Jørn Oberg Utzon, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect, most notable for designing the Sydney Opera House in Australia; when it was declared a World Heritage Site on 28 June 2007, Utzon became only the second person to have received such recognition for one of his works during his lifetime, after Oscar Niemeyer. Other noteworthy works include Bagsværd Church near Copenhagen and the National Assembly Building in Kuwait, he made important contributions to housing design with his Kingo Houses near Helsingør. Utzon was born in Copenhagen, the son of a naval architect, grew up in Aalborg, where he became interested in ships and a possible naval career; as a result of his family's interest in art, from 1937 he attended the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where he studied under Kay Fisker and Steen Eiler Rasmussen. Following his graduation in 1942, he joined Gunnar Asplund in Stockholm where he worked together with Arne Jacobsen and Poul Henningsen, he took a particular interest in the works of American architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
After the end of World War II and the German Occupation of Denmark, he returned to Copenhagen. In 1946 he visited Alvar Aalto in Helsinki. In 1947–48 he travelled in Europe, in 1948 he went to Morocco where he was taken by the tall clay buildings. In 1949, he travelled to the United States and Mexico, where the pyramids provided further inspiration. Fascinated by the way the Mayans built towards the sky to get closer to God, he commented that his time in Mexico was "One of the greatest architectural experiences in my life."In America, he visited Frank Lloyd Wright's home, Taliesin West, in the Arizona desert and met Charles and Ray Eames. In 1950 he established his own studio in Copenhagen and, in 1952, built an open-plan house for himself, the first of its kind in Denmark. In 1957, he travelled first to China and India, before arriving in Australia in 1957 where he stayed until 1966. All this contributed to Utzon's understanding of factors which contribute to successful architectural design.
Utzon had a Nordic sense of concern for nature which, in his design, emphasized the synthesis of form and function for social values. His fascination with the architectural legacies of the ancient Mayas, the Islamic world and Japan enhanced his vision; this developed into what Utzon referred to as Additive Architecture, comparing his approach to the growth patterns of nature. A design can grow like a tree, he explained: "If it grows the architecture will look after itself." In 1957, Utzon unexpectedly won the competition to design the Sydney Opera House. His submission was one of 233 designs from 32 countries, many of them from the most famous architects of the time. Although he had won six other architectural competitions the Opera House was his first non-domestic project. One of the judges, Eero Saarinen, described it as "genius" and declared he could not endorse any other choice; the designs Utzon submitted were little more than preliminary drawings. Concerned that delays would lead to lack of public support, the Cahill government of New South Wales nonetheless gave the go-ahead for work to begin in 1958.
The British engineering consultancy Ove Arup and Partners put out tenders without adequate working drawings and construction work began on 2 March 1959. As a result, the podium columns had to be rebuilt; the situation was complicated by Cahill's death in October 1959. The extraordinary structure of the shells themselves represented a puzzle for the engineers; this was not resolved until 1961, when Utzon himself came up with the solution. He replaced the original elliptical shells with a design based on complex sections of a sphere. Utzon says his design was inspired by the simple act of peeling an orange: the 14 shells of the building, if combined, would form a perfect sphere. Although Utzon had spectacular, innovative plans for the interior of these halls, he was unable to realise this part of his design. In mid-1965, the New South Wales Liberal government of Robert Askin was elected. Askin had been a'vocal critic of the project prior to gaining office.' His new Minister for Public Works, Davis Hughes, was less sympathetic.
Elizabeth Farrelly, Australian architecture critic has written that at an election night dinner party in Mosman, Hughes's daughter Sue Burgoyne boasted that her father would soon sack Utzon. Hughes had no interest in architecture or aesthetics. A fraud, as well as a philistine, he had been exposed before Parliament and dumped as Country Party leader for 19 years of falsely claiming a university degree; the Opera House gave Hughes a second chance. For him, as for Utzon, it was all about control. Utzon soon found himself in conflict with the new Minister. Attempting to rein in the escalating cost of the project, Hughes began questioning Utzon's capability, his designs and cost estimates, refusing to pay running costs. In 1966, after a final request from Utzon that plywood manufacturer Ralph Symonds should be one of the suppliers for the roof structure was refused, he resigned from the job, closed his Sydney office and vowed never to return to Australia; when Utzon left, the shells were complete, costs amounted to only $22.9 million.
