Star Wars expanded to other media
Star Wars expanded to other media includes all Star Wars fictional material produced by Lucasfilm or licensed by it outside of the original Star Wars films and television series. Intended as an enhancement to and extension of the theatrical films produced by George Lucas, the spin-off material was moderated by Lucasfilm, Lucas reserved the right to both draw from and contradict it in his own works; this includes an array of derivative Star Wars works produced in conjunction with and after the original trilogy, prequel trilogy, sequel trilogy of films, includes books, comic books, video games, television series. Material produced prior to 2014 were known as the Star Wars Expanded Universe rebranded to Star Wars Legends, with the exception of the 2008 The Clone Wars animated film and TV series, with most works produced after 2014 part of the official canon as defined by Lucasfilm; the Star Wars space opera media franchise began with Lucas's 1977 film Star Wars, set "a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away" and chronicles the attempt by the characters Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, the Wookiee Chewbacca—assisted by the Jedi Obi-Wan Kenobi and the droids C-3PO and R2-D2—to thwart the evil plans of Sith Lord Darth Vader and the Galactic Empire.
The film was followed by multiple prequel films. Along the production of the films were an array of derivative Star Wars works, including books, comic books, video games, television series, which take place at the same time as, after the events of the original trilogy and prequel trilogy. All non-film material produced prior to 2014 was branded as the Star Wars Expanded Universe, was intended as an enhancement to and extension of the Star Wars theatrical films produced by George Lucas. Although the Star Wars film series itself has never been rebooted, a decision was made, due to works set after the original trilogy that contradict and deviate from Lucas' own view of the Star Wars story, to discard the EU works from the franchise canon. Lucas decided to cease creative involvement after selling, in October 2012, the Star Wars franchise as well as Lucasfilm to The Walt Disney Company; when Disney began development of a sequel trilogy of films and other works, needed its films to have full creative freedom unbound by the EU, nearly all EU works were removed from Star Wars franchise canon and rebranded as Star Wars Legends.
Most of the non-film works produced after April 2014 are part of the official Lucasfilm canon. In April 2014 Lucasfilm decreed prior expanded universe content non-canonical, christened it Star Wars Legends, with a new company division, Lucasfilm Story Group, ensuring that all forthcoming comics, books and other media were non-contradictory and true to one another, other canonical media, the story of the films themselves. From that point onward the official Star Wars canon was clarified to include the Star Wars theatrical films and The Clone Wars animated film and TV series. Works which have since been produced include the Rebels animated TV series, the 2015 film The Force Awakens and its 2017 sequel The Last Jedi, the 2016 anthology film Rogue One, the 2017 video game Star Wars Battlefront II, the 2018 film Solo: A Star Wars Story, a number of novels and comic book series. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker, Alan Dean Foster's novelization of the original 1977 film Star Wars, was released six months before the film in November 1976.
Based on George Lucas's 1976 version of the screenplay, it was ghostwritten by Foster but credited to Lucas. Lucas commissioned Foster's subsequent 1978 novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye as the basis for a potential low-budget sequel to Star Wars if that film proved unsuccessful. Foster's works were followed by the film novelizations The Empire Strikes Back by Donald F. Glut and Return of the Jedi by James Kahn, as well as the two trilogies The Han Solo Adventures by Brian Daley, 1983's The Adventures of Lando Calrissian by L. Neil Smith. Running from April 1977 to May 1986, the Star Wars comic book series from Marvel Comics met with such strong sales that former Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter credited it with saving Marvel financially in 1977 and 1978. Marvel's series became one of the industry's top selling titles in 1979 and 1980. Two spin-off television films focusing on the life of the Ewoks, creatures introduced in Return of the Jedi, aired in 1984 and 1985; the 1985 animated television series Star Wars: Droids featured the exploits of R2-D2 and C-3PO, the droids who have appeared in all the Saga films.
