Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, is a small Arab monarchy in the Persian Gulf. Bahrains population is 1,234,567, including 666,172 non-nationals and it is 780 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore. Bahrain is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilisation and it has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries, which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century. Bahrain was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam, following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, who in turn were expelled in 1602 by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty under the Persian Empire. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, in the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Formerly a state, Bahrain was declared a Kingdom in 2002, in 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring.
Bahrain had the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf, since the late 20th century, Bahrain has invested in the banking and tourism sectors. Many large financial institutions have a presence in Manama, the countrys capital, Bahrain has a high Human Development Index and was recognised by the World Bank as a high income economy. In Arabic, Bahrayn is the form of bahr, so al-Bahrayn means the two seas, although which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute. The term appears five times in the Quran, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as Awal— but rather to all of Eastern Arabia. Today, Bahrains two seas are generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island. In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the water as noted by visitors since antiquity. An alternate theory with regard to Bahrains toponymy is offered by the al-Ahsa region, another supposition by al-Jawahari suggests that the more formal name Bahri would have been misunderstood and so was opted against.
Until the late Middle Ages, Bahrain referred to the region of Eastern Arabia that included Southern Iraq, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, the region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayns Bahrayn Province, the exact date at which the term Bahrain began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown. The entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as Bahrain for a millennium, the island and kingdom were commonly spelled Bahrein into the 1950s. Bahrain was home to the Dilmun civilization, an important Bronze Age trade centre linking Mesopotamia, Bahrain was ruled by the Assyrians and Babylonians. From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was part of the Persian Empire ruled by the Achaemenian dynasty, by about 250 BC, Parthia brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman
Kabsa is a family of mixed rice dishes that originates from Saudi Arabia, where it is commonly regarded as a national dish. Though kabsa is believed to be indigenous to Saudi Arabia, it is served in countries such as Yemen, Jordan, Oman. The dish is popularly known as makbūs in most Arab states of the Persian Gulf. These dishes are made with rice, vegetables. There are many kinds of kabsa and each kind has a uniqueness about it, pre-mixed kabsa spices are now available under several brand names. These reduce preparation time, but may have a distinct from traditional kabsa. The spices used in kabsa are largely responsible for its taste, the main ingredient that accompanies the spices is the meat. The meats used are chicken, lamb, beef, fish. In chicken machbūs, a chicken is used. The spices and meat may be augmented with almonds, pine nuts, onions, the dish can be garnished with ḥashū and served hot with daqqūs, which is a home-made Arabic tomato sauce. Meat for kabsa can be cooked in various ways, a popular way of preparing meat is called mandi.
This is an ancient technique that originates in Yemen, whereby meat is barbecued in a hole in the ground that is covered while the meat cooks. Another way of preparing and serving meat for kabsa is mathbi, a third technique, madghūt, involves cooking the meat in a pressure cooker. Mandi Jordanian cuisine Iraqi cuisine Qatari cuisine
Sugar is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, the table sugar or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar is used in prepared foods and it is added to some foods, in the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk, longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may have a sweet taste, low-calorie food substitutes for sugar, described as artificial sweeteners, include aspartame and sucralose, a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction in sugarcane, the world production of sugar in 2011 was about 168 million tonnes.
The average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health. Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. The English word sugar ultimately originates from the Sanskrit शर्करा, via Arabic سكر as granular or candied sugar, the contemporary Italian word is zucchero, whereas the Spanish and Portuguese words, azúcar and açúcar, have kept a trace of the Arabic definite article. The Old French word is zuchre and the contemporary French, the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin – Portuguese jagara from the Sanskrit शर्करा.
Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and it was not plentiful or cheap in early times and honey was more often used for sweetening in most parts of the world. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness, sugarcane was a native of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule, one of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating back to 8th century BC that state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. Sugar was found in Europe by the 1st century AD, but only as an imported medicine and it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, and it crunches between the teeth. It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut, sugar is used only for medical purposes. Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store, crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century AD
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk and this fermented dairy product known as cultured buttermilk is produced from cows milk and has a characteristically sour taste caused by lactic acid bacteria. This variant is made using one of two species of bacteria—either Lactococcus lactis or Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which creates more tartness, the tartness of buttermilk is due to acid in the milk. The increased acidity is due to lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria while fermenting lactose. As the bacteria produce acid, the pH of the milk decreases and casein. This process makes buttermilk thicker than plain milk, while both traditional and cultured buttermilk contain lactic acid, traditional buttermilk tends to be less viscous, whereas cultured buttermilk is more viscous. Buttermilk can be straight, and it can be used in cooking. Soda bread is a bread in which the acid in buttermilk reacts with the agent, sodium bicarbonate.
Buttermilk is used in marination, especially of chicken and pork, whereby the lactic acid helps to tenderize, retain moisture, buttermilk referred to the liquid left over from churning butter from cultured or fermented cream. Traditionally, before cream could be skimmed from milk, the milk was left to sit for a period of time to allow the cream. During this time, naturally occurring lactic acid-producing bacteria in the milk fermented it and this facilitates the butter churning process, since fat from cream with a lower pH coalesces more readily than that of fresh cream. The acidic environment helps prevent potentially harmful microorganisms from growing, increasing shelf-life, however, in establishments that used cream separators, the cream was hardly acidic at all. On the Indian subcontinent, the term refers to the liquid left over after extracting butter from churned cream. Today, this is called traditional buttermilk, traditional buttermilk is still common in many Indian and Pakistani households, but rarely found in Western countries.
It can be made at home though, by simply shaking a cup of non-homogenized cream until it separates into butter. In Southern India and in the states of Punjab and Rajasthan, buttermilk topped with sugar, cumin, asafoetida, or curry leaves is a common accompaniment in every meal. Some dairies add colored flecks of butter to cultured buttermilk to simulate residual flecks of butter that can be left over from the process of traditional buttermilk
Maqluba is a traditional dish from the Levant, popular in Bahrain, Israel, Kuwait, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. The dish includes meat and fried vegetables placed in a pot, which is flipped upside down when served, hence the name maqluba. The dish can include a variety of vegetables, such as fried tomatoes, cauliflower, when the casserole is inverted, the top is bright red from the tomatoes that now form the top layer and cover the golden eggplant. Maqluba is usually served with yogurt or a simple Arab salad of diced tomato, parsley. In Turkey, the dish is known as maklube, although the ingredients become slightly different being modified to fit into Turkish cuisine, the preparation and look of the dish is the same. Arab cuisine Palestinian cuisine Jordanian cuisine List of casserole dishes Maqluba recipe
The lentil is an edible pulse. It is an annual plant of the legume family, known for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 cm tall, and the seeds grow in pods, in South Asian cuisine, split lentils are known as lentils. Usually eaten with rice or rotis, the lentil is a staple throughout regions of India, Bangladesh. As a food crop, the majority of production comes from Canada. Lentils have been part of the diet since aceramic Neolithic times. Archeological evidence shows they were eaten 9,500 to 13,000 years ago, Lentil colors range from yellow to red-orange to green and black. Lentils vary in size, and are sold in forms, with or without the skins. Raw lentils are 8% water, 63% carbohydrates including 11% dietary fiber, 25% protein, lentils are a rich source of numerous essential nutrients, including folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, phosphorus and zinc, among others. When lentils are cooked by boiling, protein content declines to 9% of total composition, lentils have the second-highest ratio of protein per calorie of any legume, after soybeans.
The low levels of readily digestible starch, and high levels of slowly digested starch, the remaining 65% of the starch is a resistant starch classified as RS1. A minimum of 10% in starch from lentils escapes digestion and absorption in the small intestine, lentils have anti-nutrient factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and a relatively high phytate content. Trypsin is an involved in digestion, and phytates reduce the bioavailability of dietary minerals. The phytates can be reduced by prolonged soaking and fermentation or sprouting, lentils are relatively tolerant to drought, and are grown throughout the world. FAOSTAT reported that the production of lentils for calendar year 2013 was 4,975,621 metric tons, primarily coming from Canada. About a quarter of the production of lentils is from India. Canada is the largest export producer of lentils in the world, Statistics Canada estimates that Canadian lentil production for the 2009/10 year was a record 1.5 million metric tons. The most commonly grown type is the Laird lentil, the Palouse region of eastern Washington and the Idaho panhandle, with its commercial center at Pullman, constitute the most important lentil-producing region in the United States
A soft drink is a drink that typically contains carbonated water, a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, sugar substitutes, Soft drinks may contain caffeine, colorings and other ingredients. Soft drinks are called soft in contrast to hard drinks, small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0. 5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Fruit punch and other such non-alcoholic beverages are technically soft drinks by this definition but are not generally referred to as such, Soft drinks may be served chilled, over ice cubes or at room temperature. In rare cases, some drinks, such as Dr Pepper. Soft drinks are available in formats, including cans, glass bottles. Soft drinks are widely available at fast food restaurants, movie theaters, convenience stores, casual dining restaurants, dedicated soda stores. Soda fountain drinks are served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues.
In casual dining restaurants and bars, soft drinks are served in glasses. Soft drinks may be drunk with straws or sipped directly from the cups, Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor, one well-known example is the rum and coke, which may contain lime juice. Some homemade fruit punch recipes, which may or may not contain alcohol, contain a mixture of fruit juices. At ice cream parlours and 1950s-themed diners, ice cream floats are often sold, two popular ice cream floats are the coke float and the root beer float, which consist of a scoop of ice cream placed in a tall glass of the respectively named soft drinks. Due to the sugar content in typical soft drinks, they may be called sugary drinks. In Spanish, they use the English equivalent of refreshment, or commonly called gaseosa. In the United States, the 2003 Harvard Dialect Survey tracked the usage of the nine most common names, over half of the survey respondents preferred the term soda, which was dominant in the Northeastern United States and the areas surrounding Milwaukee and St.
Louis. The term tonic is hyperlocal to eastern Massachusetts, although usage is declining, in the English-speaking parts of Canada, the term pop is prevalent, but soft drink is the most common English term used in Montreal. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the terms fizzy drink and fizzy pop are used in northern England, while mineral is used in Ireland
Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Saffron crocus grows to 20–30 cm and bears up to four flowers, the styles and stigmas, called threads, are collected and dried to be used mainly as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron, long among the worlds most costly spices by weight, is native to Southwest Asia and was probably first cultivated in or near Greece. As a genetically monomorphic clone, it was slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was brought to parts of North Africa, North America. Saffrons taste and iodoform or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and it contains a carotenoid pigment, which imparts a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. Its recorded history is attested in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical treatise compiled under Ashurbanipal, Iran now accounts for approximately 90% of the world production of saffron. A degree of uncertainty surrounds the origin of the English word saffron and it might stem from the 12th-century Old French term safran, which comes from the Latin word safranum or from Arabic, az-zafaran, having unknown origin.
Safranum comes from the Persian intercessor zafarān, the domesticated saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Its progenitors are possibly the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus, which is known as wild saffron. The saffron crocus probably resulted when C. cartwrightianus was subjected to artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmata. C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible sources, a corm survives for one season, producing via this vegetative division up to ten cormlets that can grow into new plants in the next season. Corms bear vertical fibres and net-like, that grow up to 5 cm above the plants neck, the plant grows to a height of 20–30 cm, and sprouts 5–11 white and non-photosynthetic leaves known as cataphylls. These membrane-like structures cover and protect the crocuss 5 to 11 true leaves as they bud and develop. The latter are thin and blade-like green foliage leaves, which are 1–3 mm in diameter, C. sativus cataphylls are suspected by some to manifest prior to blooming when the plant is irrigated relatively early in the growing season.
Its floral axes, or flower-bearing structures, bear bracteoles, or specialised leaves, that sprout from the flower stems, after aestivating in spring, the plant sends up its true leaves, each up to 40 cm in length. The flowers possess a sweet, honey-like fragrance, upon flowering, plants average less than 30 cm in height. A three-pronged style emerges from each flower, each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm in length. The saffron crocus, unknown in the wild, probably descends from Crocus cartwrightianus, if C. sativus is a mutant form of C. cartwrightianus, it may have emerged via plant breeding, which would have selected for elongated stigmata, in late Bronze Age Crete
Egg as food
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, amphibians and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of an eggshell, albumen. The most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs, other popular choices for egg consumption are duck, quail and caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, in 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens, bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated.
The chicken was probably domesticated for its eggs before 7500 BCE, chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, and arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, the tomb of Haremhab, built about 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods, the Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness, the word mayonnaise possibly was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub. Egg scrambled with acidic fruit juices were popular in France in the 17th century, the dried egg industry developed in the 19th century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and white into a light-brown, the production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies.
In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the food industry. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken and goose eggs, and smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient in western countries
Mandi is a traditional dish from Yemen. It is eaten in Saudi Arabia and some gulf nations and it is now very popular in other areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and it is common in Egypt and Levant and Turkey. It is popular among the Hadhrami people in the Malabar region of Kerala, Bhatkal or Al Nawayah City of Karnataka, as well as Barkas and areas around Hyderabad, India. The word mandi comes from the Arabic word nada, meaning dew, Mandi is usually made from rice, and a mixture of spices. The meat used is usually a young and small sized lamb to enhance the taste further, the main thing which differentiates Mandi from other meat dishes is that the meat is cooked in the tandoor, which is a special kind of oven. The tandoor is usually a hole dug in the ground and covered inside by clay, to cook mandi, dry wood is placed in the tandoor and burned to generate a lot of heat turning into charcoal. The meat is suspended inside the tandoor without touching the charcoal. After that, the whole tandoor is closed but an airvent is given to remove excess smoke, pine nuts, or peanuts can be added to the rice as per ones taste.
Mandi is considered the main dish served during special events, such as Eid, weddings, in Turkey, this Dish is Called Kuzu Mandi Pilavi which contains Lamb, Almonds, Parsley. Biryani Kabsa Mansaf Haneeth Quzi Maqluba Pilaf Nasi kebuli List of rice dishes How to Make Chicken Mandi with Step-By-Step photos
Harees or Jareesh is a Middle Eastern dish of boiled, cracked, or coarsely-ground wheat, mixed with meat. Its consistency varies between a porridge and a dumpling, Harees is a popular dish known in the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, especially in the month of Ramadan. Harees is derived from the verb means to mash or to squash. Harees is the origin of Haleem which was thought to have been enjoyed by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, the wheat is soaked overnight, simmered in water along with meat and butter or sheep tail fat. Any remaining liquid is strained and the mixture is beaten and seasoned, Harees may be garnished with cinnamon and clarified butter. There is a different traditional way of preparing Harees in each of the Arab countries in the Persian Gulf area, but there is a difference very simple that is optional in some countries. For example, in Saudi Arabia, cardamom pods are added, it is decorated with parsley. Harees was only made by the wealthy during Ramadan and Eid and it was, customary for the Harees dishes to be shared with poorer neighbours on such occasions.
Harees is a dish in Arab cuisine, from the Levant to the Persian Gulf. It is often served during Ramadan, festivals such as Eid ul-Fitr, in Lebanese villages, it is often cooked on religious occasions in a communal pot. Formerly found only in homes, it is now served in restaurants as well, arizah is traditionally served on Easter day, and is considered the national dish of Armenia. Harees is an part of Kashmiri cuisine. Harees is a typical Kashmiri winter cuisine made from mutton & rice flour, Kashmiri migrants made this dish very popular in Punjab. This dish is one of the dishes eaten in Pakistani part of Punjab as well. Harees is a popular dish among the Mappila of Kerala calls Hareesa or Areesa and it is known as Haleem. Hyderabad City being famous for Hyderabadi Haleem List of porridges