New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Singleton, New South Wales
Singleton is a town on the banks of the Hunter River in New South Wales, Australia. Singleton is 197 kilometres north-north-west of Sydney, and 80 kilometres northwest of Newcastle, at June 2015, Singleton had an urban population of 16,921. Singletons main urban area includes the centre, Singleton Heights, Darlington, The Retreat, Wattle ponds. Surrounding rural villages include Broke, Jerrys Plains, Goorangoola/Greenlands, Singleton is located on the north-eastern part of the geological structure known as the Sydney basin, which borders the New England region. Singleton was established in the 1820s by John Howe, in its early years, it was called Patricks Plains. The Main Northern railway line reached Singleton in 1863 and was the end of the line until 1869, the town retains many historic buildings, including the original court house built in 1841, various large churches and many traditional Australian pubs. The countryside surrounding Singleton contains a number of fine old mansions. They include Neotsfield, the elaborate Baroona, Abbey Green and stunning Minimbah, Singleton was subject to the major flooding of the Hunter River in 1955, causing extensive damage to the town.
When the area was being settled, the government originally attempted to create a town at Whittingham in a flood-free area, an embankment was constructed following the 1955 floods to help protect the town against any future flooding. Singleton has a subtropical climate with hot wet summers and cool drier winters. The town is located at the junction of the New England Highway, the Golden Highway branches northwest from the New England Highway ten kilometres south of Singleton. Singleton is served by local and long-distance rail services, Singleton railway station on the Main Northern railway line is located at the southern end of the town centre. There are bus services, both intercity and local, major industries near Singleton include coal mining, electricity generation, light industry, horse breeding and cattle production. Dairying was once a mainstay in the area, but has declined, the largest employment industry is coal mining, which employs 24 percent of the towns workforce. Defence is the second largest employer with almost 4 percent of the workforce, the Lone Pine army barracks is located 8 kilometres south of Singleton.
The Singleton Argus is a newspaper which was established in 1874. It is currently owned and published by Fairfax Media, the weekly newspaper that serves Singleton and the Hunter Valley is The Hunter Valley News, along with the Newcastle Herald newspaper, is published by Fairfax Media. Radio Stations serving both Newcastle and the Hunter Valley can be received in Singleton, Singleton is part of the Newcastle-Hunter Region television market, which is served by 5 television networks, three commercial and two national services
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could be an admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components. In an extended sense it can signify a transformation in which the initiate is reborn into a new role. A person taking the initiation ceremony in traditional rites, such as depicted in these pictures, is called an initiate. Mircea Eliade discussed initiation as a religious act by classical or traditional societies. He defined initiation as a change in existential condition, which liberates man from profane time. Initiation recapitulates the history of the world. And through this recapitulation, the world is sanctified anew. Can perceive the world as a work, a creation of the Gods. Eliade differentiates between types of initiations in two ways and functions and this real valuation of ritual death finally led to conquest of the fear of real death. Function is to reveal the meaning of existence to the new generations and to help them assume the responsibility of being truly men.
It reveals an open to the trans-human, a world that, in our philosophical terminology. Puberty Rites- collective rituals whose function is to effect the transition from childhood or adolescence to adulthood and they represent above all the revelation of the sacred. Entering into a Secret Society- Mystical Vocation- the vocation of a man or a shaman. This is limited to the few who are destined to participate in an intense religious experience than is accessible to the rest of the community. These can be broken into two types, puberty rites, by virtue of which adolescents gain access to the sacred, to knowledge, specialized initiations, which certain individuals undergo in order to transcend their human condition and become protégés of the Supernatural Beings or even their equals. Dissonance is thought to produce feelings of group attraction among initiates after the experience. Rewards during initiations have important consequences in that initiates who feel more rewarded express stronger group identity, as well as group attraction, initiations can produce conformity among new members
Aboriginal sites of New South Wales
These sites are comparable with the petroglyphs of Native Americans and the Rock Art found elsewhere in Australia, but are not restricted to rock carvings. Many of the sites are on the Register of the National Estate, the Aboriginal Australians arrived in the north of Australia around 50,000 years ago. Sites over 22,000 years old have been found in the Blue Mountains area west of Sydney, there are some thousands of known sites, many but not all located in national parks. Some sites are found in more suburban settings, rock carvings can be seen in the Sydney suburbs of Bondi. Their art was part of life and would normally have had a purpose. For example, a hunting scene—a common subject in rock carvings—would be aimed at bringing about the reality of good hunting. There were many artworks that were created for ceremonial purposes. In addition to themes, there were works of a more secular nature. There are substantial variations in the character of art developed in different parts of New South Wales, Art in the western part of the state could be very different from the art created in coastal areas.
