West Mercia Police
West Mercia Police known as West Mercia Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire in England. The force area covers 2,868 square miles making it the fourth largest police area in England and Wales; the resident population of the area is 1.19 million. Its name comes from the ancient kingdom of Mercia; the force is divided into five divisions and represent a wide spread of policing environments from densely populated urban conurbations on the edge of Birmingham as well as Telford and Worcester, to sparsely populated rural areas found in the rest of the force area. As of September 2017, the force has a workforce of 2,017 police officers, 223 police community support officers, 1541 police staff and 388 members of the special constabulary; the force has its headquarters in the historical manor house and grounds of Hindlip Hall on the outskirts of Worcester. Its badge combines the heraldry of Worcestershire and Shropshire.
West Mercia Police has two control rooms, one in the headquarters in Hindlip and a North control room in Battlefield, Shrewsbury. The force was formed on 1 October 1967, by the merger of the Worcestershire Constabulary, Herefordshire Constabulary, Shropshire Constabulary and Worcester City Police, it lost territory to West Midlands Police when, constituted on 1 April 1974. It changed its name from "West Mercia Constabulary" to "West Mercia Police" on 5 May 2009. West Mercia was a partner, in the Central Motorway Police Group. On 8 April 2018 West Mercia withdrew from the CPMG, with the 25 West Mercia police officers attached to the group returning to the in-force roads policing service. In 2013 an alliance was formed with Warwickshire Police. In October 2018, West Mercia Police announced. 1967–1975: Sir John Willison 1975–1981: Alex Rennie 1981–1985: Bob Cozens 1985–1991: Anthony Mullett 1991–1999: David Cecil Blakey 1999–2003: Peter Hampson 2003–2011: Paul West 2011–2016: David Shaw 2016–: Anthony BanghamPaul West, QPM, who retired as chief constable on 31 July 2011 was the longest serving chief constable in the force's history.
He was succeeded by his deputy chief constable, David Shaw, who took up the senior post on 1 August 2011. Anthony Bangham became Chief Constable in August 2016; the force is organised into five territorial policing units which are alphabetically coded geographically from south to north. Operating across three counties, West Mercia Police maintains many stations, with each TPU having an HQ Police station; the TPUs are further divided into Safer Neighbourhood Teams. Listed below are the TPUs and police stations maintained by the force: Covering Worcester, Droitwich and Evesham Worcester Pershore Malvern Evesham Broadway Droitwich Tenbury Wells Upton-on-SevernWest Mercia Police owns Defford RAF Defford Covering Kidderminster and Redditch Kidderminster Stourport Bewdley Hagley Wythall Rubery Bromsgrove Redditch Hereford South Hereford Leominster Bromyard Ledbury Peterchurch Ross-on-Wye Kington Highley Ludlow Some areas of Shropshire are covered by Telford and Hereford officers. Shrewsbury Shrewsbury Market Drayton Oswestry Pontesbury Wem Whitchurch Bridgnorth Telford Wellington, Shropshire Donnington Madeley A volunteer cadet scheme had existed in the Telford division since the early 1990s and in September 2013, the scheme was expanded force-wide, creating a new detachment of police cadets in each Territorial Policing Unit area.
Each detachment is headquartered in the respective TPU HQ, except the South Worcestershire detachment, based at Tudor Grange Academy. In 2010, the Telford Cadets Detachment was awarded The Queen's Award for Voluntary Service. According to West Mercia Police's website, "The scheme is aimed at young people who wish to engage in a program that offers them an opportunity to gain a practical understanding of policing, develop their spirit of adventure and good citizenship, while supporting their local policing priorities through volunteering, working with partner agencies and positive participation in their communities." A new intake of 15 new cadets per detachment occurs annually. New recruits must have finished secondary education. Young people can remain as cadets for up to two years. Cadets can consider joining the force at age 18, becoming a cadet leader in their detachment, or leaving the scheme altogether; each detachment is led by several cadet leaders who are police officers, PCSOs and police volunteers from the force.