Following major changes to the original plans for the interiors, costs rose to $103 million. The Opera House was completed, opened in 1973 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia; the architect was not invited to the ceremony, nor was his name mentioned during any of
Bayreuth is a medium-sized city in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194. In the early 21st century, it is the capital of Upper Franconia and has a population of 72,148, it is world-famous for its annual Bayreuth Festival, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented. The town is believed to have been founded by the counts of Andechs around the mid-12th century, but was first mentioned in 1194 as Baierrute in a document by Bishop Otto II of Bamberg; the syllable -rute may mean Rodung or "clearing", whilst Baier- indicates immigrants from the Bavarian region. Documented earlier, were villages merged into Bayreuth: Seulbitz and St. Johannis; the district of Altstadt west of the town centre must be older than the town of Bayreuth itself. Older traces of human presence were found in the hamlets of Meyernberg: pieces of pottery and wooden crockery were dated to the 9th century based on their decoration.
While Bayreuth was referred to as a villa, the term civitas appeared for the first time in a document published in 1231. One can therefore assume that Bayreuth was awarded its town charter between 1200 and 1230; the town was ruled until 1248 by the counts of Andechs-Merania. After they died out in 1260 the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern took over the inheritance; as early as 1361 Emperor Charles IV conferred on Burgrave Frederick V the right to mint coins for the towns of Bayreuth and Kulmbach. In 1398 Bayreuth was partitioned from Nuremberg; until 1604, the princely residence and the centre of the territory was the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach and as such the territory was known as the Principality of Kulmbach. The town of Bayreuth developed and was affected time and again by disasters. Bayreuth was first published on a map in 1421. In February 1430, the Hussites devastated the town hall and churches were razed. Matthäus Merian described this event in 1642 as follows: "In 1430 the Hussites from Bohemia attacked / Culmbach and Barreut / and committed great acts of cruelty / like wild animals / against the common people / and certain individuals.
/ The priests / monks and nuns they either burnt at the stake / or took them onto the ice of lakes and rivers / and doused them with cold water / and killed them in a deplorable way / as Boreck reported in the Bohemian Chronicle, page 450"By 1528, less than ten years after the start of the Reformation, the lords of the Frankish margrave territories switched to the Lutheran faith. In 1605 a great fire, caused by negligence, destroyed 137 of the town's 251 houses. In 1620 plague broke out and, in 1621, there was another big fire in the town; the town suffered during the Thirty Years War. A turning point in the town's history came in 1603 when Margrave Christian, the son of the elector, John George of Brandenburg, moved the aristocratic residence from the castle of Plassenburg above Kulmbach to Bayreuth; the first Hohenzollern palace was built in 1440-1457 under Margrave John the Alchemist. It was expanded and renovated many times; the development of the new capital stagnated due to the Thirty Years' War, but afterwards many famous baroque buildings were added to the town.
After Christian's death in 1655 his grandson, Christian Ernest, followed him, ruling from 1661 until 1712. He was an educated and well-travelled man, whose tutor had been the statesman Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal, he founded the Christian-Ernestinum Grammar School and, in 1683, participated in the liberation of Vienna, besieged by the Turks. To commemorate this feat, he had the Margrave Fountain built as a monument on which he is depicted as the victor of the Turks. During this time, the outer ring of the town wall and the castle chapel were built, his successor, the Crown Prince and Margrave, George William, began in 1701 to establish the independent town of St Georgen am See with its castle, the so-called Ordensschloss, a town hall, a prison and a small barrack. In 1705 he founded the Order of Sincerity, renamed in 1734 to the Order of the Red Eagle and had the monastery church built, completed in 1711. In 1716 a princely porcelain factory was established in St. Georgen; the first'castle' in the park of the Hermitage was built at this time by Margrave George William.
