The Institutes of Biblical Law
The Institutes of Biblical Law is a 1973 book by the philosopher and theologian Rousas John Rushdoony. It is the first volume of a three-volume work referred to by the same title, modeled after John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion. Together with Rushdoony's other writings, the book is the basis of Christian Reconstructionism. Rushdoony expounds the Ten Commandments, adopting a theonomic perspective, he maintains that all of the Old Testament civil law is normative for civil governments. Rushdoony provides an outline of a program for establishing a Christian theocracy; the theologian John Frame gave The Institutes of Biblical Law a mixed review in Westminster Theological Journal, writing that the book convinced him that "Rushdoony is one of the most important Christian social critics alive today", but criticizing it on various grounds. Frame credited Rushdoony with cogently arguing against attempts to replace scripture with natural law, with showing a broad and deep knowledge of scripture, with "a remarkably detailed grasp of the historical background and present condition of human culture."
However, he found the book "a bit rough-hewn", noting that it "began as a series of lectures" and in some respects still resembles one, that it contained "considerable repetition". Overall, Frame concluded that the book had "great strengths and great weaknesses", noting that he had tried "to keep this review balanced between strong praise and strong criticism."The journalist M. Stanton Evans, writing in the National Review, described The Institutes of Biblical Law as "a work of prodigious scope and erudition" and a "thoughtful book". Joe Bageant suggests that if the United States experiences a fourth "Great Awakening", historians may one day "document it as beginning in 1973 with the publication of R. J. Rushdoony's seminal The Institutes of Biblical Law." Peter Montgomery of the Public Eye Magazine describes The Institutes of Biblical Law as Rushdoony's "magnum opus", identifies it and Rushdoony's other writings as providing the basis for Christian Reconstructionism. Excerpts compiled by Richard Anthony
Gary North (economist)
Gary Kilgore North, l is an American paleolibertarian writer, Austrian School economic historian, leading figure in the Christian Reconstructionist movement. North has authored or coauthored over fifty books on topics including Reformed Protestant theology and history, he is an Associated Scholar of the Ludwig von Mises Institute. He is known for his advocacy of biblical or "radically libertarian" economics and as a theorist of dominionism and theonomy, he supports the establishment and enforcement of Bible-based religious law, a view which has put him in conflict with other libertarians. Controversial are his views on capital punishment, which he believes is appropriate punishment for male homosexuality, blasphemy, a wide variety of other crimes. North grew up in southern California, the son of FBI special agent Samuel W. North, Jr. and his wife, Peggy. North converted to Christianity in high school and began frequenting conservative book-stores in the Los Angeles area during his college years.
Between 1961 and 1963, while an undergraduate student at University of California, North became acquainted with the works of Wilhelm Röpke, Rose Wilder Lane, Cornelius Van Til, Austrian School economists Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, F. A. Hayek, Murray Rothbard, read the works of Calvinist philosopher Rousas John Rushdoony, he married Rushdoony's daughter, collaborated with him and eulogized Rushdoony in a blog post on LewRockwell.com. Starting in 1967, North became a contributor to the libertarian journal The Freeman where he had first read the work of Ludwig Von Mises and Friedrich Hayek. In the 1970s, he was the director of seminars for the Foundation for Economic Education. North received a Ph. D. in history from the University of California, Riverside in 1972. His dissertation was The Concept of Property in Puritan New England, 1630–1720, he served as research assistant for libertarian Republican Congressman Ron Paul in Paul's first term. North is a regular contributor to the LewRockwell.com website, which lists an extensive archive of his articles there.
North's own website, Garynorth.com, posts commentary on religious and political issues and offers paid access to investment advice and other premium content. North publishes a blog called Deliverance from Debt which provides advice about relief from debt. Another North website, "Free Christian Curriculum", seeks to provide a free Christian homeschooling curriculum for children from age 3 through grade 12. In addition, North offers the Ron Paul Curriculum, a home school online curriculum associated with former U. S. Congressman Ron Paul, free for grades K-5 and available to paid members from grades 6–12; as Director of Curriculum Development, North has outlined four goals of the educational project: providing a "detailed study" of the "history of liberty". North has written that the "starting point for all economic analysis" lies in the fact that "God cursed the earth" in Genesis 3:17–19. In his 1982 Dominion Covenant: Genesis, North wrote that mainstream modern economics, whether libertarian, conservative or liberal, is "in disintegration" because it is "humanist" in its approach and rejects the notion that "biblical revelation" is necessary for sound economic theory.