In November 2005, the government announced major reforms of policing in England and Wales, which raised the prospect of West Mercia Constabulary being merged with other forces in the West Midlands region. Under final proposals made by the Home Secretary on 6 February 2006, it would merge with Staffordshire Police, Warwickshire Constabulary and West Midlands Police to form a single strategic force for the West Midlands region; this came under particular criticism from West Mercia Constabulary as it was rated the best force in the country. Instead, the constabulary wished to remain a separate force; the proposals were unpopular with many of the local authorities in the West Mercia area. When Labour's John Reid became Home Secretary in 2006, he put plans to merge the forces on hold; the subsequent coalition and Conservative governments have not made any indication of re-introducing such plans. In 2013 the West
Wem is a small market town in Shropshire, England. It is the administrative centre for the northern area committee of Shropshire Council, which has its headquarters at Edinburgh House in the centre of Wem. Wem lies nine miles to the north of Shropshire's county town of Shrewsbury and sits on the rail line between that town and Crewe in Cheshire. Wem's civil parish is named Wem Urban. A separate civil parish in the surrounding countryside is named Wem Rural; the name of the town is derived from the Old English wamm, meaning a marsh, as marshy land exists in the area of the town. Over time, this was corrupted to form "Wem"; the area now known as Wem is believed to have been settled prior to the Roman Conquest of Britain, by the Cornovii, Celtic Iron Age settlers. The town is recorded in the Domesday Book as consisting of four manors in the hundred of Hodnet. In 1202, Wem became a market town. From the 12th century revisions to the hundreds of Shropshire, Wem was within the North Division of Bradford Hundred until the end of the 19th century.
The Domesday Book records that Wem was held by First Lord of Wem, from Earl Roger. The town supported the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, was subject to an attack by Lord Capel, in which the town held off the attackers. In 1677, a fire destroyed many of the wooden buildings in the town. Within the town the sweet pea was first commercially cultivated, under the variety named Eckford Sweet Pea, after its inventor, nursery-man Henry Eckford, he first introduced a variety of the sweet pea in 1882, set up in Wem in 1888, developing and producing many more varieties. There is a road to signify the Eckford name, called Eckford Park; each year, the Eckford Sweet Pea Society of Wem hold a sweet pea festival. In Victorian times, the town was known as "Wem, where the sweet peas grow". Brewing a'cottage industry', was carried out in Wem as early as 1700, when Richard Gough wrote of a contemporary in his History of Myddle a Latin aphorism he translated: Let slaves admire base things, but my friend still/My cup and can with Wem's stoute ale shall fill.
By 1900 a Shrewsbury and Wem Brewery Company traded on a widespread scale after acquiring the brewery in Noble Street run by Charles Henry Kynaston. The company was taken over in turn by Greenall Whitley & Co Ltd but the brewery was closed in 1988. From 1986 to 1989 the brewery served as the shirt sponsor for Shrewsbury Town. Wem was struck by an F1/T2 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. More it has been popularly known as the siting of the so-called Wem ghost. In 1995 an amateur photographer photographed a blaze. Although the photographer denied forgery, after his death it was suggested that the girl in his photo bore a'striking similarity' with one in a postcard of the town from 1922. Wem was the centre of a large parish, which became a civil parish in 1866. In 1900 the outer parts of the parish were separated to form the civil parish of Wem Rural, the town itself became the civil parish of Wem Urban, coextensive with Wem Urban District.
In 1967 the urban district became part of North Shropshire Rural District. From 1974 to 2009 it was part of North Shropshire district; the parish council of Wem Urban has exercised its right to call itself a town council. The electoral ward of Wem for the purposes of elections to Shropshire Council covers part of Wem Rural parish; the population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 8,234. Since 1978, Wem has been twinned with Fismes in France, after, named a road in Wem, Fismes Way; the River Roden flows to the south of the town. The Shropshire Way long distance waymarked path passes through Wem. Within the town there are four main churches; the oldest of these is the Anglican Parish Church of St. St. Paul; the other three are Baptist and Roman Catholic. Thomas Adams School is a state-funded secondary school, established in 1650, it has a Sixth Form College on site. Each year Wem holds a traditional town carnival on the first Saturday of September, as well as the Sweet Pea Festival on the third weekend of July.
