A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer; the word soldier derives from the Middle English word soudeour, from Old French soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier; these words derive from the Late Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the Byzantine Empire. In most armies use of the word "soldier" has taken on a more general meaning due to the increasing specialization of military occupations that require different areas of knowledge and skill-sets; as a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names or ranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialty arm, service, or branch of military employment, their type of unit, or operational employment or technical use such as: trooper, commando, infantryman, paratrooper, ranger, engineer, craftsman, medic, or a gunner.
In many countries soldiers serving in specific occupations are referred to by terms other than their occupational name. For example, military police personnel in the British Army are known as "red caps" because of the colour of their caps. Infantry are sometimes called "grunts" or "squaddies", while U. S. Army artillery crews, or "gunners," are sometimes referred to as "redlegs", from the service branch color for artillery. U. S. soldiers are called "G. I.s". French Marine Infantry are called marsouins because of their amphibious role. Military units in most armies have nicknames of this type, arising either from items of distinctive uniform, some historical connotation or rivalry between branches or regiments; some soldiers, such as conscripts or draftees, serve a single limited term. Others choose to serve until retirement. In the United States, military members can retire after 20 years. In other countries, the term of service is 30 years, hence the term "30-year man". According to the United Nations, 10-30% of all soldiers worldwide are women.
Airman Marine Sailor Media related to Soldier at Wikimedia Commons
Grace and favour
A grace-and-favour home is a residential property owned by a monarch by virtue of his or her position as head of state and leased rent-free, to persons as part of an employment package or in gratitude for past services rendered. It is possible that the term crept into English through the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli, who wrote of advisers who are ministers per grazia e concessione, translated as "through grace and favour". In the United Kingdom, these homes are owned by The Crown or a charity and, in modern times, are within the gift of the Prime Minister. Most of these properties are taxed as a "benefit in kind", although this status does not apply to 10 Downing Street or any home granted for security purposes, such as the residence of the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, they are at times granted to senior politicians. In 1986, there were 120 apartments total; the most splendid are at Kensington Palace where lived the Prince of Wales, Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, Prince and Princess of Kent.
There are some at Windsor Palace, Buckingham Palace where lived the Princess Alice. St James's Palace had 20 apartments. Lord Kitchener once lived there. Most apartments are modest, some two rooms, inhabited by retired members of the household staff. Hampton Court apartments were occupied by retired soldiers and diplomats or their widows. Grace and favour apartments have been discontinued at Hampton Court. There were once 69. In 1986, this had dwindled to 15. Frogmore Cottage was once used as a grace and favour residence for Abdul Karim. in 2018, Duke and Duchess of Sussex intended to move there in the spring of 2019. Other residents include: 10 Downing Street, City of Westminster — official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury Chequers, Ellesborough — official country house of the Prime Minister 11 Downing Street, Westminster — official residence of the Chancellor of the Exchequer 12 Downing Street, Westminster — official residence of the Chief Whip Dorneywood, Burnham — official ministerial residence.
Admiralty House, Westminster — official ministerial residence 1 Carlton Gardens, Westminster — official ministerial residence. Nottingham Cottage Garden House - official residence of the Commonwealth Secretary-General Hillsborough Castle, Hillsborough — official ministerial residence for the Northern Ireland Secretary Bute House, Charlotte Square, Edinburgh — official residence of the First Minister of Scotland. Tulliallan Castle, Fife — official residence of the Chief Constable of Police Scotland. Moderators Flat, Rothesay Terrace - official residence of the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland Royal Parks of London
A stable is a building in which livestock horses, are kept. It most means a building, divided into separate stalls for individual animals. There are many different types of stables in use today; the term "stable" is used to describe a group of animals kept by one owner, regardless of housing or location. The exterior design of a stable can vary based on climate, building materials, historical period and cultural styles of architecture. A wide range of building materials can be used, including masonry and steel. Stables range in size, from a small building housing one or two animals to facilities at agricultural shows or race tracks that can house hundreds of animals; the stable is historically the second-oldest building type on the farm. The world’s oldest horse stables were discovered in the ancient city of Pi-Ramesses in Qantir, in Ancient Egypt, were established by Ramesses II; these stables covered 182,986 square feet, had floors sloped for drainage, could contain about 480 horses. Free-standing stables began to be built from the 16th century.
They were well built and placed near the house because these animals were valued and maintained. They were once vital to an indicator of their owners' position in the community. Few examples survive of complete interiors from the mid-19th century or earlier. Traditionally, stables in Great Britain had a hayloft on their first floor and a pitching door at the front. Doors and windows were symmetrically arranged, their interiors were divided into stalls and included a large stall for a foaling mare or sick horse. The floors were featured drainage channels. Outside steps to the first floor were common for farm hands to live in the building. For horses, stables are part of a larger complex which includes trainers and farriers. "Stable" is used metaphorically to refer to a group of people – sportspeople – trained, supervised or managed by the same person or organisation. For example, art galleries refer to the artists they represent as their stable of artists; the headquarters of a unit of cavalry, not their horses' accommodation, would be known as "a stable".
Media related to stables at Wikimedia Commons. Horse care: Barns and stables Glossary of equestrian terms Livery stable Nativity of Jesus Pen
James Paine (architect)
James Paine was an English architect. James Paine was baptised 9 October 1717 at Andover, the youngest of the five children of John Paine, carpenter, of Andover, his wife, Jane Head. Whilst facts about Paine's early life are sparse, it is thought that he studied at the St Martin's Lane Academy, founded by William Hogarth in 1735 to allow artists to practise life drawing. Here he came into contact with many innovative architects, artists designers, including architect Isaac Ware, it is thought that Ware introduced him to his circle of friends. Paine’s first professional job, aged only nineteen, was as the Clerk of Works supervising the building of Nostell Priory, designed by Colonel James Moyser, a friend of Lord Burlington. A Palladian, Paine was to work on many other projects in the area including Heath House in the village of Heath in between Nostell Priory and Wakefield. Paine lived in Pontefract whilst working at Nostell Priory, whilst working on that project, he was commissioned to design the Mansion House at Doncaster, Yorkshire between 1745–8.
From the 1750s, he had his own practice, designed many villas consisting of a central building with a fine staircase, two symmetrical wings. The most important house which he was involved with was Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire where he succeeded Matthew Brettingham from 1759 to 1760 and suggested the colonnaded hall, but he was himself displaced by Robert Adam, who altered his designs. At around the same time he designed the grand stables at Chatsworth House in the same county, he was a favourite architect of the powerful Catholic families of the time. In the 1760s he was commissioned to rebuild Worksop Manor for the Duke of Norfolk as well as the new Thorndon Hall in Essex for Lord Petre and his house on Park Lane, London. From 1770 to 1776, he built New Wardour Castle in Wiltshire. Paine held various posts, some sinecures, in the Office of Works culminating in appointment as one of the two Architects of the Works in 1780 but lost the post in a reorganisation in 1782, he was appointed High Sheriff of Surrey for 1783.
His practice declined in his years as he refused to participate in the Neoclassical fashions established by the Adam brothers. He published much of his own work in his two volumes of Plans and sections of Noblemen and Gentlemen's Houses. In 1789, Paine retired to France. Paine married twice, his first wife was Sarah Jennings and coheir of George Jennings of Pontefract. They married in March 1741 and had a son, the architect and topographical watercolourist James Paine. After Sarah's death, Paine married Charlotte Beaumont, youngest daughter of Richard Beaumont of Whitley Beaumont, near Huddersfield, they were married by June 1748 and had two daughters and Mary, known as'Polly'. Charlotte married St John Charlton on the 22 December 1781 who became High Sheriff of Shropshire in 1790 and the couple lived at Apley Castle. Mary married artist Tilly Kettle, with a dowry of £5,000. In 1773 Paine bought the lease to a country estate near Chertsey in Surrey, he became a justice of the peace for Middlesex in December 1776 and for Surrey in June 1777, served as high sheriff of Surrey in 1785.
