chana masala made with chickpeas. In Lahore, a variation of the dish called. Chickpea butternut tagine is a variation from Moroccan cuisine made with roasted squash.
The dish is served over hot steamed or flavoured couscous
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Jeera Aloo is a typical vegetarian Indian dish, served as a side dish and goes well with hot puris, roti or dal. Its main ingredients are cumin seeds and Indian spices. Other ingredients are red chili powder, coriander powder, curry leaves, vegetable oil and salt. In its traditional form the dish is not hot, but it could be spiced up by adding powdered cayenne pepper. Other variations of the dish make use of sweet potatoes instead of regular ones. Jeera aloo is popular as a bachelors’ dish because it is one of the easiest and fastest Indian recipes and it takes less than 20 minutes to be prepared, it is broadly consumed during fasting days as it is a strict vegetarian dish. List of Indian dishes List of potato dishes Jeera Aloo Recipe. India Times
Mughlai cuisine consists of dishes developed in Medieval India at the centres of the Mughal Empire. It represents a combination of South Asian cuisine with the cooking styles and recipes of Central Asian cuisine. Mughlai cuisine is influenced by the cuisine of Central Asia, the region where the early Turko-Mongol Mughal emperors hailed from, it has in turn influenced the regional cuisines of modern Northern India and Bangladesh; the tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from mild to spicy, are associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices. A Mughlai course is an elaborate buffet of main course dishes with a variety of accompaniments. Although the ruling class and administrative elite of the Mughal Empire could variously identify themselves as Turani, Irani and Hindu Rajput, the empire itself was Indo-Persian, having a hybridized, pluralistic Persianate culture. Decorated Indo-Persian cookbooks and culinary manuscripts adorned the personal libraries of the Mughal elite, serving as both culinary guides and for aesthetic value.
One example was the Ni'matnama, a 15th century work illustrated with Persian miniatures. This was commissioned by Sultan Ghiyas Shah, a sultan of Malwa in modern-day Madhya Pradesh, features Central Asian dishes such as samosas, pilaf, sikh and yakhni, as well as western and southern Indian dishes, such as karhi and khandawi. From the Mughal period itself, one popular culinary work was the Nuskha-i-Shahjahani, a record of the dishes believed to be prepared for the court of Emperor Shahjahan; this Persian manuscript features ten chapters, on nānhā, āsh-hā, qalīyas and dopiyāzas, zerbiryāns, pulāʾo, kabābs, harīsas, shishrangas and ḵẖāgīnas, khichṛī. Another famous textbook was Ḵẖulāṣat-i Mākūlāt u Mashrūbāt dating to the era of the emperor Aurangzeb, while another was Alwān-i Niʿmat, a work dedicated to sweetmeats. Divya Narayanan writes:These include varieties of sweet breads such as nān ḵẖatā̤ʾī, sweet pūrīs, sweet samosas, laḍḍū and ḥalwā; the cookbook introduces each recipe with a line of praise: for instance saṃbosa-i yak tuhī dam dāda is declared as being ‘among the famous and well-known sweets.
There are many commonalities between Indo-Persian cookbooks used at the Mughal court and contemporary culinary works from Safavid Iran, such as the Kārnāma dar bāb-i T̤abāḵẖī wa ṣanʿat-i ān of Ḥājī Muḥammad ʿAlī Bāwarchī Bag̱ẖdādī. Dishes include: Haleem Tikkas Biryani Mughlai Paratha Qeema Matar Murg Kababs Mughlai Murgh Musallam Pasanda Rezala Falooda Gulab Jamun Jalebi Kesari Firni is a rice based sweet dish streaked with Saffron Shahi Tukra is a rich bread pudding with dry fruits, flavoured with cardamom. Sheer korma Karachi cuisine Mughlai Cook Book, Diamond Pocket Books, ISBN 81-7182-547-8 Nita Mehta's Vegetarian Mughlai Khaana By Nita Mehta, Published 1999 ISBN 81-86004-10-6 Mughlai By Amrita Patel Published 2004, Sterling Publishers, 160 pages ISBN 81-207-2646-4 Mughlai Recipes Mughal Emperors' Food