Wem Vehicles of Interest Rally & Grand Parade runs along side the Sweet Pea Festival on the Sunday. Hawkstone Park is nearby. Wem was the fiefdom of Judge Jeffreys, known as the "hanging judge" for his willingness to impose capital punishment on supporters of the Duke of Monmouth, his seat was Lowe Hall at The Wem. In 1683 he was made Baron Jeffreys of Wem. Wem's main claim to fame is that it was the childhood home of one of England's greatest essayists and critics, William Hazlitt. Hazlitt's father moved their family there. Hazlitt senior became the Unitarian Minister in the town occupying a building on Noble Street that still stands. In 2008 the town held a 230th Anniversary Celebration of Hazlitt's Life and work for five days, hosted by author Edouard d'Araille who gave series of talks and conference about'William of Wem'. William Hazlitt moved away from Wem in life and died in London. In 1940 Anna Essinger, a German Jewish educator, evacuated her boarding school, Bunce Court School from Otterden, in Kent to Trench Hall, near Wem.
She facilitated Kindertransport. Sir Thomas Adams, 1st Baronet Lord Mayor of the City of London and MP for the City of London from 1654–1655 and 1656–1658. Philip Holland nonconformist minister. John Astley portrait painter and amateur architect Edward Whalley-Tooker
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service
The Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering Shropshire, including Telford and Wrekin, in the West Midlands region of England. Shropshire's Fire and Rescue Service is provided by 512 full-time and retained firefighters based at 23 fire stations around the county, they deploy 46 operational vehicles and a number of specialist appliances. Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service is governed by elected Council representatives from Shropshire's two unitary councils, Shropshire Council and Telford and Wrekin Council, together these representatives make up the Shropshire and Wrekin Fire Authority, chaired by an elected Ccuncillor, the current Chair is Councillor Eric Carter. Day to day operational control of the service is vested in Rod Hammerton. Within the organisation the CFO has full responsibility for the service and manages Finance and Resources; the remainder of executive duties fall to the senior management team, consisting of: Deputy Chief Fire Officer Andy Johnson, who responsible for Community Safety, Service Delivery and Operations Assistant Chief Fire Officer Dave Myers, responsible for Human Resources, Development, Performance Review and Risk and Communications Technology and Chaplaincy Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service is one of the highest performing UK fire services, achieving high marks in external audits carried out by the Audit Commission.
Water Ladder: P1/P3 Rescue Pump: P2 Light 4x4 Pump: S6 Light 6x6 Pump: S6 Light Pumping Unit: W3 Water Carrier: W1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Incident Support Unit: S1 Heavy Rescue Unit: R1 Water Rescue Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: B1 Incident Command & Control Unit: C1/C2/C3 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Rapid Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover: T7/T8/T9^For Pods: Environmental Protection Unit: H1 Bulk Foam Unit: S3 Heavy Pumping Unit: W1 Hose Layer Unit: W2 High Volume Pump: W1 High Volume Hose Layer: W2^ Prime Mover Callsign when not carrying Pods CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service West Mercia Police West Mercia Search and Rescue West Midlands Ambulance Service List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Ellesmere is a market town near Oswestry in north Shropshire, notable for its proximity to a number of prominent lakes known as the Meres. Ellesmere Castle was an 11th-century motte-and-bailey castle most built by either Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, or his son Roger the Poitevin at Castlefields overlooking the Mere. Only its earthworks now remain, with the top of the motte being used for the bowling green, which still commands a fine view. In 1114, King Henry I gave Ellesmere to William Peverel as a part of the Maelor, which included Overton & Whittington at that time, his descendants retained Ellesmere until the late 1140s when the lordship was acquired by force, by Madog ap Maredudd of Powys. Madog died in 1160 and Ellesmere came into the hands of King Henry II. In 1177 King Henry II gave the manors of Hales in England to Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. Dafydd remained Lord of Ellesmere until his death in 1203. In mid-April 1205, Llywelyn the Great married Joan, Lady of Wales illegitimate daughter of King John and Ellesmere was given to them as a wedding gift.
