Lapsang souchong, sometimes referred to as smoked tea, is a black tea, from the mountainous Wuyi region in the province of Fujian in China. It is distinct from other types of tea, as the leaves are traditionally smoke-dried over pinewood fires, imparting a distinctive flavor of smoky pine. Xiǎozhǒng or Siu2 zung2 refers to the larger, coarser tea leaves. Lapsang souchong is a member of the Bohea family of teas, but is not an Oolong tea, as most Bohea teas are.. Lapsang souchong from the original source is expensive because of increasing demand for this variety of tea, as Wuyi is a small area; the story goes that the tea was created during the Qing era when the passage of armies delayed the annual drying of the tea leaves in the Wuyi Mountain. Eager to satisfy demand, the tea producers sped up the process by drying the leaves over fires made from local pines. According to some sources, Lapsang souchong is the first black tea in history earlier than Keemun tea. After the lapsang souchong tea was used for producing black tea called Min Hong, people started to move the tea bush to different places, such as Keemun and Ceylon.
“Souchong” refers to the fourth and fifth leaves of the tea plant, further away from the more prized bud of the tea plant. These leaves have fewer aromatic compounds. Smoking provides a way to create a marketable product from these less desirable leaves; the leaves are roasted in a bamboo basket called a hōnglóng, heated over burning firewood, which contributes to the dried longan aroma and smoky flavour. Pinewood is used as the firewood for lapsang souchong and imparts the characteristic resiny aroma and taste; the aroma of lapsang souchong is derived from a variety of chemical compounds. The two most abundant constituents of the aroma are α-terpineol. Many of the compounds making up the aroma of lapsang souchong, including longifolene, originate only in the pine smoke and are not found in other kinds of tea. Lapsang souchong is noted for its rich aromas and flavours which include pine resin, smoked paprika, hints of dried longan, the evocation of peated whiskey, it is common for rather brewed Lapsang Souchong tea to lack the bitterness common with other tea varieties.
Lapsang souchong has a high reputation outside China. It was drunk by Winston Churchill and Gary Snyder, who referred to it in Mountains and Rivers Without End; when told that his Captain Picard character from Star Trek: The Next Generation would drink a lot of tea, Sir Patrick Stewart suggested that he drink Lapsang souchong, but the producers were afraid the audience wouldn't know what that was, so the character drank Earl Grey tea instead. In the movie Phantom Thread, Daniel Day Lewis' character orders a pot of Lapsang souchong tea at a hotel restaurant. In the movie Casino Royale, David Niven's character orders a pot of jasmine tea from his assistant, which he clarifies as Lapsang souchong. In the book The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt, the main character, Theo, is served Lapsang souchong tea by Hobie, a cabinetmaker. In the song Beautiful World on his album Man @ Work, Colin Hay mentions liking to drink Lapsang souchong. Lapsang souchong tea is given a nod in James A. Michener's novel CENTENNIAL.
In a passage set at the annual rendezvous in the Rocky Mountains, central character Alexander McKeag discovers the tea via an English trader, upon tasting it, pronounces the tea to be "better than whisky." In "The Bane Chronicles" the high warlock, Magnus Bane, soaks in a cool bath while sipping lapsang souchong tea. It is mentioned in other books throughout the "Mortal Instruments" series; the novellas are co-written by Clare, Maureen Johnson, Sarah Rees Brennan. List of smoked foods Black tea
High-mountain tea or gaoshan tea refers to several varieties of oolong tea grown in the mountains of central Taiwan. It is grown at altitudes higher than 1,000 metres above sea level, includes varieties such as Alishan, Wu She, Li Shan and Yu Shan; the high humidity and natural precipitation in the high mountain ranges of Nantou and Chiayi Counties make the region a suitable environment for growing tea plants. Gaoshan tea leaves are hand harvested, grow due to the thin air in high altitudes. Hence, the yield of gaoshan tea is low every year. There are two kinds of gaoshan tea based on the season: winter gaoshan is harvested during late October, spring gaoshan is harvested during the middle of June, it takes about 36 to 40 hours to process a batch of gaoshan tea. If weather allows, the handplucked leaves are spread on top of a tarp, where they develop aromas such as jasmine and geranium; the tea is folded to bruise the leaf for oxidation and is transferred to another tray to ferment and wither for eight hours.
It is packaged as "handkerchief tea", where farmers emphasize on the quality of the tea rather than the quantity
Keemun is a famous Chinese black tea. First produced in the late 19th century, it became popular in the West and is still used for a number of classic blends, it is a light tea with characteristic stone fruit and smoky notes in the aroma and a gentle, non-astringent taste reminiscent of unsweetened cocoa. Top varieties have additional floral notes in the flavor. Keemun is produced in the Qimen County in the south of Anhui province; the name of the tea is an older Western spelling of the name of Qimen. The tea-growing region lies between the Yangtze River; the cultivar used for Keemun is the same as that used in production of Huangshan Maofeng. While the latter is an old, well-known variety of green tea, Keemun was first produced in 1875 using techniques adapted from Fujian province farmers. Many varieties of Keemun exist, with different production techniques used for each. Any Keemun undergoes slow withering and oxidation processes, yielding more nuanced aroma and flavor; some of Keemun's characteristic floral notes can be attributed to a higher proportion of geraniol, compared to other black teas.
Among the many varieties of Keemun the most well-known is Keemun Mao Feng. Harvested earlier than others, containing leafsets of two leaves and a bud, it is lighter and sweeter than other Keemun teas. Another high grade variety, containing leaves and stronger than others, is the Keemun Hao Ya. For Western markets, it is separated by quality into Hao Ya A and Hao Ya B categories, the former being somewhat better than the latter. Either has a markedly intense taste. Other varieties include those tailored for the Gongfu tea ceremony and Keemun Xin Ya, an early bud variety, said to have less bitterness. One of the black teas produced in neighboring Hubei province is sometimes referred to as a Hubei Keemun by several tea companies, but is not a Keemun in the true sense of the term. Harney, Michael. 2008. The Harney & Sons Guide to Tea; the Penguin Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-440642036 Huang H. T. 2000. Fermentations and Food Science, Vol. 6 of Needham, Joseph and Civilization in China. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
ISBN 978-0-521652704 Linskens, Hans F. and Jackson, John F. 1991. Essential oils and waxes, Vol. 12 of Needham, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. Springer-Verlag, 1991. ISBN 978-0-521652704 Tea Guardian: Qimen Maofeng
Dong Ding tea
Dong Ding spelled Tung-ting, is an oolong tea from Taiwan. A translation of Dong Ding is "Frozen Summit" or "Icy Peak", is the name of the mountain in Taiwan where the tea is cultivated; those plants were brought to Taiwan from the Wuyi Mountains in China's Fujian Province about 150 years ago. The mountain is located in the Lugu region of Nantou County in central Taiwan, an area long used for growing tea. Dong Ding is composed of 3-4 leaves, sometimes including a bud, picked by hand or machine. Afterwards, the tea undergoes a withering process, either outside, indoors, or a combination of both; the leaves are tossed and bruised on large bamboo baskets, which begins the oxidation process. Final rolling is undertaken, either by machine. A final firing sets the oxidation somewhere between 15%-30% oxidation, sometimes over charcoal, giving the tea a toasty, woody flavor
Wuyi tea known by the trade name "Bohea" in English, is a category of black and oolong teas grown in the Wuyi Mountains of northern Fujian, China. The Wuyi region produces a number including Lapsang souchong and Da Hong Pao, it has been one of the major centers of tea production in Fujian province and globally. Both black tea and oolong tea were invented in the Wuyi region, which continues to produce both styles today. Wuyi teas are sometimes called "rock teas" because of the distinctive terroir of the mountainsides where they are grown. Tea grown in the rocky, mineral-rich soil is prized; because of the lower yield produced by tea bushes in such terrain, the resulting tea can be quite costly. Tea made from the leaves of older bushes is expensive and limited in quantity. Da Hong Pao, collected from what are said to be the original bushes of its variety, is among the most expensive teas in the world, more valuable by weight than gold. Commercial-grade tea grown at lower elevations in the area accounts for the majority of the Wuyi tea available on the market.
Commercial Da Hong Pao is made from cuttings of the original plants. During the Song dynasty, the Northern Park tea estate in Fujian's Jian'an district was the most important supplier of tea to the Song emperors. Established as a private estate under the Min Kingdom, it was nationalized under the Southern Tang and remained so under the Song, it continued to supply compressed cakes of "wax tea" to the emperors of the subsequent Yuan dynasty. When the Hongwu Emperor, founder of the Ming dynasty, proclaimed in 1391 that the elaborate and labor-intensive process of producing wax tea "overtaxed the people's strength" and decreed that all imperial tribute tea was to be in the form of loose leaves rather than cakes, tea production collapsed at the Northern Park; the center of the tea industry in Fujian subsequently shifted west to the Wuyi region. In the 16th century, farmers in Wuyi began growing tea and indigo on the mountains themselves on estates owned by Buddhist or Taoist monasteries; the farmers cut terraces into the slopes, built a system of dikes and drains.
During the Ming dynasty, monks at Songluo Mountain in Anhui developed a new technique for stopping the oxidation process of tea, pan-firing the leaves in a dry wok rather than steaming them as had been done previously. Songluo-style green tea became popular, the new production method spread to other regions. In the 16th century, Wuyi tea makers invited monks from Songluo to teach their techniques to them, they discovered that by allowing the tea to oxidize before firing, they could produce a darker, fragrant type of tea which came to be known as oolong tea. European merchants began purchasing tea in Canton during the 17th century; because green tea formed the bulk of their imports, because the Wuyi region was the main source of the darker teas available to them, the term "Bohea" became a blanket name in English for all dark teas. Over time, distinctions began to be made between different dark teas. Lapsang souchong, a Wuyi tea and the first black tea to be produced, was separately traded as "Souchong" for a higher price, while the highest quality black tea was given the name "Pekoe".
The term "Bohea" came to mean black tea of the lowest quality. During the 18th century, Western consumer preferences shifted from green tea toward black tea; the price of black tea dropped during this period, making it more affordable to a larger number of consumers. Bohea tea was consumed in larger quantities than any other type of tea in Europe; when the Ostend Company began competing against the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company by importing cheap Bohea tea, the VOC responded by shifting its trade away from green tea toward larger quantities of black tea Bohea. Because Bohea from the VOC was cheaper than the EIC's tea offerings, consumers in Britain's American colonies illegally smuggled Dutch Bohea in large quantities; the Tea Act of 1773, intended to help the ailing EIC sell its tea in America, instead led to resistance culminating in the Boston Tea Party. In 1848, the Scottish botanist Robert Fortune went to China on behalf of the British East India Company to obtain tea plants as part of their ongoing effort to establish a tea industry in colonial India.
At the time, it was illegal for foreigners to travel inland in China, away from the five treaty ports designated by the Treaty of Nanjing. Fortune therefore went in disguise as a Chinese official, visiting tea producing regions across China, he smuggled out a number of tea plants from the Wuyi Mountains, learned from the monks there the full process of planting and processing the leaves to make tea. He was able to hire a number of Chinese workers to assist with tea production in Darjeeling. Wuyi teas are dark, spanning the range between black teas and darker oolongs, are twisted into thin strips rather than curled into a ball shape like Anxi or Taiwan oolong teas, they are fired as were most oolong teas and have a characteristic smoky flavor with notes of stone fruit. Da Hong Pao Rou Gui Lapsang souchong Tieluohan Bai Jiguan Shui Jin Gui Qilan Benn, James A.. Tea in China: A Religious and Cultural History. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-988-8208-73-9. Berg, Maxine, ed.. Goods from the E
Tieguanyin is a premium variety of Chinese oolong tea that originated in the 19th century in Anxi in Fujian province. Tieguanyin produced in different areas of Anxi have different gastronomic characteristics; the tea is named after the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin, known in Japan as Kannon and in Korea as Gwan-eum. Guanyin is a female embodiment of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. Other spellings and names include "Ti Kuan Yin", "Tit Kwun Yum", "Ti Kwan Yin", "Iron Buddha", "Iron Goddess Oolong", "Tea of the Iron Bodhisattva", it is known in its abbreviated form as "TGY". There are two legends behind this tea: Wang. In Fujian's Anxi County, there was a run-down temple which held an iron statue of Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of Compassion; every day on the walk to his tea fields, a poor farmer named Wei would pass by and reflect on the temple's worsening condition. “Something has to be done,” he thought. Being poor, Wei did not have the means to repair the temple. One day, he brought some incense from his home.
He lit the incense as an offering to Guanyin. "It's the least I can do," he thought to himself. And he did this twice a month for many months. One night, Guanyin appeared to him in a dream, telling him of a cave behind the temple where a treasure awaited, he was to share it with others. In the cave, the farmer found, he planted it in his field and nurtured it into a large bush, from which the finest tea was produced. He gave cuttings of this rare plant to all his neighbors and began selling the tea under the name Tieguanyin, Iron Bodhisattva of Compassion. Over time and all his neighbors prospered. From this time onwards Mr. Wei took joy in the daily trip to his tea fields, never failing to stop in appreciation of the beautiful temple. Wang was a scholar, he brought the plant back home for cultivation. When he visited the Qianlong Emperor in the 6th year of his reign, he offered the tea as a gift from his native village; the emperor was so impressed. Since the tea was discovered beneath the Guanyin Rock, he decided to call it the Guanyin tea.
The processing of Tieguanyin tea requires expertise. If the tea leaf is of high raw quality and is plucked at the ideal time, if it is not processed its true character will not be shown; this is. Plucking tea leaves sun withering cooling tossing withering, this includes some oxidation. Fixation rolling drying After drying some teas go through the added processes of roasting and scenting. By roasting level: Jade Tieguanyin is a newer type of Tieguanyin developed in the 1990s and has a light green jade color, it produces a flowery aroma and taste. It is more similar to green tea than Oolong. Baked Tieguanyin is the original style, it has a more complex taste profile and warm aroma, but the traditional baking technique has not been passed on well, so quality ones of this style are less seen in the market than "moderately baked" and "lightly baked" versions. Moderately baked Tieguanyin is a new breed that some argue has a good balance of floral aroma and complex taste, but it stores poorly. By harvest time: Spring Tieguanyin has the best overall quality.
Autumn Tieguanyin has strong aroma but less complex taste. Summer Tieguanyin is considered lower-quality. Summer Tieguanyin can be further divided into two types: one harvested in June to July, one harvested in August. Winter Tieguanyin is harvested in winter. Production of Winter Tieguanyin is low. Other categories: Guanyin Wang is the best of Jade Tieguanyin and Autumn Tieguanyin. Based on the different roasting methods and locations, there are various types of Tieguanyin. Anxi Tieguanyin Tea 安溪鉄観音 – Recently, this oolong is close to a green tea, with only a little oxidation. With a flowery and fresh delicate aroma character, the tea liquid is golden yellow. In the past, the tea was traditionally more roasted. Muzha Tieguanyin Tea 木柵鉄観音 – This traditional oolong is roasted and has a stronger taste and with roast nutty character. In Taiwan, the name Iron Goddess Tea is used to describe a type of oolong tea, roasted using the Iron Goddess Tea method, regardless of the type of tea leaves used. Therefore, Taiwanese Iron Goddess Tea could be made without.
The top varieties of Tieguanyin rank among the most expensive tea in the world, with one variety sold at around 3000 USD per kilogram. According to one source, it set the record for most expensive tea sold in the United Kingdom. However, that variety of Tieguanyin did not outsell a rarer Da Hong Pao oolong, the most expensive tea sold on the global market. List of Chinese teas
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