He wrote that economics "must begin with the story of creation" if it is not to collapse into "total chaos". A 2011 New York Times article identified North as a central figure in Christian Reconstructionism, the philosophy which advocates the institution of "a Christian theocracy under Old Testament law the best form of government, a radically libertarian one." North has written: "I believe in biblical theocracy."The article described North as "the leading proponent of'Christian economics,' which applies biblical principles to economic issues and the free market." North supports the abolition of the fractional-reserve banking system and a return to the gold standard. According to the Times, North believes that the Bible forbids inflation, welfare programs, writes that "God would prefer gold money to paper". North favors capital punishment for a range of offenders, including murderers, children who curse their parents, male homosexuals, other people who commit some of the acts deemed capital offenses in the Old Testament.
North stated that the biblical admonition to kill homosexuals in Leviticus is God's "law and its morally appropriate sanction", arguing that "God is indeed a homophobe" who "hates the practice and those who practice it" and "hates the sin and hates the sinner."North has said that capital punishment should be carried out by stoning, because it is the biblically approved method of execution and it is cheap due to the plentiful and convenient supply of stones. North said: "We must use the doctrine of religious liberty to gain independence for Christian schools until we train up a generation of people who know that there is no religious neutrality, no neutral law, no neutral education, no neutral civil government, they will get busy in constructing a Bible-based social and religious order which denies the religious liberty of the enemies of God."Adam C. English suggests that this quote implies that "religious liberty is
David Harold Chilton was an American reformed pastor, Christian reconstructionist and author of several books on economics and Christian Worldview from Placerville, California. He contributed three books on eschatology: Paradise Restored, The Days of Vengeance, The Great Tribulation, his book Productive Christians in an Age of Guilt-Manipulators: A Biblical Response to Ronald J. Sider was a response to Ronald J. Sider's best-selling book, Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger: A Biblical Study, which promoted various programs of wealth redistribution by the government. Chilton argued that the Bible either does not authorize such programs or explicitly teaches against them, his book Power in the Blood: A Christian Response to AIDS was dealing with the Church's relationship with the world. David Chilton was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1951. At the age of one, he moved with his Christian missionary parents to the Philippines. At the age of 8, the family returned to the United States where his father became a pastor in Southern California.
Growing up in California in the 1970s youth movement and hippie culture, he experienced a conversion to Christianity while listening to a missionary speak at his father's church. He began reading the teaching Bible studies; the young Chilton became involved in the nascent Jesus People movement, started a singing group with his sister Jayn and some friends called The Children of Light. He spoke, performed music, taught Bible studies at Christian coffeehouses in Los Angeles, California region, he was ordained in the Jesus People Movement by Pat Boone. Chilton came to prominence as a writer for the Chalcedon Report edited by R. J. Rushdoony after a Christian friend recommended one of Rushdoony's books. At the same time, Chilton discovered the writings of the Puritans, was exposed for the first time to Reformed theology as a result of reading these books, to the doctrines of predestination and perseverance of the saints. After meeting Rushdoony, Chilton was asked to write a monthly column for Chalcedon Report while alternating speaking for Dr. Rushdoony at his church in Hollywood while pastoring a church in Anaheim, California.
At this time Chilton was influenced by fellow Christian Reconstructionists Greg Bahnsen and James B. Jordan, he married his wife and had 3 children, Nathan and Abigail. In 1981, after several years of pastoring in Anaheim, Chilton wrote his first book, Productive Christians in an Age of Guilt-Manipulators: A Biblical Response to Ronald J. Sider over the course of a month with a pencil and paper at a coffeehouse. Not long after the completion of the book, he moved to Placerville, CA to pastor a church for a year, during which he wrote a newsletter for Christian teachers and homeschoolers called The Biblical Educator. Chilton used his influence to help launch World Magazine with Joel Belz and wrote a monthly column for the publication for years, popular. Although Chilton loved the people of Placerville and did not want to leave, he accepted a job offer from prominent Reconstructionist Gary North as a research assistant at The Institute for Christian Economics in Tyler, Texas, it was during his three-year stay in Texas that North commissioned Chilton to write his two books for North's imprint Dominion Press: Paradise Restored and Days of Vengeance.
In 1986 Chilton accepted an offer to return to Placerville to pastor the church there. He continued to work in pastoral ministry, speak at conferences, write a weekly column for The Sacramento Union newspaper, was counsel for The Fieldstead Co. at an economic conference in Switzerland and wrote his last two books, The Great Tribulation and Power in the Blood. Whitefield Theological Seminary awarded him with 2 degrees: The Master of Divinity in the field of Pastoral Theology in 1990 and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Christian Thought in 1992 for his work on Days of Vengeance. In 1994, Chilton went into a six-week coma, he began to recover, though he had difficulty speaking. During this time, he wrote a monthly column on the family for Ligonier Ministries, he took his second speaking trip to Australia for a month of engagements and spoke at a church in The Bahamas. In 1997, Chilton died at the age of 45 years. Chilton, David. 1982, 1986. Productive Christians In An Age Of Guilt Manipulators.
Tyler, TX: The Institute for Christian Economics. ISBN 0-930464-38-9. Chilton, David. 1985, 1994. Paradise Restored: A Biblical Theology of Dominion. Ft. Worth, TX: Dominion Press. ISBN 0-930462-52-1. Chilton, David. 1987, 1990. Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation. Ft. Worth, TX: Dominion Press. ISBN 0-930462-09-2. Chilton, David. 1987. The Great Tribulation. Ft. Worth, TX: Dominion Press. ISBN 0-930462-55-6. Chilton, David. 1987. Power in the Blood. Brentwood, TN: Wolgemuth & Hyatt Publishers,Inc. ISBN 0-943497-22-1
Presuppositionalism is a school of Christian apologetics that believes the Christian faith is the only basis for rational thought. It attempts to expose flaws in other worldviews, it claims that apart from presuppositions, one could not make sense of any human experience, there can be no set of neutral assumptions from which to reason with a non-Christian. Presuppositionalists claim that a Christian cannot declare his belief in the necessary existence of the God of the Bible and argue on the basis of a different set of assumptions that God may not exist and Biblical revelation may not be true. Two schools of presuppositionalism exist, based on the different teachings of Cornelius Van Til and Gordon Haddon Clark. Presuppositionalism contrasts with evidential apologetics. Presuppositionalists compare their presupposition against other ultimate standards such as reason, empirical experience, subjective feeling, claiming presupposition in this context is: a belief that takes precedence over another and therefore serves as a criterion for another.
An ultimate presupposition is a belief over. For a Christian, the content of Scripture must serve as his ultimate presupposition… This doctrine is the outworking of the lordship of God in the area of human thought, it applies the doctrine of scriptural infallibility to the realm of knowing. Critics of presuppositional apologetics claim that it is logically invalid because it begs the question of the truth of Christianity and the non-truth of other worldviews. Presuppositionalists contrast their approach with the other schools of Christian apologetics by describing the others as assuming that the world is unintelligible apart from belief in the existence of God and arguing on purportedly neutral grounds to support trusting the Christian Scriptures and the existence of God. Presuppositionalists describe Thomistic apologetics as concentrating on the first aspect of apologetics with its logical proofs for the existence of God assuming common ground with the non-Christian and utilizing a piece-by-piece methodology.
In this scheme, the common foundation of neutral brute facts leads to a generic concept of deity to the various characteristics of the Christian God as revealed in Scripture, so forth. Piece-by-piece, Christian theology is built up from a neutral common ground. Presuppositionalists assert that many of the classical arguments are logically fallacious, or do not prove enough, when used as arguments to prove the existence or character of God, they criticize both the assumption of neutrality and the "block house" or "piecemeal" method for failing to start at the level of the controlling beliefs of worldviews and implicitly allowing non-Christian assumptions from the start, thereby trying to build a Christian "house" on a non-Christian "foundation". Evidentialists demur from this assessment, claiming that presuppositionalism amounts to fideism because it rejects the idea of shared points of reference between the Christian and non-Christian from which they may reason in common; the conclusion of evidential apologetics is that the Bible's historical accounts and other truth-claims are more true than false, thus the whole of scriptural revelation may be rationally accepted, where we can't approach absolute certainty we must accept the explanations most to be true.