Llywelyn's mother was daughter of Madog ap Maredudd, Prince of Powys. There is evidence that, after her first husband Iorwerth's death, Marared married in the summer of 1197, the nephew of Roger Powys of Whittington Castle, she seems to have pre-deceased her husband, after bearing him a son, David ap Gwion, therefore there can be no truth in the story that she married into the Corbet family of Caus Castle and Moreton Corbet Castle. Ellesmere was ordered to be attacked by King Henry III in 1231, but Llywelyn retained control of the lordship until his death in 1240. In 1241 King Henry III ordered John le Strange to repair the wooden castle of Ellesmere; the lordship appears to have passed into the hands of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd or his brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd, grandsons of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and last of the native Princes of Wales. The castle fell to royal troops from Chester during March 1282. In 1287, Oliver Ingham, an English commander and administrator in Aquitaine during the War of Saint-Sardos and early Hundred Years War was born in Ellesmere.
His daughter Joan married Robert le Strange, 4th Baron Strange, son of Lord Strange of Knockin & Isolda de Walton. By 1294, the preceptory of Dolgynwal had been united with Halston, subsequently the administrative centre for all Knights Hospitaller estates in North Wales. Dolgynwal, founded c. 1190, had acquired Ellesmere Church, its most substantial property, from Llywelyn the Great in 1225 In 1435, Griffin Kynaston, Seneschal of the Lordship of Ellesmere, gave evidence at Shrewsbury to confirm the age of John Burgh, Lord of Mowthey, sponsored by Lord John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, Lieutenant of Ireland. Griffin's fourth son, Sir Roger Kynaston, was appointed for life as Escheator and Sheriff of Merioneth and became Constable of Harlech Castle and Sheriff of Shropshire. Humphrey Kynaston, the son of Roger and his second wife Elizabeth Grey was, in 1491, declared an outlaw by King Henry VII and took shelter in a cave in the west point of Nesscliffe Rock, called to this day "Kynaston's Cave".
He was pardoned in 1493. The former Marcher Lordship of Ellesmere was annexed to Shropshire and the Hundred of Pymhill by section 11 of the Laws in Wales Act 1535. Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere and Viscount Brackley, was born Lord Francis Leveson-Gower, in Ellesmere in 1800. A patron of the arts, in 1848 he purchased at auction for 355 guineas from the estate of Richard Temple-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, the only known portrait of William Shakespeare in existence. Ellesmere Island in Canada was named after him. There was a tannery located on the edge of the Mere in; these gardens were given to the people of Ellesmere by Lord Brownlow, involved in the Edward VIII abdication crisis of 1936. The town is located by the side of'the Mere', one of the largest natural meres in England outside the Lake District and one of nine glacial meres in the area.. These meres are different from those in the Lake District in that they do not have a flow of water into them to maintain the level.
An artificial island in the Mere was constructed in 1812 from soil dug out during the making of the gardens at Ellesmere House. This was named Moscow Island, as Napoleon was forced to retreat from Moscow that year; the Mere has a visitors' centre and is popular with birdwatchers, many of whom visit to see grey herons nesting. There are eight other meres nearby: Blakemere, Crosemere, Newtonmere, Whitemere and Hanmer Mere; the civil parish which constitutes the town is Ellesmere Urban. The A495 and A528 roads cross at Ellesmere; the latter runs 15 miles south-southeast from Ellesmere to Shrewsbury. The town lies beside the Llangollen Canal with a short side arm reaching the town centre wharf; the canal terminates just outside Llangollen at Llantysilio after passing through the 18 km World Heritage site whi
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate