In cricket, the stumps are the three vertical posts that support the bails and form the wicket. Stumping or being stumped is a method of dismissing a batsman; the umpire calling stumps means. The stumps are three vertical posts; the stumps and bails are made of wood, most ash, together form a wicket at each end of the pitch. The overall width of each wicket is 9 inches; each stump is 28 inches tall with minimum diameters of 1 1⁄2 inches and 1 3⁄8 inches. They have a spike at one end for inserting into the ground, the other end has a U-shaped'through groove' to provide a resting place for the bails. In junior cricket the items have lesser dimensions; each stump is referred to by a specific name: Off stump is the stump on the off side of the wicket. Middle stump is the middle of the three stumps. Leg stump is the stump on the on side of the wicket; these names are relative to the batsman, so a right-handed batsman's leg stump becomes the off stump when a left-handed player is batting. In modern professional play, the stumps are branded with a sponsor's logo.
Although they are too far away from spectators to be seen, such logos are visible on television coverage. For professional matches one or more of the stumps is hollow and contains a small television camera; this is aligned vertically, but can view through a small window on the side of the stump via a mirror. The so-called stump-cam gives a unique view of play for action replays when a batsman is bowled. A recent innovation are stumps and bails embedded with red LEDs, which flash when they are dislodged. Invented by an Australian engineer and trademarked as "Zing Bails", they were designed to aid both umpires with run-out or stumping decisions as well as provide distinctive images to television coverage during day-night matches. LED stumps were first used at the 2014 ICC World Twenty20, have since become commonplace in major white-ball matches like ODIs or franchise T20 leagues, they have been used in day/night Test matches. Stumps is used as a term to mean the end of a day's play, e.g. "The umpires called stumps" means that the umpires have declared play over for the day.
At the end of a session, i.e. before lunch or tea, the umpires will remove the bails. Cricket clothing and equipment
A wicket-keeper's gloves or mitt are large leather gloves worn by cricket players of the defending team which assist players in catching and fielding balls hit by a batsman or thrown by a teammate. Law 40.2, which deals with the specifications for wicketkeepers' gloves, states that: If.... The wicket-keeper wears gloves, they shall have no webbing between the fingers except joining index finger and thumb, where webbing may be inserted as a means of support. If used, the webbing shall be: a single piece of non-stretch material which, although it may have facing material attached, shall have no reinforcements or tucks; such that the top edge of the webbing- does not protrude beyond the straight line joining the top of the index finger to the top of the thumb. is taut when a hand wearing the glove has the thumb extended. Gray-Nicolls Kookaburra Sport Slazenger Steeden Cricket clothing and equipment Baseball glove a similar glove in a similar sport
In cricket, an umpire is a person who has the authority to make decisions about events on the cricket field, according to the Laws of Cricket. Besides making decisions about legality of delivery, appeals for wickets and general conduct of the game in a legal manner, the umpire keeps a record of the deliveries and announces the completion of an over. A cricket umpire is not to be confused with the referee who presides only over international matches and makes no decisions affecting the outcome of the game. Traditionally, cricket matches have two umpires on the field, one standing at the end where the bowler delivers the ball, one directly opposite the facing batsman. However, in the modern game, there may be more than two umpires. Most Test matches are controlled by neutral members of the Elite Panel, with local members of the International Panel providing support in the third or fourth umpire roles. Members of the International Panel will officiate as neutral on-field umpires in Tests. Members of the three panels officiate in One Day Twenty20 International matches.
Professional matches have a match referee, who complements the role of the umpires. The match referee makes no decisions relevant to the outcome of the game, but instead enforces the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct, ensuring the game is played in a reputable manner; the ICC appoints a match referee from its Elite Panel of Referees to adjudicate Test matches and ODIs. Minor cricket matches will have trained umpires; the independent Association of Cricket Umpires and Scorers, formed in 1955, used to conduct umpire training within the UK. It however merged to form the ECB Association of Cricket Officials on 1 January 2008. A new structure of cricket umpiring and scoring qualifications has now been put into place and the ACO provides training and examinations for these. Cricket Australia has introduced a two-tier accreditation scheme and all umpires will be required to achieve the appropriate level of accreditation; the ages of umpires can vary enormously as some are former players, while others enter the cricketing world as umpires.
