Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest judicial bodies in the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Councillors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. It is often referred to as the Privy Council, as in most cases appeals are made to Her Majesty in Council. The panel of judges hearing a case is known as the Board. The report of the Board is always accepted by the Queen in Council as judgment, in Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself. In the case of Brunei, appeals are made to the Sultan of Brunei, formerly the Judicial Committee gave a unanimous report, but since the Judicial Committee Order 1966 dissenting opinions have been allowed. The Judicial Committees permanent home is in London, in the United Kingdom, in this renovated building, Court 3 is used for Privy Council sittings. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council has jurisdiction in the domestic matters.
Appeals from the courts in non-doctrinal faculty cases. Appeals from the High Court of Chivalry, Appeals from the Court of Admiralty of the Cinque Ports. Appeals from the Disciplinary Committee of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, disputes under the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975. Additionally, the government may refer any issue to the committee for consideration, in other courts in the United Kingdom, judgments of the Judicial Committee are only of persuasive authority and are not binding as a matter of law. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the Court of Final Appeal for the Church of England. It hears appeals from the Arches Court of Canterbury and the Chancery Court of York, except on matters of doctrine, ritual or ceremony, which go to the Court for Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved. By the Church Discipline Act 1840 and the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 all archbishops and bishops of the Church of England became eligible to be members of the Judicial Committee.
Prior to the coming into force of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, on 1 October 2009 this jurisdiction was transferred to the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The New Zealand associated states of Cook Islands and Niue, the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, including Guernseys own dependencies of Alderney and Sark, and appeals from the Staff of Government Division on the Isle of Man. The United Kingdoms Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, in Cyprus, Appeal is directly to the Judicial Committee from three independent Commonwealth republics and Trinidad and Tobago, and also, if the case involves constitutional rights, Kiribati
Perry Gladstone Christie, PC, MP, is a Bahamian politician who has served as Prime Minister of the Bahamas since May 2012, previously he was Prime Minister from 2002 to 2007. He is the longest-serving Bahamian elected parliamentarian, representing the Centreville constituency since 1977 and he is a former athlete. His Progressive Liberal Party is the party and the oldest Bahamian political party. Christie was sworn into office on 8 May 2012, christie’s athletic skills developed as a membS at the Central American and Caribbean Games in Kingston in 1962, when he won a bronze medal in the triple jump. Christie was a student at the Eastern SeniorDFSF School in New Providence, the University Tutorial College, Inner Temple in London, Christie is believed to have been the youngest Bahamian ever appointed to the Senate. Named as a Senator by Prime Minister Lynden Pindling in November 1974, in January 1977 he was appointed chairman of the Gaming Board, which regulates casinos in The Bahamas. During the June 1982 general election, he was re-elected Member of Parliament for Centreville, and was again appointed to the Prime Minister’s Cabinet.
A dynamic Minister, Christie moved tourism in The Bahamas to new heights, in 1984, however, he was dismissed from the Cabinet, and during the 1987 general election ran as an independent candidate. He retained his seat in the Centreville constituency, three years – in March 1990 – Christie returned to the fold of the Progressive Liberal Party, and was appointed Minister of Agriculture and Industry by the Prime Minister. In January 1993, following the PLP’s defeat in the August 1992 general election, Christie thus succeeded Lynden Pindling, who had led the PLP since 1956. After the new FNM government was sworn in, Christie was sworn in as leader of the Official Opposition. In November 2009, Christie was overwhelmingly elected, and returned as Leader of the PLP at its Annual General Convention, Christie was re-elected as Prime Minister of the Bahamas on 7 May 2012. Christie ran his campaign on reducing crime and The Bahamas has seen an increase in murders since his inauguration. Christie has brought programmes like Urban Renewal, Christie introduced Value Added Tax at a rate of 7. 5%.
The money raised from VAT was slated to pay off National Debt, no Freedom of Information Act has even been implemented under his government, although while in opposition he pushed for it. On 27 February,2017 Christie flipped the bird in front of a crowd at Fox Hill. Under Perry Christies current administration, many new initiatives are underway, PMH Critical Care Block - the Princess Margaret Hospital was expanded under the previous administration the building was open under Perry Christies leadership. To date the facility is not in full use despite being ready since 2013
Parliament of the Bahamas
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is made up by the Queen, an appointed Senate. It currently sits at Nassau, the national capital, the structure and procedures of the parliament are based on the Westminster system. Originally inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taino people, although the Spanish never colonized the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. Bahamians achieved self-government in 1964 and full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on July 10,1973, the Parliament as presently constituted was established by Chapter 5 of the Constitution of The Bahamas, which came into effect upon the countrys independence from the United Kingdom.