In 1721 the town council acquired the palace of Baroness Sponheim as a replacement for the town hall built in 1440 in the middle of the market place and destroyed by fire. In 1735 a nursing home, the so-called Gravenreuth Stift, was founded by a private foundation in St. Georgen; the cost of the building exceeded the funds of the foundation, but Margrave Frederick came to their aid. Bayreuth experienced its Golden Age during the reign of Margrave Frederick and Margravine Wilhelmina of Bayreuth, the favourite sister of Frederick the Great. During this time, under the direction of court architects, Joseph Saint-Pierre and Carl von Gontard, numerous courtly buildings and attractions were created: the Margravial Opera House with its richly furnished baroque theatre, the New'Cast
Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry
Royal Eijsbouts is a bell foundry located in Asten, Netherlands. The workshop was founded in 1872 by Bonaventura Eijsbouts as a "factory for tower clocks." In 1893 Eijsbouts was joined by his 15-year-old son and the workshop expanded to begin supplying striking and swinging bells, which were cast at other foundries, with their clocks. As interest in carillons increased, Johan Eijsbouts purchased bells from two English foundries, John Taylor Bellfounders and Gillett & Johnston, installed them in carillons. In 1924, Johan's oldest son, Tuur Eijsbouts, joined the company. Tuur was technically inventive, he took the initiative to learn. After years of experimentation, an in-house bell foundry was installed in 1947; the company is still recognized for their cast bells. In 2006 Eijsbouts cast the largest swinging bell in the world. Royal Eijsbouts has been involved in extensive research programs in campanology for decades; those efforts have resulted in computer applications with which all aspects of bell sound and bell shape can be calculated.
Besides bell casting, Royal Eijsbouts manufactures custom made tower clocks and astronomical clocks of any size. They operate an art foundry, using several techniques to cast sculptures and statues. In 2014 Notre Dame celebrated its 850th anniversary. On this occasion, it was decided to restore the bells of the Cathedral to its former glory with a new set of bells; the order was given to the French foundry Cornille-Havard and Royal Eijsbouts in Asten, where the largest bell was produced. The casting of Marie took place in Asten on September 14, 2012, in the presence of the bishops of's-Hertogenbosch and the archbishop of Paris. After inspection, the 6 ton heavy bell was put in a special truck to Paris. Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, archbishop of Paris, dedicated on February 2, 2013, all newly cast bells that were exhibited until February 25 in the cathedral; the day after, the new bells were hung in the belfries. On March 23, thirty thousand listeners followed the first loud creations the renewed sound of Notre Dame.
In 2014 Royal Eijsbouts acquired bell foundry Petit & Fritsen in Aarle-Rixtel, their last Dutch competitor. Foundry activities in Aarle-Rixtel were terminated en re-allocated to Asten. Media related to Klokkengieterij Eijsbouts at Wikimedia Commons Official website St. John Cantius website
Bagsværd is a middle-class suburb 12 km northwest of central Copenhagen, in the Gladsaxe Municipality. Its center is dominated by two high-rise apartment blocks; the suburb is connected by S-Train and has three stations: Skovbrynet, Bagsværd, Stengården. Bagsværd Church, designed by Jørn Utzon, is a masterpiece of contemporary church architecture for its rounded interior vaulting and the lighting effects of its skylights. Established in 1908, Bagsværd Boarding School is one of Denmark's best-known private schools. Bagsværd houses the headquarters of Danish pharmaceuticals company Novo Nordisk and biotechnology company Novozymes. Gladsaxe Kommune - Bagsværds historie
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre at Sydney Harbour in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the 20th century's most distinctive buildings. Designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, the building was formally opened on 20 October 1973 after a gestation beginning with Utzon's 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition; the Government of New South Wales, led by the premier, Joseph Cahill, authorised work to begin in 1958 with Utzon directing construction. The government's decision to build Utzon's design is overshadowed by circumstances that followed, including cost and scheduling overruns as well as the architect's ultimate resignation; the building and its surrounds occupy the whole of Bennelong Point on Sydney Harbour, between Sydney Cove and Farm Cove, adjacent to the Sydney central business district and the Royal Botanic Gardens, close by the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Though its name suggests a single venue, the building comprises multiple performance venues which together host well over 1,500 performances annually, attended by more than 1.2 million people.
Performances are presented by numerous performing artists, including three resident companies: Opera Australia, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. As one of the most popular visitor attractions in Australia, the site is visited by more than eight million people annually, 350,000 visitors take a guided tour of the building each year; the building is managed by the Sydney Opera House Trust, an agency of the New South Wales State Government. On 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site, having been listed on the Register of the National Estate since 1980, the National Trust of Australia register since 1983, the City of Sydney Heritage Inventory since 2000, the New South Wales State Heritage Register since 2003, the Australian National Heritage List since 2005; the facility features a modern expressionist design, with a series of large precast concrete "shells", each composed of sections of a sphere of 75.2 metres radius, forming the roofs of the structure, set on a monumental podium.