In accordance with the tradition of cricket, most ordinary, local games will have two umpires, one supplied by each side, who will enforce the accepted rules. When a ball is being bowled, one umpire stands behind the stumps at the non-striker's end, which gives him a view straight down the pitch; the second takes. Through long tradition, this is square leg – in line with the popping crease and a few yards to the batsman's leg side – hence he is sometimes known as the square leg umpire. However, if a fielder takes up position at square leg or somewhere so as to block his view, or if there is an injured batsman with a runner the umpire must move somewhere else – either a short distance or to point on the opposite side of the batsman. If the square-leg umpire elects to stand at point, he is required to inform both the batsmen, the captain of the fielding team, his colleague, he may move to the point position in the afternoon if the setting sun prevents a clear view of the popping crease at his end.
It is up to the umpires to keep out of the way of the players. In particular, if the ball is hit and the players attempt a run the umpire behind the stumps will retreat to the side, in case the fielding side attempts a run out at that end. At the end of each over, the two umpires will exchange roles; because the bowlers end alternates between overs, this means. For certain decisions during a match, the on-field umpire may refer to the Third Umpire if there is one appointed, who has access to television replays; the Third Umpire is most used in the case of run-outs, where the action is too fast for the naked eye but can be used to decide the cases of disputed boundaries and catches, when the umpires cannot decide if the ball has struck the ground before being caught. Third Umpire referrals for LBW dismissals was trialled in the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy in Sri Lanka, in the 2007 English Domestic Pro40 competition, is now in widespread use in international matches. During play, the umpire at the bowler's end makes the decisions, which he indicates using arm signals.
Some decisions must be instantaneous, whereas for others he may pause to think or discuss it with the square leg umpire if the latter may have had a better view. These decisions are signalled straight away. An umpire will not give a batsman out unless an appeal is made by the fielding side, though a batsman may walk if he knows himself to be out; this is nowadays rare in Tests and first-class matches for contentious decisions. If the fielding side believes a batsman is out, the fielding side must appeal, by asking the umpire to provide a ruling; the umpire'
A cricket net is a practice net used by batsmen and bowlers to warm up and/or improve their cricketing techniques. Cricket nets consist of a cricket pitch, enclosed by cricket nets on either side, to the rear and optionally the roof; the bowling end of the net is left open. Cricket nets are the cricket equivalent of baseball's batting cages, though fundamentally different, as baseball cages provide complete ball containment, whereas cricket nets do not. Cricket nets serve to stop the ball travelling across a field when the batsman plays a shot – saving time and eliminating the need for fielders, they negate the need for a wicket-keeper should ball travel past the bat. They allow greater intensity of training when multiple lane cricket nets are used. Cricket nets allow solitary batting practise. Cricket nets are used at every level of cricket. Professional cricket establishments are to have over 10 lanes of nets, have the capacity to practise indoors and outdoor. Cricket nets are very prevalent in educational establishments.
They are desirable in these fields as they allow safe and efficient training with a high volume of pupils where there are significant constraints on time. Completing the spectrum is their use as garden cricket nets. Cricket nets are common site in the gardens of keen cricketers and are rightfully considered important to the development of young cricket players. There is a safety element that cricket nets bring. By containing the majority of aerial cricket balls, cricket nets nullify the danger of potential injury occurring from 4¾ oz and 5½ oz cricket balls striking people who are within range of the batsman. Though due to the practical requirement of having an opening in the net it is still common for balls to exit the net, as such shouts of heads up are heard. Indoor cricket nets differ from outdoor nets, they are suspended on an aluminium track way which are fixed to the ceiling of sports hall or gymnasium. The nets can drop 8–4 metres to reach the ground, before travelling at least 20 metres laterally, which provides a substantial practise enclosure.
Indoors nets are multi lane, with 2 or 4 bay nets being common. Unlike outdoor cricket nets where the netting is black, indoor nets tend to be white, they have a separate canvas screen which enclose the area surrounding the batsman and rise to a height of 3 metres. The purpose of this is twofold; the second is from a privacy aspect – the impression of seclusion allows for more focused batsman and reduces the risk of distractions. Indoor cricket nets will be found in all sports halls and gyms where the suspension on runners provides a curtain type system for the nets and allows the nets to be pulled in and out of use; the flexible nature of these nets allows for multi sport use of sports halls, fundamental to the success of all commercially operated sports centres. Outdoor cricket nets are most common form of practise nets, they take shape and form in many different guises, with some nets being homemade whilst others are professional manufactured and installed, this is reflected throughout the world.
Regardless of their design and construction, outdoor crickets all have the same purpose of allowing batting and bowling practise within an enclosed space where the ball is contained. The design and construction of outdoor cricket nets tends to be based around two factors. In schools and cricket clubs where levels of use will be high the construction of the cricket cage will be tailored to suit these requirements. A further unfortunate consideration has to be made into the likelihood that the cricket nets will be subject to misuse or vandalism. Therefore, the frames of cricket cages are constructed out of heavy duty galvanised steel with an overall diameter ranging from 34mm – 50mm, the steel tube is joined by galvanised key-clamp brackets; this system requires ground sockets to be concreted into the ground, although these cannot be removed the actual frame of the cage can still be dismantled. There are variations in the design of outdoor nets such as a pulley and ratchet system where the net is mounted on a cable which spans posts located at either end of the practise net.
Garden cricket nets are DIY and quite take the form of a professional design with locally sourced components. This occurs due to cost implications, but due to the fact cricket nets are fundamentally simple in design and purpose and thus increase the feasibility of constructing a homemade cricket net. There are few rules of thumb to follow with size; the width should be no less than 9 ft, with 12 ft being optimum. The height should be no less than 9 ft if the length of net is longer than 24 ft, this is increased to 10 ft up to a length of 36 ft and nets with roof lengths beyond 36 ft should have a net height of 12 ft – this is to prevent balls ending up on the roof of the cricket net after being bowled; the length of the net is flexible, however the longer the net the more ball containment and the safer the surround training area is. There is a further type of outdoor cricket nets, this is a mobile cricket net. A steel framed cricket cage can be adapted with wheels to allow them to be become completel
Laws of Cricket
The Laws of Cricket is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket worldwide. The earliest known code was drafted in 1744 and, since 1788, it has been owned and maintained by its custodian, the Marylebone Cricket Club in London. There are 42 Laws which outline all aspects of how the game is to be played. MCC has re-coded the Laws six times, the seventh and latest code being released in October 2017; the first six codes prior to 2017 were all subject to interim revisions and so exist in more than one version. MCC is a private club, cricket's official governing body, a role now fulfilled by the International Cricket Council. MCC retains copyright in the Laws and only the MCC may change the Laws, although this is only done after close consultation with the ICC and other interested parties such as the Association of Cricket Umpires and Scorers. Cricket is one of the few sports in which the governing principles are referred to as "Laws" rather than as "rules" or "regulations". In certain cases, regulations to supplement and/or vary the Laws may be agreed for particular competitions as required.
Those applying to international matches can be found on the ICC's website. The origin of cricket is uncertain and it was first recorded at Guildford in the 16th century, it is believed to have been a boys' game at that time but, from early in the 17th century, it was played by adults. Rules as such existed and, in early times, would have been agreed orally and subject to local variations. Cricket in the late 17th century became a betting game attracting high stakes and there were instances of teams being sued for non-payment of wagers they had lost. In July and August 1727, two matches were organised by stakeholders Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Alan Brodrick, 2nd Viscount Midleton. References to these games confirm that they drew up Articles of Agreement between them to determine the rules that must apply in their contests; the original handwritten articles document drawn up by Richmond and Brodrick has been preserved. It is among papers which the West Sussex Record Office acquired from Goodwood House in 1884.
This is the first time that rules are known to have been formally agreed, their purpose being to resolve any problems between the patrons during their matches. The concept, was to attain greater importance in terms of defining rules of play as these were codified as the Laws of Cricket; the Articles are a list of 16 points, many of which are recognised despite their wording as belonging to the modern Laws of Cricket, for example: a Ball caught, the Striker is out. Points that differ from the modern Laws: the wickets shall be pitched at twenty three yards distance from each other. In modern cricket: the pitch is 22 yards long; the earliest known code of Laws was enacted in 1744 but not printed, so far as it is known, until 1755. They were an upgrade of an earlier code and the intention must have been to establish a universal codification; the Laws were drawn up by the "noblemen and gentlemen members of the London Cricket Club", based at the Artillery Ground, although the printed version in 1755 states that "several cricket clubs" were involved, having met at the Star and Garter in Pall Mall.
A summary of the main points: there is reference to the toss of a coin and the pitch dimensions. Underarm pitching is believed to have begun in the early 1760s when the Hambledon Club was rising to prominence; the modern straight bat was introduced as a consequence, replacing the old "hockey stick" bat, good for hitting a ball on the ground but not for addressing a ball on the bounce. In 1771, an incident on the field of play led to the creation of a new Law. In a match between Chertsey and Hambledon at Laleham Burway, the Chertsey all-rounder Thomas White used a bat, the width of the wicket. There was no rule
Cricket clothing and equipment
Cricket clothing and equipment is regulated by the laws of cricket. Cricket clothing, known as cricket whites, or flannels, is loose fitting so as not to restrict players' movements. Use of protective equipment, such as helmets and pads, is regulated. Collared shirt with short or long sleeves depending on the climate or personal preference. Long trousers Jumper; this is a vest. Jockstrap with cup pocket into which a "box", or protective cup, is inserted and held in place. Abdominal guard or "box" or an L Guard for male batsmen and wicket-keepers, it is constructed from high density plastic with a padded edge, shaped like a hollow half-pear, inserted into the jockstrap with cup pocket underwear of the batsmen and wicket-keeper. This is used to protect the crotch area against impact from the ball. Sun hats, cricket cap or baseball cap Spiked shoes to increase traction Helmet, worn by batsmen and fielders close to the batsman on strike to protect their heads. Leg pads, worn by the two batsmen and the wicket-keeper, used to protect the shin bone against impact from the ball.
The wicket-keeping pads are different from the batsmen's. Fielders that are fielding in close to the batsmen may wear shin guards as well. Thigh guard, arm guards, chest guard, elbow guards to protect the body of the batsmen; some batsmen use since they reduce mobility. Gloves for batsmen only, thickly padded above the fingers and on the thumb of the hand, to protect against impact from the ball as it is bowled Wicket-keeper's gloves for the wicket-keeper. Includes webbing between the thumb and index fingers. Batsmen are allowed to wear gloves; the batsman can be caught out if the ball touches the glove instead of the bat, provided the hand is in contact with the bat. This is; the batsman may wear protective helmets with a visor to protect themselves. Helmets are employed when facing fast bowlers. While playing spinners, it might not be employed. Fielders cannot use gloves to field the ball. If they wilfully use any part of their clothing to field the ball they may be penalised 5 penalty runs to the opposition.