The goal of presuppositional apologetics, on the other hand, is to argue that the assumptions and actions of non-Christians require them to believe certain things about God and the world which they claim not to believe. This type of argument is technically called a reductio ad absurdum in that it attempts to reduce the opposition to holding an absurd, i.e. self-contradictory position. So, in essence, evidential apologetics attempts to build upon a shared acceptance of self-evident or worldview-neutral facts, while presuppositional apologetics attempts to claim all facts for the Calvinistic Christian worldview as the only framework in which they are intelligible; the modern origins of presuppositional apologetics are in the work of Dutch theologian Cornelius Van Til, a member of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, who began to adopt a presuppositional approach to defending the truth of his faith as early as the late 1920s. Van Til disliked the term "presuppositional", as he felt it misrepresented his approach to apologetics, which he felt was focused on the preeminence of the Bible as the ultimate criterion for truth, rather than denying or ignoring evidence.
He did, accept the label reluctantly, given that it was a useful way of distinguishing between those who deny a neutral basis for apologetics and those who do not. His student, Greg Bahnsen, aided in some of the developments of Van Tillian Presuppositionalism, the Bahnsen Theological Seminary continues to promote presuppositional apologetics in its curriculum. John Frame, another student of Van Til continues to advocate a presuppositional approach, although he is more critical of Van Til's thought than Bahnsen was. Bahnsen's protégé, Michael R. Butler, has been active in advancing the field. Among his contributions is a technical, metalogical study of transcendental arguments in general and the Transcendental argument for the existence of God in particular, which he wrote for Bahnsen's festschrift. By 1952, presuppositional apologetics had acquired a new advocate in the Presbyterian theologian Gordon Clark, he embraced the label "presuppositional" since his approach to apologetics, emphasizing the p
Placentia is a city in northern Orange County, California. The population was 50,533 during the 2010 census, up from 46,488 in the 2000 census; this includes the community of Atwood, included in the city of Placentia, is located in its southernmost quadrant. Referred to as a bedroom community, Placentia is known for its quiet neighborhoods. In 1971, Placentia was honored with the prestigious "All America City" Award, given out annually by the National Civic League to ten cities in the United States. Placentia is located in Orange County at 33°52′57″N 117°51′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.6 square miles. 6.6 square miles of it is land and 0.22% is water. The 57 Freeway runs through the southwest section of Placentia; the 91 Freeway passes directly south of the city. Districts in Placentia include the Neighborhood of La Jolla, the unincorporated community of Atwood. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Placentia has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Placentia had a population of 50,533. The population density was 7,677.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Placentia was 31,373 White, 914 African American, 386 Native American, 7,531 Asian, 74 Pacific Islander, 8,247 from other races, 2,008 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18,416 persons; the Census reported that 50,196 people lived in households, 253 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 84 were institutionalized. There were 16,365 households, out of which 6,310 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,399 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,070 had a female householder with no husband present, 897 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 747 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 91 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,880 households were made up of individuals and 1,274 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07.
There were 12,366 families. The population was spread out with 12,445 people under the age of 18, 5,202 people aged 18 to 24, 13,945 people aged 25 to 44, 12,598 people aged 45 to 64, 6,343 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 36.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. There were 16,872 housing units at an average density of 2,563.2 per square mile, of which 10,681 were owner-occupied, 5,684 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%. 31,761 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,435 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Placentia had a median household income of $75,693, with 12.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 46,488 people, 15,037 households, 11,683 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,051.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,326 housing units at an average density of 2,324.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 67.76% White, 1.77% African American, 0.83% Native American, 11.16% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander 13.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.10% of the population. There were 15,037 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married alternative couples living together, 50.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families. 16.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.42. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $62,803, the median income for a family was $68,976.
These figures had risen to $77,496 and $83,674 as of a 2007 estimate. Males had a median income of $46,956 versus $34,184 for females; the per capita income for the city was $23,843. About 5.7% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. Placentia has a $20,000,000 Metrolink project that started in the downtown area in 2013; this project is in conjunction with the Orange County Transit Authority, will assist in the continued revitalization of the area, scheduled for the building of more transit oriented housing to complement the train station, mixed use and entertainment. All designed to enhance Placentia's unique presence in Orange County. Placentia is working with the OCTA on the OC Bridges project; the project, combined with the city of Fullerton, provides $580,000,000 in funding to build underpasses and/or overpasses at the major north-south roadways in the two cities. The roadways are Lakeview, Ave. Rose/Tustin, Orangethorpe Ave. Kraemer Blvd.
Placentia Ave. State College Blvd. and Raymond Ave. Th
Ray R. Sutton is an American Anglican bishop, he was bishop coadjutor in the Diocese of Mid-America of the Reformed Episcopal Church, since 1999, a founding member of the Anglican Church in North America, in 2009. He is Rector of the Church of the Holy Communion in Dallas, Texas and Professor of Scripture and Theology at Cranmer Theological House in Houston and headmaster of Holy Communion Christian Academy. Sutton was born in Louisville and moved to Dallas at age thirteen, he is head of the Ecumenical Relations Committee of the Anglican Church of North America. He took over the leadership of the Reformed Episcopal Church and the Diocese of Mid-America on 24 November 2016 upon the death of Royal U. Grote Jr. on a provisional level, with his installation taking place on 15 June 2017. Sutton is married to Susan Jean Schaerdel of Dallas, they have three grandchildren. Bachelor of Fine Arts – Southern Methodist University in Master of Theology – Dallas Theological Seminary Doctor of Philosophy – Wycliffe Hall, Oxford University, in association with Coventry University Doctor of Theology – Central School of Religion Doctor of Divinity – Cummins Theological Seminary Sutton served in parish ministry from 1976 until 1991.
He was a co-pastor with James B. Jordan of Westminster Presbyterian Church in Tyler, a prominent church in the Christian Reconstructionist movement. Other members included David Chilton; the church belonged to the Westminster Presbyterian Church of the Association of Reformation Churches in America. North praised Sutton for uncovering that Meredith G. Kline's five-point covenant model applied to the whole Bible, that it applies to three covenant institutions of family and church. Sutton served as Dean and Associate Professor of New Testament at the Reformed Episcopal Seminary in Philadelphia from 1991 until 1995. Since the Synod of the Reformed Episcopal Diocese of Mid America in February 2013, he is once again the president of Cranmer Theological House based in the Houston area. Cranmer House supports a satellite campus in Dallas at Sutton's parish, The Church of the Holy Communion. Sutton was ordained a bishop coadjutor of the Reformed Episcopal Church in 1999 and arrived at the Church of the Holy Communion in 2001.
Sutton has authored several theology works: The Sacramental Theology of Daniel Waterland, 1998. Signed and Delivered: A Study of Holy Baptism, Classical Anglican Press, Houston, TX. ISBN 1-893293-54-8 Captains and Courts, a Biblical Defense of Episcopal Government. Second Chance: Biblical Principals of Divorce and Remarriage, Biblical Hope for the Divorced, Biblical Blueprint Series Vol. #10, The Institute for Christian Economics. That You May Prosper: Dominion by The Institute for Christian Economics. Who Owns the Family?: God or the State? Biblical Blueprint Series Vol. #03, Dominion Press, Ft. Worth, TX. Ray Sutton, David Chilton, Gary DeMar, Victoria T. deVries, Michael Gilstrap, Power for Living, Arthur S. DeMoss Foundation. Sutton, Ray R. "Covenantal Evil." Covenant Renewal 2 4. Sutton, Ray R. "Oath and Symbol." Covenant Renewal 3 4: 1–4. Sutton, Ray R. "Clothing and Calling." in The Reconstruction of the Church. Christianity and Civilization Vol 4. Ed. James B. Jordan. Tyler, Texas: Geneva Ministries.
Sutton, Ray R. "The Saturday Night Church and the Liturgical Nature of Man." in The Reconstruction of the Church. Christianity and Civilization Vol 4. Ed. James B. Jordan. Tyler, Texas: Geneva Ministries. Ray R. Sutton, "The Church as a Shadow Government," Christianity and Civilization III: Tactics of Christian Resistance, Geneva Divinity School. Ray Sutton, "The Baptist Failure", Christianity & Civilization, James B. Jordan, ed. Geneva Divinity School. What is Anglicanism?, Latimer Press, by Mark F. M. Clavier, co-edited by Ray Sutton and Peter C. Moore
R. J. Rushdoony
Rousas John Rushdoony was a Calvinist philosopher and theologian and is credited as being the father of Christian Reconstructionism and an inspiration for the modern Christian homeschool movement. His followers and critics have argued that his thought exerts considerable influence on the evangelical Christian right. Rushdoony was born in New York City, the son of arrived Armenian immigrants. Before his parents fled the Armenian Genocide of 1915, his ancestors had lived in a remote area near Mount Ararat. There are claims that since the year 320, every generation of the Rushdoony family has produced a Christian priest or minister. Rushdoony himself claimed that his ancestors "…would perpetually give a member of their family to be a priest to perform a kind of Aaronic priesthood as in the Old Testament, an hereditary priesthood. Whoever in the family felt, and our family did so. So from the early 300's until now there has always been someone in the ministry in the family."Within weeks of arriving in America, his parents moved to the small farming community of Kingsburg, California, in Fresno County, where a number of other Armenian families had relocated.
There his father, Yegheazar Khachig Rushdoony, founded Armenian Martyrs Presbyterian. Rousas learned to read English by poring over the family's King James Bible: "By the time I reached my teens I had read the Bible through from cover to cover and over and over again"; the family moved in 1925 for a short time to Detroit, where his father pastored another Armenian church. They returned to Kingsburg in 1931 and Rousas completed school in California, his father was pastor of Bethel Armenian Presbyterian Church in San Francisco in 1942. Rousas had a younger sister and brother, Haig, his father died in Fresno in 1961. Rushdoony attended public schools where he learned English, though Armenian was the language spoken at home, he continued his education at the University of California, where he earned a B. A. in English in 1938, a teaching credential in 1939 and an M. A. in Education in 1940. Rushdoony and Arda Gent married in San Francisco the week before Christmas, 1943. Rushdoony went on to the Pacific School of Religion, a Congregational and Methodist seminary in Berkeley, from which he graduated in 1944.
Through letters over the years he kept up his friendship with his Pacific School of Religion mentor, theology professor George Huntston Williams, who saw in him the "heir of a great national Christian heritage" who would "enunciate anew the Gospel which seems to have been forgotten for a season." In 1944 he was ordained by the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. He was awarded an honorary Ph. D. from Valley Christian University for his book, The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum. Gary North stated that Rushdoony read at least one book a day, six days a week, for fifty years of his life, underlining sentences and making an index of its main ideas in the rear. Rushdoony and his wife Arda served for eight and a half years as missionaries to the Shoshone and Paiute Indians on the remote Duck Valley Indian Reservation in northern Nevada, they lived in Owyhee. It was during their mission to the Native Americans. Arda taught at the reservation school and at Sunday school, led a Girl Scout troop, coached the girls' basketball team, visited with families.
In 1945 they adopted an orphaned baby from the reservation. Between 1947 and 1952 in Owyhee, four daughters were born to them. In late 1952 Rushdoony took a Presbyterian Church pastorate at Trinity Presbyterian Church in Santa Cruz and the family left Duck Valley in January 1953, their son Mark was born the next month in Santa Cruz. In Santa Cruz, Rushdoony became a reader of the Christian libertarian magazine Faith and Freedom, which advocated an "anti-tax, non-interventionist, anti-statist economic model" in opposition to Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. Faith and Freedom's views on government aligned with Rushdoony's fears of centralized government power, given the Rushdoony family's memories of the Armenian Genocide. Rushdoony contributed articles to Faith and Freedom, including one describing his observations of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation, arguing that government support had reduced residents to "social and personal irresponsibility"; the Rushdoonys separated in 1957 and divorced.
About this time, Rushdoony transferred his church membership from the Presbyterian Church to the Orthodox Presbyterian denomination. The Orthodox Presbyterian Church's newsletter, The Presbyterian Guardian, reported in July 1958 that "the Rev. Rousas J. Rushdoony… was received and a new Orthodox Presbyterian Church organized, consisting of who had separated from the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. in Santa Cruz." In their petition the group asked that Rushdoony be ordained as their pastor and stated, "e cannot abide in any church which seeks to define righteousness or sin, salvation or sanctification, except in terms of the Word of God. We have witnessed, here in Santa Cruz, against modernism, man-made perfectionism, church bureaucracy"; the newsletter article goes on to report, "The Presbytery in receiving the church examined Mr. Thomas Kirkwood and Mr. Kenneth Webb as prospective elders, they with Mr. Rushdoony were constituted the session of the church," and announced the publication of Rushdoony's By What Standard?
That year. The May 1962 edition of The Presbyterian Guardian reported Rushdoony's resignation, noted as "reportedly to devote his time for his writing and lecturing." Rushdoony married his second wife, Dorothy Barbara Ross Kirkwood, in 1962. She die