The House of Assembly is the lower chamber and it consists of 38 members, elected from individual constituencies for five-year terms. As under the Westminster system, the government may dissolve the parliament, the House of Assembly performs all major legislative functions. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party controlling the majority of the House of Assembly seats, the speaker of the House of Assembly is currently Dr. Kendal Major. The Senate consists of 16 members appointed by the Governor-General, the Senate is authorised by the Constitution to pass Bills in the same manner as passed by the House or it can make such amendments to the Bill should it consider it necessary. Those amendments will have to be approved by the House of Assembly, the Senate may even reject a Bill outrightly that had been passed by the House. She previously served as President of the Senate from 2002 to 2007, and succeeded Lynn Holowesko, Parliament is empowered by Article 52 of the Constitution to make laws for the peace and good government of The Bahamas.
Parliament maintains oversight of the Governments finances through the Public Accounts Committee, Parliament is the forum where public policy and matters of national importance are debated. Most of the laws passed by Parliament are for the modification or amendment of existing laws, Article 52 of the Constitution empowers Parliament to make laws by the passing of a bill. Most bills are introduced into Parliament by a Government minister, a bill must be passed by both the House of Assembly and Senate, and must be formally assented to by the Governor-General, before it becomes law. There are currently four main classifications of Bills, money, private member, a bill must pass through a series of stages in order to be passed by each chamber, with a vote taken at each stage. After the first reading, the Speaker orders the bill to be printed, it is numbered, circulated to members of Parliament. At the second reading, the principle of the bill is debated, at the committal stage, the entire House of Assembly sits as a Committee of the Whole House, with the Speaker leaving the chair and the Deputy Speaker presiding as Chairperson
Governor-General of the Bahamas
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is the viceregal representative of the Bahamian monarch. As the Queen cannot reside in all of her realms, she appoints representatives to carry out her duties as Queen of the Bahamas, governors-General serve their term as such at Her Majestys pleasure, but usually end their term within five years. They are responsible for appointing the Prime Minister as well as other government Ministers after consultations with the Prime Minister, government House in Nassau is the official residence of governors-general. The current Governor-General is Dame Marguerite Pindling, List of governors of the Bahamas List of Prime Ministers of the Bahamas Georgetown University
White people is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Europid ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context. The contemporary usage of people or a white race as a large group of populations contrasting with black, American Indian. It is today used as a racial classifier in multiracial societies, such as North Africa, United States. The term white race or white people entered the major European languages in the 17th century, in the context of racialized slavery, description of populations as white in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient sources. Scholarship on race generally distinguishes the concept from pre-modern descriptions of collective difference. In the literature of the Ancient Near East and Classical Antiquity and we know that Egyptians were not oblivious to skin color, because artists paid attention to it in works of art, to the extent the pigments at the time permitted. Classicist James Dee states the Greeks do not describe themselves as white people—or as anything else because they had no word in their color vocabulary for themselves.
Peoples skin color did not carry meaning, what mattered is where they lived. Religious conversion was sometimes described figuratively as a change in skin color, the Rigveda uses krsna tvac black skin as a metaphor for irreligiosity. The Ancient Egyptian funerary text known as the Book of Gates distinguishes four groups in a procession and these are the Egyptians, the Levantine/Canaanite peoples or Asiatics, the Nubians and the fair-skinned Libyans. The Egyptians are depicted as a reddish brown, the Nubians as black skinned, the Semites from the Levant and Canaan as light skinned. Herodotus described the Scythian Budini as having blue eyes and bright red hair. And the Egyptians – quite like the Colchians – as melánchroes and he gives the possibly first reference to the common Greek name of the tribes living south of Egypt, otherwise known as Nubians, which was Aithíopes. Later Xenophon described the Aethiopians as black and the Persian troops as white compared to the skin of Greek troops. These color adjectives are found in contrast to the standard set by the own group.
According to historian Irene Silverblatt, Race thinking … made social categories into racial truths, Alastair Bonnett argues that white identity, as it is presently conceived, is an American project, reflecting American interpretations of race and history. According to Gregory Jay, a professor of English at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Before the age of exploration, group differences were based on language, religion. … the European had always reacted a bit hysterically to the differences of skin color, in the 16th and 17th centuries, East Asian peoples were almost uniformly described as white, never as yellow
Monarchy of the Bahamas
The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since the country became independent on 10 July 1973, the Bahamas share the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen does not personally reside in the islands, and most of her roles are therefore delegated to her representative in the country. Royal succession is governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701, the Bahamas are one of sixteen independent nations, known as Commonwealth realms, which separately recognise the Queen as their individual monarch and head of state. Despite sharing the same person as their monarch, each of the Commonwealth realms — including the Bahamas — is sovereign. The Monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called British since this time for historical, legal. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act,1927 was the first indication of this shift in law and this situation applies symmetrically in all the other realms, including the UK.