If the fielders are fielding close to the batsman, they are allowed to use helmets and leg guards worn under their clothing. As the wicket-keeper is positioned directly behind the batsman, therefore has the ball bowled directly at him, he is the only fielder allowed to wear gloves and leg guards. Ball – A red, white or pink ball with a cork base, wrapped in twine covered with leather; the ball should have a circumference of 9.1 in. Bat – A wooden bat is used; the wood used is from the English willow tree. The bat can not be 4.25 inches wide. Aluminium bats are not allowed; the bat has a long handle and one side has a smooth face. Stumps – three upright wooden poles that, together with the bails, form the wicket. Bails – two crosspieces made of wood, placed on top of the stumps. Sight screen – A screen placed at the boundary known as the sight screen; this is aligned parallel to the width of the pitch and behind both pairs of wickets. Boundary – A rope demarcating the perimeter of the field known as the boundary.
Pads are protective equipment used by batters in the sport of cricket, catchers in the sports of baseball and fastpitch softball, by goaltenders in ice hockey and box lacrosse. They serve to protect the legs from impact by a hard ball or puck at high speed which could otherwise cause injuries to the lower legs. In cricket, pads fall into batting pads and wicket-keeper's pads. In Test and first-class cricket, the pads are white, while in limited overs cricket they may be coloured. Cricket pads first appeared in the mid-18th century in England, they were developed to protect the lower part of the legs from the hard leather ball, used to bowl deliveries in the game. This was in response to the gradual evolution from underarm to sidearm and overarm bowling, which endangered the batsman's knees and shins; the development of pads led to a change in the Laws of Cricket with the addition of the dismissal for LBW. It was introduced in 1774 because batsmen had begun using their pads to deflect balls away from their wickets.
Batting pads protect the shins and the lower thigh. At the base, there is a slot for the foot. Traditional pads were made from canvas which had cotton stuffing inserted between stitched-in cane wood strips that ran vertically up to the knee roll; the material would be painted white with water-soluble canvas paint. Leather buckles were used to bind the pad to the leg; these natural material pads were quite heavy. By contrast, modern day pads are now made from durable and ultra light synthetic materials such as PVC for the outer and polyesters for the lining. Most pads use three velcro fastening straps making them adjustable and removable. Batting pads are just one of the several protective layers worn by modern-day cricketers while batting. Other pads on the legs include a special knee roll to protect the knees or a thigh pad to protect the upper region of the leg. Within the professional game, players insert extra padding beneath their pads to limit the impact from fast deliveries which can range in speed from 80 to 100 miles per hour.
Wicket-keepers used batting pads to protect their legs, but found the knee-protecting flaps interfered with their agility and ability to catch. There were incidents where the ball lodged in the space between the flap and the wicket-keeper's leg. Modern wicket-keeper's pads are therefore smaller than batting pads, with insignificant knee flaps. Instead of three straps, these modern wicketkeeping pads have two straps: one at the bottom and the other one just below the knees. In stick-and-ball games, players that are exposed to the delivery of fast, hard balls to their legs, arms or body wear pads to protect themselves; the protective wear has led to changes in tactics that would otherwise be impossible without safety equipment. Leg Guards are an integral piece of equipment for Catchers playing both Softball, they are designed to protect the Catcher's knees, shins and the top areas of their feet from injury due to balls in the dirt and foul tips, from general discomfort caused by moving from a crouch to a blocking position throughout the game.
Leg Guards are made out of some form of thick plastic with a harness system to keep them attached and in place. In ice hockey, the goaltender wears large leg pads to protect him from low-down impact by a puck. To prevent these leg pads giving him advantage in defending the goal, there are restrictions on their size, which in recent years have been tightened by the National Hockey League. Traditional ice hockey leg pads were made of leather. Goaltenders' pads may be styled with geometric patterns for decoration. Hockey pads are either small shin guards for outfield players or, along with the other pads, goalkeeping pads, similar to those in cricket or ice hockey. In box lacrosse the goaltender wears leg pads to protect against the impact of shots low down. There are restrictions on the dimensions of these pads, but unlike in ice hockey these relate to the depth of the pads. Cricket clothing and equipment Catcher Equipment