Arbatskaya (Filyovskaya line)
Arbatskaya is a station on the Filyovskaya line of the Moscow Metro. Completed in 1935, it was one of the original Metro stations; the design is the same standard pillar-trispan template used for Smolenskaya and Park Kultury. The pillars are faced with pinkish marble and the platform is a matching shade of granite; the walls are covered with cream-colored ceramic tile. The architect was L. Teplitskiy Arbatskaya's vestibule is a unique five-tiered, pentagonal structure with the word "Metro" written on all sides; the building is painted bright red, making it noticeable and recognizable. The station and Arbatskaya on the Arbatsko–Pokrovskaya line are featured in the Resident Evil: Retribution Moscow segment
Pyotr Bagration was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars. Bagration was born in Tbilisi to a family, part of the Bagrationi dynasty, his father was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army, which Bagration enlisted in 1782. Bagration began his career serving in the Russo-Circassian War for a couple years. Afterwards he participated in a war against the Ottomans and the capture of Ochakov in 1788, he helped suppress the Kościuszko Uprising of 1794 in Poland and capture Warsaw. During the Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799 against the French, he served with distinction under Alexander Suvorov. In 1805, Russia joined the coalition against Napoleon. After the collapse of the Austrians at Ulm, Bagration won praise for his successful defense in the Battle of Schöngrabern that allowed Russian forces to withdraw and unite with the main Russian army of Mikhail Kutuzov; the combined Russo-Austrian army was defeated at the Battle of Austerlitz in December, where Bagration commanded the right wing against the French under Jean Lannes.
Years he commanded Russian troops in the Finnish War against Sweden and another war against the Turks in the Danube. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812, Bagration commanded one of two large Russian armies, the other commanded by Barclay de Tolly, fighting a series of rear-guard actions; the Russians failed to stop the French advance at the Battle of Smolensk. Barclay had proposed a scorched earth retreat, approved by Alexander I, although Bagration preferred to confront the French in a major battle. Mikhail Kutuzov succeeded Barclay as Commander-in-Chief and continued his policy until the Battle of Borodino near Moscow. Bagration commanded the left wing called the Bagration flèches, at Borodino, where he was mortally wounded and died a few weeks later, he was buried at a local church, but in 1839 was reburied on the battlefield of Borodino. Pyotr was born in 1765 to a prince of the Mukhrani branch of the Bagrationi dynasty, Colonel Prince Ivane Bagrationi, the eldest son of Prince Alexander, an illegitimate son of King Jesse of Kartli, now central Georgia.
He studied Russian and German and was taught Persian, Turkish and Georgian by his father. However, unlike many other Russian aristocrats, he did not know French. Bagration identified himself as a "pure Russian". Pyotr joined the Imperial Russian Army in 1782, enlisting as a sergeant in the Kavsansk Rifles of the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment, his younger brother Roman joined the Chuguevsk Cossack regiment as a uryadnik at the age of thirteen in 1791. Both would go on to become generals of the Imperial Russian Army. Bagration served for some years in the Russian-Circassian War, he participated in the Siege of Ochakov. In 1792 he was commissioned as a Captain and transferred to the Kiev Cavalry Regiment that year as a second Major, transferring as a full first Major to the Sofiiskii Carabineers on 15 May 1794, he served in the military campaign to suppress the Polish Kościuszko Uprising of 1794. He received successive promotions to Colonel and to Major-General, his merits were recognized by Suvorov, whom he accompanied in the Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799, winning particular distinction by the capture of the town of Brescia.
From 1798 to 1799, he commanded the 6th Chasseurs. He was the alleged lover of Emperor Paul's daughter Catherine. In 1800 Paul recognized the title of "Prince Bagration" for Pyotr in Russia, unexpectedly married him off to Countess Catherine Pavlovna Skavronskaya, the favorite niece of Grigory Potemkin and one of the Empress Maria's ladies-in-waiting. Bagration and Catherine had been casually involved; the young and lovely Catherine soon preferred traveling and, in 1805, fled to Vienna, where her salon and running affair with Prince Clemens von Metternich—who called her "the Naked Angel"—permitted her to serve as an important agent of Russian intelligence and diplomacy. Bagration was obliged by the emperor to claim their daughter, Marie-Clementine, as his own and to subsidize thousands of rubles of Catherine's debts, he had a reputation as a heavy gambler, as well, was forced to sell estates to cover losses that rose as high as 80,000 roubles. In the wars of 1805 Bagration's achievements appeared more brilliant.
When Napoleon ordered Murat to break an armistice he had just signed with Bagration, the general was able to resist the repeated attacks of forces five times his own numbers under Murat and Lannes at Schöngrabern near Hollabrunn. Though Bagration lost half of the men under his command, their stand protected the retreat of the main army under Kutuzov to Olmutz; when Kutuzov was overruled and forced into battle at Austerlitz, Bagration commanded the advance guard of the Prince Liechtenstein's column and defended the allied right against Lannes while the left attacked Napoleon's deliberately undefended right flank. He was promoted to Lieutenant-General in 1805, in 1807 fought bravely and obstinately at the battles of Eylau and Friedland, he was successful as commander of both Russia's Finnish Campaign in 1808 and Turkish Campaign in 1809. In the former, he captured the Åland Islands by a daring march across the frozen Gulf of Finland, his rapid transfer to the distant Moldavian front against the Ottoman Empire has been seen as a reprimand for an alleged affair with the tsarevna Catherine, married off shortly thereafter.
While there, he led the R
Filyovsky Park District
Filyovsky Park District is a district of Western Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia. The district is 6.5 km west of the center of the city, its northern and eastern borders are the Moskva River. Located in the area are the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Church of the Intercession at Fili, Gorbunov Palace of Culture and Filevsky Park; the area of the district is 9.624 square kilometres. Population: 89,513 . Fili
Gorbúshka is a marketplace for dealing in music and household equipment in Moscow, Russia. The word itself is an associative usage of an untranslatable Russian word for the first slice from a loaf of bread which contains the crust. If the loaf is round, the shape resembles a hump; the word has many cultural associations in Russia. Before the year 2001 the name "Gorbushka" referred to an open-air black market for software, music and electronics; the market was in the city square by the Gorbunov Palace of Culture, hence the name. The market dealt in unlicensed music and software CDs, gaming consoles with mod chips, as well as video games. Due to the copyright infringement issues Gorbushka was in sights of the government for a long time; the market closed in 2001. In its place a more legal shopping center Gorbushkin dvor was opened. Alexey Khotin is reported to own the company now. Gorbushka shopping center home page Gorbushka without Piratery, a BBC article Moscow targets media pirates, a BBC article gorbushka.ru internet portal
Smolensky Metro Bridge
Smolensky Metro Bridge is a steel arch bridge that spans Moskva River in Dorogomilovo District of Moscow, Russia. It is the first bridge built for the Moscow Metro in 1935–1937, designed by N. P. Polikarpov, P. K. Antonov and Yakovlev brothers, it is one of two bridges over Moskva River that are used by Metro trains, while the other Metro bridges combine road and rail. The first stage of Moscow Metro opened in 1935 terminated at a shallow alignment Smolenskaya station; the second stage started with a 1.4 kilometer westward extension from Smolenskaya to Kiyevskaya, a station serving the Kiyevsky Rail Terminal, which required a river crossing. Tunnel crossing was impractical. Yakovlev brothers won with a modest, reserved prototype. Actual bridge was built without planned statues and portico; the two-track bridge is supported with two 150 11 meter high П-shaped steel arches. Arch box profile is 1.2 meter high at extreme points, 2.7 meter high in the middle. Above ground, track continues on concrete girders above embankments, so the bridge has a total of six spans: 19.225+20.5+19.225+150.0+19.225+19.225 meters.
Two main pillars, finished in grey granite, are based on flat caissons, each measuring 40 by 17.5 meters. Regular train service was closed in 1953 when a deep alignment Metro line was built. In 1958, service was resumed with the opening of Filyovskaya Line. List of bridges in Moscow Postcard of Metro train on the Bridge
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Metro-2 is the informal name for a purported secret underground metro system which parallels the public Moscow Metro. The system was built, or at least started, during the time of Joseph Stalin and was codenamed D-6 by the KGB, it is still operated by the Main Directorate of Special Programmes and Ministry of Defence. The length of Metro-2 is rumored to exceed that of the public Metro, it is said to have four lines, to lay 50–200 meters deep. It is said to connect the Kremlin with the Federal Security Service headquarters, the government airport at Vnukovo-2, an underground town at Ramenki, in addition to other locations of national importance. In 1994, the leader of an urban exploration group, the Diggers of the Underground Planet, claimed to have found an entrance to this underground system. In the summer of 1992, the literary and journalistic magazine Yunost published a novel by the author and screenwriter Vladimir Gonik entitled Preispodniaia, set in an underground bunker in Moscow. Earlier, in the spring of that year, excerpts from the novel had been published in the weekly newspaper Sovershenno sekretno.
In an interview with both the newspaper's editor and Gonik in 1993, the author stated that the term "Metro-2" had been introduced to them, that the novel had been written based on information collected over the previous 20 years by the two of them on things such as secret bunkers and the underground railways connecting them. Gonik admitted that he had worked on the book between 1973 and 1986, that some of the more sensitive information had been purposefully misrepresented. In years, Gonik has argued that the bunkers, therefore the so-called "Metro-2", had been for use by the leadership of the Politburo and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, along with their families, in case of war. According to him, in the early 1970s the General Secretary of the CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev visited the main bunker, and, in 1974, awarded the Chairman of the KGB at the time, Yuri Andropov, the Gold Star Medal of the Hero of Socialist Labour; each member of the Central Committee had a 180 m2 apartment, with a study, lounge and bathroom.
Gonik claims to have gathered this information working as a doctor in the polyclinic of the Ministry of Defence. After the publication of the novel in 1992, the subject of a second, underground railway has been raised many times in the Russian media. In particular, the magazine Ogoniok has referred to a "Metro-2" several times. Russian journalists have reported that the existence of Metro-2 is neither confirmed nor denied by the FSB or the Moscow Metro administration. However, listed below is evidence for the Metro-2's existence. In 1991, the United States Department of Defense published a report entitled Military forces in transition, which devoted several pages to a secret government underground in Moscow, it included a diagram of the system superimposed on a map of the city. "The Soviets have constructed deep-underground both outside the city. These facilities are interconnected by a network of deep interconnected subway lines that provide a quick and secure means of evacuation for the leadership.
The leadership can move from their peacetime offices through concealed entryways in protective quarters beneath the city. There are important one located at the Kremlin. Soviet press has noted the presence of an enormous underground leadership bunker adjacent to Moscow State University; these facilities are intended for the national command authority in wartime. They are estimated to be between 200 m and 300 m deep, can accommodate an estimated 10,000 people. A special subway line runs from some points in Moscow and to the VIP terminal at Vnukovo Airfield" —Military forces in transition, 1991, p. 40 In 1992, in an interview with Time, Deputy Director Broadcaster Igor Malashenko spoke about the existence of Sofrino-2, about 30 km to the north-east of Moscow's television broadcasting centers, built at great depths in case of nuclear war. According to Malashenko, the equipment was unusable due to age, he went on to say that the same fate befell many of the underground bomb shelters, in particular a system of underground bunkers beneath the building of Moscow State University, which he said were flooded and had deteriorated.
In 2004, former advisor of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, former Russian president Boris Yeltsin and president Vladimir Putin, Vladimir Shevchenko confirmed the existence of a secret in the Moscow Metro. "Reports on the number of underground communications are exaggerated. In the days of Stalin, afraid of assassination attempts, there was in fact a single-track underground railway line running from the Kremlin to his so-called "Nearby Dacha" in Volynskoye. Today, neither the Dacha nor the subway line are in use. In addition, there were underground transport links between the General Staff and several other government facilities. In 1991 a pneumatic mail tube was constructed between the CPSU Central Committee building in Moscow's Old Square and the Kremlin." In 2008, Shevchenko once again touched upon the Metro-2. "Currently, the Kremlin subway cannot be called a transportation artery, and, as far as I know, for its continued operation it required major repairs: for among other things there are a lot of underground utilities which will decay."
In 2008, Mikhail Poltoranin, a minister under Boris Yeltsin in the early 1990s, explained "This is an extensive network of tunnels and an emergency command center in case