On all matters of the Bahamian State, the Monarch is advised solely by Bahamian ministers. In the Bahamas, the Queens official title is, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Typically, the Sovereign is styled Queen of the Bahamas, and is addressed as such when in the Bahamas, the Monarch is informed of the Prime Ministers decision before the Governor General gives Royal Assent. The current constitution for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is part of the Schedule to the Bahamas Independence Order of 1973, the Order came into operation on 10 July 1973. The first section declares, The Commonwealth of The Bahamas shall be a sovereign democratic State, most of the Queens domestic duties are performed by the Governor-General. The Governor-General represents the Queen on ceremonial occasions such as the opening of Parliament, under the Constitution, he or she is given authority to act in some matters, for example in appointing and disciplining officers of the civil service, in proroguing Parliament.
It has been said since the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British cabinet, in exceptional circumstances, the Monarch or vice-regal can act against such advice based upon his or her reserve powers. There are a few duties which must be performed by. These include, signing the appointment papers of Governors General, the confirmation of awards of honours, and approving any change in her title. Succession to the throne is by absolute primogeniture, and governed by the provisions of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, as well as the Act of Settlement and English Bill of Rights. These documents, though passed by the Parliament of England
Local government in the Bahamas
Local government in the Bahamas exists in two forms, namely second-schedule and third-schedule district councils. There are a total of 32 local government districts,13 second-schedule districts, which are further sub-divided into town areas, and 19 third-schedule districts, the second and third schedules together make up the first schedule. Local government policy is formulated and administered by the Department of Lands, the day-to-day policy handling of the portfolio falls to the Minister of Local Government who is empowered to create new local government areas from time to time based on demographics. The administrative and financial management is overseen by the permanent secretary. Local government previously existed in the Bahamas in the form of appointed Board of Works, here towns and villages held their influence over these Board of Works, but almost all final decisions were made by the central government through that islands Commissioner. The modern system of government that is in use today was implemented on 8 March 1996.
The act that implemented local government had described all districts as either being Second-Schedule or Third-Schedule districts, the Districts of the Bahamas provide a system of Local Government everywhere in The Bahamas except New Providence. The current system dates from 1996 when 23 districts were created by The Bahamas Local Government Act of 1996– a further 9 have been added since 1999. Local Government in The Bahamas has seen success since its introduction. New Providence Every district in the Bahamas has a districts council, district Councillors are elected by the population of that district in accordance with Local Government Act. As stated in The Bahamas Local Government Act 1996, Districts councillors shall within two weeks of their election, elect from themselves a Chief Councillor. The Chief Councillor shall be the representative of a Districts Council for all affairs and he or she is to preside over all meetings and themselves co-ordinate these meetings. All districts councils are classed as first-schedule councils and they share responsibility with second-schedule district councils for a number of the schedule local government functions.
They have responsibility for local regulation and licensing within their jurisdiction. Third-schedule districts councils are unique within the Bahamas because they combine the responsibilities of the second-schedule districts and it should be noted that both second- and third-schedule district councils carry out a building control function. Local government elections take place every three years in the Bahamas with the most recent elections taking place in June 2011 in which 391 positions were contested. The voting system used in government elections is the first-past-the-post system. Both councillors of third-schedule district councils and members of committees are directly elected
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence, the designation of the Bahamas can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. As stated in the mandate/manifesto of the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, the Bahamas is the site of Columbus first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayan, although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British Crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of Independence, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas, they brought their slaves with them, Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period.
Slavery in the Bahamas was abolished in 1834, Today the descendants of slaves and free Africans make up nearly 90% of the population, issues related to the slavery years are part of society. The Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch, in terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance. The name Bahamas is derived from either the Taino ba ha ma, alternatively, it may originate from Guanahani, a local name of unclear meaning. In English, the Bahamas is one of two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word the, along with The Gambia. Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century and they came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayan inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus arrival in 1492, Columbuss first landfall in the New World was on an island he named San Salvador.
Some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, an alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbuss log. Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive, on the landfall island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayan and exchanged goods with them. The Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour, the slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity, half of the Taino died from smallpox alone. The population of the Bahamas was severely diminished, in 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda. These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom and they settled New Providence, naming it Sayles Island after one of their leaders.
To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks, in 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America
As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals and countries, black is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, different societies apply differing criteria regarding who is classified as black, and these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, in the United Kingdom, black was historically equivalent with person of color, a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as black. In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term black or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds. The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities.
In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard and he claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother who was a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman, in response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, I am not white but I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish, due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men. They used more black female slaves in domestic service and agriculture than males, the men interpreted the Quran to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab masters child, she was considered as umm walad or mother of a child, the child was given rights of inheritance to the fathers property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers social status at birth and were born free, some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608. He was not technically considered as a child of a slave, his mother was Fulani. Such tolerance for black persons, even when technically free, was not so common in Morocco, the long association of sub-Saharan peoples as slaves is shown in the term abd, it is still frequently used in the Arabic-speaking world as a term for black people. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were widely referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudans non-Arab citizens. The government was accused of deftly manipulat Arab solidarity to carry out policies of apartheid, American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens.
The Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid, many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid