Soviet space program
The Soviet space program comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991. Over its 60-year history, this classified military program was responsible for a number of pioneering accomplishments in space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile, first satellite, first animal in Earth orbit, first human in space and Earth orbit, first woman in space and Earth orbit, first spacewalk, first Moon impact, first image of the far side of the Moon and unmanned lunar soft landing, first space rover, first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth, first space station. Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets; the rocket and space program of the USSR boosted by the assistance of captured scientists from the advanced German rocket program, was performed by Soviet engineers and scientists after 1955, was based on some unique Soviet and Imperial Russian theoretical developments, many derived by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, sometimes known as the father of theoretical astronautics.
Sergey Korolev was the head of the principal design group. Unlike its American competitor in the "Space Race", which had NASA as a single coordinating agency, the USSR's program was split among several competing design bureaus led by Korolev, Mikhail Yangel, Valentin Glushko, Vladimir Chelomei; because of the program's classified status, for propaganda value, announcements of the outcomes of missions were delayed until success was certain, failures were sometimes kept secret. As a result of Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of glasnost in the 1980s, many facts about the space program were declassified. Notable setbacks included the deaths of Korolev, Vladimir Komarov, Yuri Gagarin between 1966 and 1968, development failure of the huge N-1 rocket intended to power a manned lunar landing, which exploded shortly after lift-off on four unmanned tests. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukraine inherited the program. Russia created the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, now known as the Roscosmos State Corporation, while Ukraine created the National Space Agency of Ukraine.
The theory of space exploration had a solid basis in the Russian Empire before the First World War with the writings of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, who published pioneering papers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and in 1929 introduced the concept of the multistaged rocket. Practical aspects built on early experiments carried out by members of the reactive propulsion study group, GIRD in the 1920s and 1930s, where such pioneers as Sergey Korolev—who dreamed of traveling to Mars—and the German-Russian engineer Friedrich Zander worked. On August 18, 1933, GIRD launched the first Soviet liquid-fueled rocket Gird-09, on November 25, 1933, the first hybrid-fueled rocket GIRD-X. In 1940-41 another advance in the reactive propulsion field took place: the development and serial production of the Katyusha multiple rocket launcher. During the 1930s Soviet rocket technology was comparable to Germany's, but Joseph Stalin's Great Purge damaged its progress. Many leading engineers were killed, Korolev and others were imprisoned in the Gulag.
Although the Katyusha was effective on the Eastern Front during World War II, the advanced state of the German rocket program amazed Soviet engineers who inspected its remains at Peenemünde and Mittelwerk after the end of the war in Europe. The Americans had secretly moved most leading German scientists and 100 V-2 rockets to the United States in Operation Paperclip, but the Soviet program benefited from captured German records and scientists, in particular drawings obtained from the V-2 production sites. Under the direction of Dimitri Ustinov and others inspected the drawings. Helped by rocket scientist Helmut Gröttrup and other captured Germans until the early 1950s, they built a replica of the V-2 called the R-1, although the weight of Soviet nuclear warheads required a more powerful booster. Korolev's OKB-1 design bureau was dedicated to the liquid-fueled cryogenic rockets he had been experimenting with in the late 1930s; this work resulted in the design of the R-7 Semyorka intercontinental ballistic missile, tested in August 1957.
The Soviet space program was tied to the USSR's Five-Year Plans and from the start was reliant on support from the Soviet military. Although he was "single-mindedly driven by the dream of space travel", Korolev kept this a secret while working on military projects—especially, after the Soviet Union's first atomic bomb test in 1949, a missile capable of carrying a nuclear warhead to the United States—as many mocked the idea of launching satellites and manned spacecraft. Nonetheless, the first Soviet rocket with animals aboard launched in July 1951. Two months ahead of America's first such achievement and subsequent flights gave the Soviets valuable experience with space medicine; because of its global range and large payl
Buran was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme. It is, depending on the source known as "OK-1K1", "Orbiter K1", "OK 1.01" or "Shuttle 1.01". Besides describing the first operational Soviet/Russian shuttle orbiter, "Buran" was the designation for the whole Soviet/Russian spaceplane project and its orbiters, which were known as "Buran-class spaceplanes". OK-1K1 completed one unmanned spaceflight in 1988, was destroyed in 2002 when the hangar it was stored in collapsed, it remains the only Soviet reusable spacecraft to be launched into space. The Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket, a class of super heavy-lift launch vehicle; the construction of the Buran-class space shuttle orbiters began in 1980, by 1984 the first full-scale orbiter was rolled out. Construction of a second orbiter started in 1988; the Buran programme ended in 1993. The only orbital launch of a Buran-class orbiter occurred at 03:00:02 UTC on 15 November 1988 from Baikonur Cosmodrome launch pad 110/37.
Buran was lifted on an unmanned mission, by the specially designed Energia rocket. The automated launch sequence performed as specified, the Energia rocket lifted the vehicle into a temporary orbit before the orbiter separated as programmed. After boosting itself to a higher orbit and completing two orbits around the Earth, the ODU engines fired automatically to begin the descent into the atmosphere, return to the launch site, horizontal landing on a runway. After making an automated approach to Site 251, Buran touched down under its own control at 06:24:42 UTC and came to a stop at 06:25:24, 206 minutes after launch. Despite a lateral wind speed of 61.2 kilometres per hour, Buran landed only 3 metres laterally and 10 metres longitudinally from the target mark. It was the first space shuttle to perform an unmanned flight, including landing in automatic mode, it was found that Buran had lost only eight of its 38,000 thermal tiles over the course of its flight. In 1989, it was projected that OK-1K1 would have an unmanned second flight by 1993, with a duration of 15–20 days.
Although the Buran programme was never cancelled, the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to funding drying up and this never took place. In June 1989, carried on the back of the Antonov An-225, took part in the 1989 Paris Air Show. In 1990, it appeared at the Farnborough Airshow. Another flight of the spacecraft did not occur as, together with the Energia carrier, it was put in a hangar at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. On 12 May 2002, during a severe storm at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the MIK 112 hangar housing OK-1K1 collapsed as a result of poor maintenance; the collapse destroyed the craft as well as the Energia carrier rocket. OK-GLI – Buran Analog BST-02 test vehicle Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 – Soviet orbital spaceplane Space Shuttle program Hendrickx, Bart. Energiya-Buran: The Soviet Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis. P. 526. Bibcode:2007ebss.book..... H. ISBN 978-0-387-69848-9. Elser, Heinz. History and Transportation of the Russian Space Shuttle OK-GLI to the Technik Museum Speyer.
Technik Museum Speyer. ISBN 978-3-9809437-7-2. Buran.ru Buran-Energia.com Buran schematic diagram Photos from the abandoned Buran facilities at Baikonur by Ralph Mirebs Photos of the destroyed Buran orbiter at Aviationweek.com
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 part of a programme known as the Spiral, was a manned test vehicle to explore low-speed handling and landing. It was a visible result of a Soviet project to create an orbital spaceplane; this was conceived in response to the American Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military space project and may have been influenced by contemporary manned lifting body research being conducted by NASA's Flight Research Center in California, USA. The MiG 105 was nicknamed "Lapot" Russian: bast shoe, for the shape of its nose; the program was known as EPOS. Work on this project began two years after Dyna-Soar's cancellation; the project was halted in 1969, to be resurrected in 1974 in response to the U. S. Space Shuttle Program; the test vehicle made its first subsonic free-flight test in 1976, taking off under its own power from an old airstrip near Moscow. It was flown by pilot Aviard G. Fastovets to the Zhukovskii flight test center, a distance of 30.5 kilometres. Flight tests, totaling eight in all, continued sporadically until 1978.
The actual space plane project was cancelled when the decision was made to instead proceed with the Buran project. The MiG test vehicle itself still exists and is on display at the Monino Air Force Museum in Russia. Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy was the leader of the Spiral development programme. Although having the same mission, Dyna-Soar and Spiral were radically different vehicles. For example: While the X-20 Dyna-Soar was designed for launch atop a conventional expendable rocket such as the Titan III-C or Saturn I, Soviet engineers opted for a midair launch scheme for Spiral. Known as "50 / 50", the idea was that the spaceplane and a liquid fuel booster stage would be launched at high altitude from the back of a custom-built hypersonic jet; the mothership was to have been built by the Tupolev Design Bureau and utilize many of the same technologies developed for the Tu-144 supersonic transport and the Sukhoi T-4 Mach 3 bomber. It was never built. Dyna-Soar was designed as a lifting body, while Spiral was a conventional delta wing that featured an innovative variable-dihedral wing.
During launch and reentry, these were folded upward at 60 degrees. After dropping to subsonic speeds post-reentry, the pilot lowered the wings into the horizontal position, giving the spaceplane better re-entry and flight characteristics. Spiral was built to allow for a powered landing and go-around maneuver in case of a missed landing approach. An air intake for a single Kolesov turbojet was mounted beneath the central vertical stabilizer; this was protected during re-entry by a clamshell door which opened at subsonic speeds. By comparison, Dyna-Soar was designed for a once-off, unpowered deadstick landing. High temperature superalloy metals such as niobium, molybdenum and rene 41 were to have been used in the heatshield structure of the X-20. Spiral was to have been protected by what Soviet engineers termed "scale-plate armour": niobium alloy VN5AP and molybdenum disilicide plated steel plates mounted on articulated ceramic bearings to allow for thermal expansion during reentry. Several BOR craft were flown to test this concept.
In the event of a booster explosion or in-flight emergency, the crew compartment of Spiral was designed to separate from the rest of the vehicle and parachute to earth like a conventional ballistic capsule. Such an escape crew capsule was considered for Dyna-Soar, but American engineers opted for a solid-fuel escape rocket that would kick the spaceplane away from an exploding booster, with the intention of saving both pilot and spacecraft. Much like the Space Shuttle, Dyna-Soar was designed with a small payload bay behind the pressurized crew module; this could be used for lofting small satellites, carrying surveillance equipment, weapons, or an extra crewmember in a pop-in cockpit. Spiral, on the other hand, was intended to carry only its pilot. Both Dyna-Soar and Spiral were designed to land on skids; the landing skids on Dyna-Soar were designed to deploy from insulated doors on the underside of the vehicle, like a conventional aircraft. Soviet engineers designed the landing skids on Spiral to deploy from a set of doors on the sides of the fuselage just above and ahead of the wings.
A cosmonaut training group for pilots assigned to fly this vehicle was formed in the early 1960s. It went through many changes and was dissolved entirely. Known members included: the second man to orbit the Earth. Vasily Lazarev, Cosmonaut who would fly the first Soyuz 7K-T mission Aviard G. Fastovets, who piloted the vehicle during the majority of its atmospheric tests; the БОР. Another spacecraft to use the Spiral design was the BOR series, unmanned sub-scale reentry test vehicles. American analogs X-23 PRIME and ASSET. Several of these craft have been preserved in aerospace museums around the world. Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force Data from Soviet X-planesGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 10.6 m Wingspan: 6.7 m Wing area: 24 m2 Empty weight: 3,500 kg Gross weight: 4,220 kg Fuel capacity: 500 kg Powerplant: 1 × RD-36-35K turbojet, 19.61 kN thrustPerformance Maximum speed: 800 km/h Maximum speed: Mach 0.65 Wing loading: 175 kg/m2 Landing speed: 250–270 km/h BOR-4 Buran
Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
Soviet crewed lunar programs
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of programmes pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961; the Soviet government publicly denied participating in such a competition, but secretly pursued two programs in the 1960s: crewed lunar flyby missions using Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft launched with the Proton-K rocket, a crewed lunar landing using Soyuz 7K-LOK and LK Lander spacecraft launched with the N1 rocket. Following the dual American successes of the first crewed lunar orbit on December 24–25, 1968 and the first Moon landing on July 20, 1969, a series of catastrophic N1 failures, both Soviet programs were brought to an end; the Proton-based Zond program was canceled in 1970, the N1 / L3 program was de facto terminated in 1974 and canceled in 1976. Details of both Soviet programs were kept secret until 1990 when the government allowed them to be published under the policy of glasnost.
As early as 1961, the Soviet leadership had made public pronouncements about landing a man on the Moon and establishing a lunar base. Sergei Korolev, the senior Soviet rocket engineer, was more interested in launching a heavy orbital station and in crewed flights to Mars and Venus. With this in mind, Korolev began the development of the super-heavy N-1 rocket with a 75-ton payload. In its preliminary Moon plans, Korolev's design bureau promoted the Soyuz A-B-C circumlunar complex concept under which a two-crew spacecraft would rendezvous with other components in Earth orbit to assemble a lunar flyby excursion vehicle; the components would be delivered by the proven middle-sized R-7 rocket. While developing the N1, beginning in 1963, Korolev began to plan a Moon landing mission using two launches and docking. Korolev managed to increase the payload of the N1 to 92-93 tons, providing enough power to accomplish the mission with a single launch. Another main space design bureau headed by Vladimir Chelomei proposed a competing cislunar orbiting mission using a heavy UR-500K rocket and a two-crew LK-1 spacecraft.
Chelomei proposed a Moon landing program with a super-heavy UR-700 rocket and an LK-700 spacecraft. The Soviet government issued a response to the American Apollo challenge after three years. According to the first government decree about the Soviet crewed Moon programs, adopted in August 1964, Chelomei was instructed to develop a Moon flyby program with a projected first flight by the end of 1966, Korolev was instructed to develop the Moon landing program with a first flight by the end of 1967. Following the change from Nikita Khrushchev to Leonid Brezhnev in 1964, the Soviet government in September 1965 assigned the flyby program to Korolev, who redesigned the cislunar mission to use his own Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft and Chelomei's Proton rocket. Korolev organized full scale development of both programs, but died after surgery in January 1966. According to a government decree of February 1967, the first crewed flyby was scheduled for mid-1967, the first crewed landing for the end of 1968. Launched by a 3-staged Proton rocket, the L1 was a spacecraft from the Soyuz family and consisted of two or three modified modules of the main craft Soyuz 7K-OK with a total weight of 5.5 tons.
The Apollo orbital spacecraft for the lunar flyby had two modules but was five times heavier, carried a crew of three and entered lunar orbit, whereas the L1 performed a flight around the Moon and came back on a return trajectory. Planned for 8 December 1968 for priority over the US, a first crewed mission of the L1 was canceled due to the insufficient readiness of the capsule and rocket. After Apollo 8 won the first phase of the Moon Race at the end of 1968, the Soviet leadership lost political interest in the L1 program. A few reserve units of L1 made unpiloted flights; the crewed landing plan adopted a similar method to the single launch and lunar orbit rendezvous of the Apollo project. For mission safety, weeks before the crewed mission, an LK-R uncrewed L3 complex and two Lunokhod automated rovers would be sent to the Moon, to work as radio beacons for crewed LK, with the LK-R used as a reserve escape craft; the Lunokhods were equipped with manual controls for the cosmonauts, both for transfer to LK-R in necessity and for regular research.
The N1 rocket would carry the L3 Moon expedition complex, with two spacecraft and two boosters. A variant of the Soyuz craft, the "Lunniy Orbitalny Korabl" command module, would carry two men, with three modules like the regular Soyuz 7K-OK, but was heavier by a few tons; the 7K-OK was half the mass of the three-crew Apollo orbital command ship. The "Lunniy Korabl" accommodated only one cosmonaut, so in the Soviet plan, only one cosmonaut would land on the Moon; the mass of the LK was 40% of the mass of the Apollo lunar lander. The L3 complex to be placed in LEO by the N1 was 93 tons; the mass of the LOK and LK was 40% of the Apollo complex, but was equivalent to the L3 complex without Block G. The booster for the LEO toward the Moon for the Apollo vehicle was provided by the last stage of the Saturn V, while for the Block D, LOK and LK, this was to be provided by Block G of the same L3
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute
The Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute was founded in Moscow by Russian aviation pioneer Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky on December 1, 1918. Since 1925 and into the 1930s, TsAGI developed and hosted Tupolev's AGOS, the first aircraft design bureau in Soviet Union, at the time the main one. In 1930, two other major aircraft design bureaus in the country were the Ilyushin's TsKB and an independent, short-lived Kalinin's team in Kharkiv. In 1935 TsAGI was relocated to the former dacha settlement Otdykh converted to the new urban-type settlement Stakhanovo, it was named after a famous Soviet miner. On April 23, 1947, the settlement was renamed to Zhukovsky; the Moscow branch of the institute is known Moscow complex of TsAGI. In 1965 in Zhukovsky a Department of Aeromechanics and Flight Engineering of MIPT was established with support of TsAGI's research and knowledge base to educate young specialists for aerospace industry. Among TsAGI's developments are the rocket Energia and the Space Shuttle Buran.
In 2013 TsAGI developed a testbench for high-speed compound helicopters with propellers. 1918–1921: N. Y. Zhukovsky 1921–1931: S. A. Chaplygin 1932–1937: N. M. Kharlamov 1938–1939: M. N. Shulzhenko 1940–1941: I. F. Petrov 1941–1950: S. N. Shishkin 1950–1960: A. I. Makarevsky 1960–1967: V. M. Myasishchev 1967–1989: G. P. Swischjov 1989–1995: G I. Zagaynov 1995–1998: V. Ja. Neuland 1998–2006: V. G. Dmitriyev 2006–2007: V. A. Kargopoltsev 2007–2009: S. L. Chernyshev 2009–2015: B. S. Aljoshin 2015–2018: S. L. Chernyshev August 2018–present: K. I. Sypalo Historical video to celebrate first 100 years of TsAGI TsAGI in the Buran programme TsAGI on Google Maps