Paine was a friend of artist Joshua Reynolds and had designed a large gallery and painting room, with an elaborate chimney piece, for Reynold’s home in Leicester Fields, now Leicester Square, London. In 1764, Reynolds painted a joint portrait of James Paine son pictured above; the following year Reynold painted a matching portrait of Charlotte and her two daughters and Mary "Polly" in exchange for in exchange for some of Paine’s architectural work at his home. This portrait is now in Liverpool; the portraits were intended to be hung so that the son faced mother and daughters. Reynolds’s appointment book records an entry for their sittings:‘17 July 1765 Mrs Pain, Miss Pain and Miss Polly Pain.’ Then, on 25 July, ‘Mrs Paine etc.’ on 2 August ‘Miss Paine’ sat alone, ‘Mrs Paine’ sat three days later. On 3 October the entry read: ‘Mrs Paine & Co’. There were further appointments on 27 September, 27 November and 2 December, for ‘Dog.’The portrait Mrs James Paine, Her Daughters Charlotte Paine, b.1751, Later Mrs St John Charlton and Mary'Polly' Paine, 1753–1798, Later Mrs Tilly Kettle) was exhibited twice in Yorkshire in late nineteenth century, copies were made.
It was acquired by the art dealer C. J Wertheimer but when it was show at Burlington House in 1908, it was catalogued as Portraits of the Misses Paine, their mother Charlotte having been painted out to increase its sale value. William Hesketh Lever paid £4520. 5s for in 1918. In 1935, the Lady Lever Art Gallery Trustees took the decision to remove the over painting and restored Mrs Paine to her rightful place. In 2017, the Friends of Doncaster Mansion House led on the James Paine Festival, celebrating his life and work on the 300th anniversary of his birth; the following are major works attributed to Paine: Nostell Priory, Yorkshire interiors completed and new wing added by Robert Adam Heath House, Yorkshire 17 Cornmarket, Yorkshire, attributed Hickleton Hall, Yorkshire and attributed stables Mansion House, one of only three civic mansion houses in England. Cusworth Hall, wings Wilsford Manor, Lincoln
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The person of the sovereign is shared both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom; the Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time; the office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governors of the French colony of Canada followed by the British governors of Canada in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Subsequently, the office is, along with the Crown, the oldest continuous institution in Canada. The present incarnation of the office emerged with Canadian Confederation and the passing of the British North America Act, 1867, which defines the role of the governor general as "carrying on the Government of Canada on behalf and in the Name of the Queen, by whatever Title he is designated". Although the post still represented the government of the United Kingdom, the office was Canadianized until, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and the establishment of a separate and uniquely Canadian monarchy, the governor general become the direct personal representative of the independently and uniquely Canadian sovereign, the monarch in his Canadian council. Throughout this process of increasing Canadian independence, the role of governor general took on additional responsibilities. For example, in 1904, the Militia Act granted permission for the governor general to use the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian militia, in the name of the sovereign and actual Commander-in-Chief, in 1927 the first official international visit by a governor general was made.
In 1947, King George VI issued letters patent allowing the viceroy to carry out all of the monarch's powers on his or her behalf. As a result, the day-to-day duties of the monarch are carried out by the governor general, although, as a matter of law, the governor general is not in the same constitutional position as the sovereign. In accordance with the Constitution Act, 1982, any constitutional amendment that affects the Crown, including the office of the Governor General, requires the unanimous consent of each provincial legislature as well as the federal parliament; the current governor general is Julie Payette, who has served since 2 October 2017. The Government of Canada spells the title governor general without a hyphen; the Canadian media still use the governor-general spelling. As governor is the noun in the title, it is pluralized. Moreover, both terms are capitalized; the position of governor general is mandated by both the Constitution Act, 1867 and the letters patent issued in 1947 by King George VI.
As such, on the recommendation of his or her Canadian prime minister, the Canadian monarch appoints the governor general by commission issued under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada. That individual is, from until being sworn-in, referred to as the governor general-designate. Besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set formula for the swearing-in of a governor general-designate. Though there may therefore be variations to the following, the appointee will travel to Ottawa, there receiving an official welcome and taking up residence at 7 Rideau Gate, will begin preparations for their upcoming role, meeting with various high level officials to ensure a smooth transition between governors general; the sovereign will hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct both the governor general-designate and his or her spouse into the Order of Canada as Companions, as well as appointing the former as a Commander of both the Order of Military Merit and the Order of Merit of the Police Forces.