Aboriginal sites in the state are administered by the National Parks, all known sites are recorded on the register known as the Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System, which is run by the National Parks and Wildlife Service. There is generally a policy of protecting Aboriginal sites, although a number of sites are publicised. Notable examples are those at the Basin Track, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, most sites are not publicised, and restricted sites will never be made public. If anyone thinks they have a reason for wanting to inspect sites that are not normally available to the public. Coloured pigmentation was created with ochre and ash, one good example is the rock shelter popularly known as Baiames Cave, at Milbrodale, with paintings depicting a large figure that may be Baiame, the Sky Father. Rock carvings, known as petroglyphs or Rock Engravings, are of a known as simple figurative. Other engravings show European sailing ships, and so cannot be more than about 200 years old, thus we are left with a date range of 5000–200 years ago.
It is likely some of the freshest engravings represent the part of that time range. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that we know the engravings were sometimes re-grooved during ceremonies, in some carvings, the figure of Baiame the Sky Father could be eighteen metres tall
Lake Macquarie (New South Wales)
Lake Macquarie or Awaba is Australias largest coastal salt water lagoon. Located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, it covers an area of 110 square kilometres and is connected to the Tasman Sea by a short channel, most of the residents of the City of Lake Macquarie live near the shores of the lake. Lake Macquarie is twice as large as Sydney Harbour and is one of the largest salt water lagoons in the Southern Hemisphere and it is slightly smaller than Port Stephens, which is about 43 kilometres to the northeast of the lake. Aboriginal people of the Awabakal nation lived in the area surrounding what is now known as Lake Macquarie for thousands of years, the name Awaba, which means a plain surface was used to describe the lake. Lake Macquarie was first encountered by Europeans in 1800, when Captain William Reid, Reid took a wrong turn and found himself in a lake rather than a river, with no coal to be seen anywhere. The name Reids Mistake was retained until 1826, when it was renamed in honour of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, the lake is of irregular shape and the land separating it from the ocean is only a few kilometres wide along most of its length.
Lake Macquarie is connected to the sea by Swansea Channel and Lakes Entrance, Swansea Channel is approximately 380 metres wide and 2 kilometres long. It joins Lakes Entrance, a small bay measuring approximately 900 m wide by 2.2 km at the Swansea bridges, the bridges can lift to allow yachts and other larger pleasure craft into and out of the lake. There is no point on the coast from which the entire expanse of the lake, however, a good view can be obtained from lookouts in the nearby Watagan Mountains. Masked owls and ospreys regularly nest within the IBA, the Pulbah Island Nature Reserve is a protected 68-hectare nature reserve that is located in the southern part of the lake. Being approximately 1.6 kilometres long the island is, by far, Pulbah Island is managed by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. There are no permanent structures on the island and it is uninhabited although in the past a maintenance cottage existed on the island, Pulbah is an Australian indigenous Awabakal word meaning island.
Weed infestation on the island is problematic, local efforts have been made to remove and control weeds species such as Bitou bush and Wandering Jew. It has trees such as spotted gum. Kangaroos and koalas were introduced to the island during the early 1900s, goannas are common on the island. From the island there are views of the Wangi Wangi peninsula as well as the Eraring, Munmorah. The island has cliff faces on the west and south sides as well as the south east side, the rest of the island is edged by sandy beaches although the density of vegetation ensures that there is minimal beach at high tide. The east side of the island has a bay that is commonly frequented by leisure boats
The emu is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. It is endemic to Australia where it is the largest native bird, the emus range covers most of mainland Australia, but the Tasmanian emu and King Island emu subspecies became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788. The bird is common for it to be rated as a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Emus are soft-feathered, flightless birds with long necks and legs, Emus can travel great distances, and when necessary can sprint at 50 km/h, they forage for a variety of plants and insects, but have been known to go for weeks without eating. They drink infrequently, but take in copious amounts of water when the opportunity arises, breeding takes place in May and June, and fighting among females for a mate is common. Females can mate several times and lay clutches of eggs in one season. The male does the incubation, during this process he hardly eats or drinks, the eggs hatch after around eight weeks, and the young are nurtured by their fathers.
They reach full size after around six months, but can remain as a unit until the next breeding season. The emu is an important cultural icon of Australia, appearing on the coat of arms, the bird features prominently in Indigenous Australian mythology. The birds were known on the eastern coast before 1788, when the first Europeans settled there, total length seven feet two inches. The long spines which are seen in the wings of the sort, are in this not observable. The legs are stout, formed much as in the Galeated Cassowary, the species was named by ornithologist John Latham in 1790 based on a specimen from the Sydney area of Australia, a country which was known as New Holland at the time. In his original 1816 description of the emu, the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot used two names, first Dromiceius and Dromaius. Most modern publications, including those of the Australian government, use Dromaius, another theory is that it comes from the word ema, which is used in Portuguese to denote a large bird akin to an ostrich or crane.
In Victoria, some terms for the emu were Barrimal in the Dja Dja Wurrung language, myoure in Gunai, the birds were known as murawung or birabayin to the local Eora and Darug inhabitants of the Sydney basin. The emu was long classified, with its closest relatives the cassowaries, in the family Casuariidae, however, an alternate classification was proposed in 2014 by Mitchell et al. based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. This splits off the Casuariidae into their own order, the Casuariformes, the cladogram shown below is from their study. Two different Dromaius species were present in Australia at the time of European settlement, the insular dwarf emus, D. baudinianus and D. n. minor, originally present on Kangaroo Island and King Island respectively, both became extinct shortly after the arrival of Europeans
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Milbrodale, New South Wales
Milbrodale is a village in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is in the government area of Singleton Council. Milbrodale is set in a rural area 23 kilometres south of Singleton, to the north of Milbrodale is Darkey Creek, while to the east is Wollombi Brook. To the west is the rugged wilderness of the Wollemi National Park. Milbrodale is approximately twenty-nine kilometres from Singleton and seventy-eight kilometres from the city of Newcastle, Milbrodale was first established by the Rev. Richard Hill in 1832. Hill had arrived from England to assist with the ministering of the colony at Sydney, later, he became minister at St Jamess Church, Sydney. Eventually, Governor Lachlan Macquarie gave him a grant of 1,200 acres in the Hunter Valley. After journeying along a track that was the beginning of the Great North Road, Hill arrived in the Hunter Valley and built a house at the junction of Wollombi Brook. He named his property Milbro Dale, after his mother, Hill died in 1836 and his wife Phoebe Sapphira returned to Sydney after selling the farm.
The property changed hands several times over the years but eventually deteriorated and was demolished in 1978. The village grew as time went by, but the children had to go to school at the nearby village of Bulga, transported by a horse. A public school was opened at Milbrodale in 1921 on a 5-acre property obtained by Government grant. The most significant feature of Milbrodale is a site containing rock shelters with many signs of Aboriginal occupation. Excavations carried out by staff from the Australian Museum, one of the main features is a rock shelter popularly known as Baiame Cave, which contains a group of Aboriginal paintings. The central figure is a male figure that may represent Baiame. The site is on property and is listed on the Register of the National Estate. Aboriginal sites of New South Wales Great North Road, Australia
Bora is an initiation ceremony of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before European colonisation. The word bora refers to the site on which the initiation is performed, at such a site, having reached puberty, achieve the status of men. During the rites, the youths who were to be initiated were taught traditional sacred songs, the secrets of the tribes religious visions, many different clans would assemble to participate in an initiation ceremony. Women and children were not permitted to be present at the sacred bora ground where these rituals were undertaken. The word Bora was originally taken from the Gamilaraay language spoken by the Kamilaroi people who lived in the north of the Hunter Valley in New South Wales to southern Queensland. It was adorted broadly to describe similar ritual sites and the associated with them performed throughout Eastern Australia. Many other terms exist across Australia to denote similar initiatory rites on a ground, such as burbung.
The specific word is said to come from the belt worn by initiated men, the appearance of the site varies among cultures, but it is often associated with stone arrangements, rock engravings, or other art works. Typically, bora ground comprised a circle with a diameter of between 20–30 metres, and a smaller ring around 10–15 metres in diameter. The former was a public space while the latter was sacred. In south-east Australia, the Bora is often associated with the creator-spirit Baiame, in the Sydney region, large earth mounds were made, shaped as long bands or simple circles. Matthews gives an excellent eye-witness account of a Bora ceremony, one very fine example of a two ring bora ceremonial site used to exist in Alberton till it was destroyed, and made way for a pineapple plantation in the late 1950s. The smaller southern ring contained a dolmen-like structure, the rings are joined by a sacred walkway. While most are confined to south-east Queensland and eastern New South Wales, five earth rings have been recorded near the Victorian town of Sunbury, Bora rings in the form of circles of individually placed stones are evident in Werrikimbe National Park in northern New South Wales
In monotheism, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith. The concept of God as described by most theologians includes the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, divine simplicity, many theologians describe God as being omnibenevolent and all loving. Furthermore, some religions attribute only a purely grammatical gender to God and corporeity of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the immanent transcendence of Chinese theology. God has been conceived as personal or impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, in pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, God is not believed to exist, while God is deemed unknown or unknowable within the context of agnosticism, God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, and the greatest conceivable existent. Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God, there are many names for God, and different names are attached to different cultural ideas about Gods identity and attributes.
In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one true Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, He Who Is, I Am that I Am, in the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, consubstantial in three persons, is called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. In Judaism, it is common to refer to God by the titular names Elohim or Adonai, in Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God. In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a concept of God. In Chinese religion, God is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it, other religions have names for God, for instance, Baha in the Baháí Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, and Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus, the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan.
The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was likely based on the root * ǵhau-, in the English language, the capitalized form of God continues to represent a distinction between monotheistic God and gods in polytheism. The same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, in many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning The God, Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. Mazda, or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå and it is generally taken to be the proper name of the spirit, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means intelligence or wisdom. Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning placing ones mind, Waheguru is a term most often used in Sikhism to refer to God
A myth is any traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon. The word myth is derived from the Greek word mythos, which means story. Mythology can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths, myth can mean sacred story, traditional narrative or tale of the gods. A myth can be a story to explain why something exists, human cultures usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses and heroines, or animals, most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings, a myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths contribute to and express a cultures systems of thought and values, myths are often therefore stories that are currently understood as being exaggerated or fictitious.
According to Albert A. Anderson, a professor of philosophy, in these works, the term had several meanings, narrative, story and word. Like the related term logos, mythos expresses whatever can be delivered in the form of words, Anderson contrasts the two terms with ergon, a Greek term for action and work. The term mythos lacks an explicit distinction between true or false narratives, in the context of the Theatre of ancient Greece, the term mythos referred to the myth, the narrative, the plot, and the story of a theatrical play. According to David Wiles, the Greek term mythos in this era covered an entire spectrum of different meanings, from undeniable falsehoods to stories with religious, according to philosopher Aristotle, the spirit of a theatrical play was its mythos. The term mythos was used for the material of Greek tragedy. The tragedians of the era could draw inspiration from Greek mythology, David Wiles observes that modern conceptions about Greek tragedy can be misleading. It is commonly thought that the ancient audience members were familiar with the mythos behind a play.
However, the Greek dramatists were not expected to faithfully reproduce traditional myths when adapting them for the stage and they were instead recreating the myths and producing new versions. Storytellers like Euripides relied on suspense to excite their audiences, in one of his works, Merope attempts to kill her sons murderer with an axe, unaware that the man in question is actually her son. According to an ancient description of reactions to this work. They rose to their feet in terror and caused an uproar, David Wiles points that the traditional mythos of Ancient Greece, was primarily a part of its oral tradition