The building is 183 m long and 120 m wide at its widest point. It is supported on 588 concrete piers sunk as much as 25 m below sea level. Although the roof structures are referred to as "shells", they are precast concrete panels supported by precast concrete ribs, not shells in a structural sense. Though the shells appear uniformly white from a distance, they feature a subtle chevron pattern composed of 1,056,006 tiles in two colours: glossy white and matte cream; the tiles were manufactured by the Swedish company Höganäs AB which produced stoneware tiles for the paper-mill industry. Apart from the tile of the shells and the glass curtain walls of the foyer spaces, the building's exterior is clad with aggregate panels composed of pink granite quarried at Tarana. Significant interior surface treatments include off-form concrete, Australian white birch plywood supplied from Wauchope in northern New South Wales, brush box glulam. Of the two larger spaces, the Concert Hall is in the western group of shells, the Joan Sutherland Theatre in the eastern group.
The scale of the shells was chosen to reflect the internal height requirements, with low entrance spaces, rising over the seating areas up to the high stage towers. The smaller venues are beneath the Concert Hall. A smaller group of shells set to the western side of the Monumental Steps houses the Bennelong Restaurant; the podium is surrounded by substantial open public spaces, the large stone-paved forecourt area with the adjacent monumental steps is used as a performance space. The Sydney Opera House includes a number of performance venues: Concert Hall: With 2,679 seats, the home of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra and used by a large number of other concert presenters, it contains the Sydney Opera House Grand Organ, the largest mechanical tracker action organ in the world, with over 10,000 pipes. Joan Sutherland Theatre: A proscenium theatre with 1,507 seats, the Sydney home of Opera Australia and The Australian Ballet; until 17 October 2012 it was known as the Opera Theatre. Drama Theatre: A proscenium theatre with 544 seats, used by the Sydney Theatre Company and other dance and theatrical presenters.
Playhouse: A non-proscenium end-stage theatre with 398 seats. Studio: A flexible space with 280 permanent seats and a maximum capacity of 400, depending on configuration. Utzon Room: A small multi-purpose venue for parties, corporate functions and small productions. Recording Studio Outdoor Forecourt: A flexible open-air venue with a wide range of configuration options, including the possibility of utilising the Monumental Steps as audience seating, used for a range of community events and major outdoor performances. Other areas are used for performances on an occasional basis. Venues are used for conferences and social functions; the building houses a recording studio, restaurants and retail outlets. Guided tours are available, including a frequent tour of the front-of-house spaces, a daily backstage tour that takes visitors backstage to see areas reserved for performers and crew members. Planning began in the late 1940s, when Eugene Goossens, the Director of the NSW State Conservatorium of Music, lobbied for a suitable venue for large theatrical productions.
The normal venue for such productions, the Sydney Town Hall, was not considered
Asten is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It is home to the Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry and a carillon museum; the spoken language is an East Brabantian dialect. Asten Heusden Ommel Asten has a rich history going back to the Roman period. In the swamp of the village's national park'De Peel' an ancient Roman centurion helmet was found. Silhouets of Hunter-Gatherer and Agricultural societies were found in the area; the village has a castle dating back at the south of the current village. It has given its name to the village: "Aa-Stein", or "stone building on the river Aa". A second stone-built fortified building was suspected at the north, at the site of the current Slotweg to be precise; some stone fragments have been excavated, although no conclusive evidence of a fortified building has been produced here. The village was burnt twice in the 17th century, by Austrian and Swedish army troops. Frits de Bruin, Second World War resistance hero, butchered by the Germans in 1944 Bart Claessen, Trance music DJ Nance, TV host and former Twenty 4 Seven vocalist Eric Dikeb, DJ Vivian Jansen, 5th in the Miss Universe competition in 1992 Martin Koolhoven, Film director Piet Raijmakers, equestrian Media related to Asten, Netherlands at Wikimedia Commons Official website Website National Carillon-museum