The incumbent will serve for at least five years, though this is only a developed convention, the governor general still technically acts at Her Majesty's pleasure. The prime minister may therefore recommend to the Queen that the viceroy remain in her service for a longer period of time, sometimes upwards of more than seven years. A governor general may resign, two have died in office. In such a circumstance, or if the governor general leaves the country for longer than one month, the Chief Justice of Canada serves as Administrator of the Government and exercises all powers of the governor general. In a speech on the subject of confederation, made in 1866 to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, John A. Macdonald said of the planned governor: "We place no restriction on Her Majesty's prerogative in the selection of her representative... The sovereign has unrestricted freedom of choice... We leave that to Her Majes
Charles I of England
Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life, he became heir apparent to the thrones of England and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.
His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, failed to aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, helped precipitate his own downfall. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England.
Charles was tried and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared; the monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. At a Protestant ceremony in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh on 23 December 1600, he was baptised by David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, created Duke of Albany, the traditional title of the second son of the King of Scotland, with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health, he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.
By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles, his speech development was slow, he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereign's second son, made a Knight of the Bath. Thomas Murray, a presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages and religion. In 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Charles conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets.
He became an adept horseman and marksman, took up fencing. So, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid. Charles, who turned 12 two weeks became heir apparent; as the eldest surviving son of the sovereign, Charles automatically gained several titles. Four years in November 1616, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In 1613, his sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, moved to Heidelberg. In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia; the following year, the Bohemians rebelled. In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election. Frederick's acceptance of the Bohemian crown in defiance of the emperor marked the beginning of the turmoil that would develop into the Thirty Years' War.
The conflict confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public grew to see
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia was a German princess, a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She served as the Viceregal Consort of Canada, when her husband served as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Queens Margrethe II of Denmark and Anne-Marie of Greece are among her great-grandchildren. Princess Luise Margarete was born at Marmorpalais near Kingdom of Prussia, her father was Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia, the son of Karl of Prussia and his wife Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Her mother was Princess Maria Anna of daughter of Leopold IV of Anhalt-Dessau, her father, a nephew of the German Emperor Wilhelm I, distinguished himself as a field commander during the Battle of Metz and the campaigns west of Paris in the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War. Her father was a double cousin of the German Emperor Friedrich III, the husband of her sister-in-law, Princess Royal. On 13 March 1879, Princess Luise Margarete married Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn at St. George's Chapel Windsor.
Prince Arthur was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The couple received a great number of expensive gifts. Many members of England and Germany's royal families attended. After her marriage, Princess Louise was styled Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn and her name was Anglicised as Louise Margaret; the Duchess of Connaught spent the first twenty years of her marriage accompanying her husband on his various deployments throughout the British Empire. The Duke and Duchess of Connaught acquired Bagshot Park in Surrey as their country home and after 1900 used Clarence House as their London residence, she accompanied her husband to Canada in 1911. In 1916, she became colonel-in-chief of the 199th Canadian Infantry Battalion, CEF. In 1885, she became chief of the 64th Regiment of Infantry "Field Marshal General Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia", Prussian Army; the Duchess of Connaught died of influenza and bronchitis at Clarence House.
She became the first member of the British Royal Family to be cremated. This was done at Golders Green Crematorium; the procedure of burying ashes in an urn was still unfamiliar at the time, her urn was transported in an ordinary coffin during the funeral ceremonies. Her ashes were buried at the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore; the Duke of Connaught survived her by twenty-five years. The maternity hospital adjacent to the Cambridge Military Hospital at Aldershot was named in her honour as the Louise Margaret Maternity Hospital. 25 July 1860 – 13 March 1879: Her Royal Highness Princess Luise Margarete of Prussia 13 March 1879 – 14 March 1917: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn CI: Companion of the Crown of India, March 1879 VA: Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, 1893 DStJ: Dame of Justice of St. John, 1888 RRC: Member of the Royal Red Cross, 1883 Treaty between Great Britain and Germany, for the Marriage of HRH the Duke of Connaught with HRH the Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia - 26 February 1879