The series takes place between the events which were to be depicted in Revenge of the Sith and the original Star Wars. In 1986, Marvel Comics' Star Comics imprint published a comic book based on the cartoon series under the name Star Wars: Droids; the bi-monthly series ran for eight issues. The American/Canadian animated television series Star Wars: Ewoks aired for two seasons between 1985 and 1986. In 1985, Star Comics published a bi-monthly Ewoks comic, based on the animated series, which ran for two years, ending with issue #14. Like the TV series, this was aimed towards a younger audience, it was produced along with Droids, which was
Andrew Michael Scott Francis is a Canadian actor and voice actor, from Vancouver, British Columbia. He has appeared in many television shows and films including My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, Lamb Chop's Play Along, Hero 108, Sushi Pack, Poltergeist: The Legacy, Dark Angel, Twilight Zone, The L Word, Kyle XY and Chesapeake Shores, he has appeared in theatrical releases such as Knockaround Guys, Agent Cody Banks, Final Destination 3, The Invisible. Andrew has been voice acting since the age of 9, starring in over 20 animated series, including many anime series, such as: RoboCop: Alpha Commando, X-Men: Evolution, Johnny Test, Action Man, Dragon Booster, MegaMan NT Warrior, Monster Rancher, Vision of Escaflowne. Andrew Francis at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Andrew Francis on IMDb
George Walton Lucas Jr. is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. Lucas is known for creating the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts and Industrial Light & Magic, he was the chairman and CEO of Lucasfilm before selling it to The Walt Disney Company in 2012. After graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola. Lucas wrote and directed THX 1138, based on his earlier student short Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, a critical success but a financial failure, his next work as a writer-director was the film American Graffiti, inspired by his youth in early 1960s Modesto and produced through the newly founded Lucasfilm. The film was critically and commercially successful, received five Academy Award nominations including Best Picture. Lucas' next film, the epic space opera Star Wars, had a troubled production but was a surprise hit, becoming the highest-grossing film at the time, winning six Academy Awards and sparking a cultural phenomenon.
Lucas cowrote the sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. With director Steven Spielberg, he created the Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, The Last Crusade, he produced and wrote a variety of films through Lucasfilm in the 1980s and 1990s and during this same period Lucas' LucasArts developed high-impact video games, including Maniac Mansion, The Secret of Monkey Island and Grim Fandango alongside many video games based on the Star Wars universe. In 1997, Lucas rereleased the Star Wars trilogy as part of a Special Edition, featuring several alterations, he returned to directing with the Star Wars prequel trilogy, comprising The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, Revenge of the Sith. He collaborated on served as executive producer for the war film Red Tails and wrote the CGI film Strange Magic. Lucas is one of the American film industry's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards, his films are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American box office, adjusted for ticket-price inflation.
Lucas is considered a significant figure in the New Hollywood era. Lucas was born and raised in Modesto, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas and George Walton Lucas Sr. and is of German, Swiss-German, English and distant Dutch and French descent. He was interested including TV shows such as Flash Gordon. Long before Lucas began making films, he yearned to be a racecar driver, he spent most of his high school years racing on the underground circuit at fairgrounds and hanging out at garages. On June 12, 1962, at age eighteen, while driving his souped-up Autobianchi Bianchina, another driver broadsided him, flipping over his car, nearly killing him, causing him to lose interest in racing as a career. Lucas's father owned a stationery store, wanted George to work for him when he turned 18. Lucas had been planning to go to art school, declared upon leaving home that he would be a millionaire by the age of 30, he attended Modesto Junior College, where he studied anthropology and literature, amongst other subjects.
He began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema: screenings of underground, avant-garde 16 mm filmmakers like Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, Bruce Conner. Lucas and Plummer saw classic European films of the time, including Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, François Truffaut's Jules et Jim, Federico Fellini's 8½. "That's when George started exploring," Plummer said. Through his interest in autocross racing, Lucas met renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler, another race enthusiast. Wexler to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas' talent. "George had a good eye, he thought visually," he recalled. Lucas transferred to the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to motion picture film. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a dorm room with Randal Kleiser. Along with classmates such as Walter Murch, Hal Barwood, John Milius, they became a clique of film students known as The Dirty Dozen.
He became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future Indiana Jones collaborator, Steven Spielberg. Lucas was influenced by the Filmic Expression course taught at the school by filmmaker Lester Novros which concentrated on the non-narrative elements of Film Form like color, movement and time. Another inspiration was the Serbian montagist Slavko Vorkapić, a film theoretician who made stunning montage sequences for Hollywood studio features at MGM, RKO, Paramount. Vorkapich taught the autonomous nature of the cinematic art form, emphasizing kinetic energy inherent in motion pictures. Lucas saw many inspiring films in class the visual films coming out of the National Film Board of Canada like Arthur Lipsett's 21-87, the French-Canadian cameraman Jean-Claude Labrecque's cinéma vérité 60 Cycles, the work of Norman McLaren, the documentaries of Claude Jutra. Lucas fell madly in love with pure cinema and became prolific at making 16 mm nonstory noncharacter visual tone poems and cinéma vérité with such titles as Look at Life, Herbie, 1:42.08, The Emperor, Anyone Lived in a Pretty Town, 6-18-67.
He was passionate and interested in camerawork an
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
Stephen Elliott (actor)
Elliott Pershing Stitzel, better known by his stage name Stephen Elliott, was an American actor. His best known roles were that of the prospective father-in-law, Burt Johnson, in the hit 1981 film Arthur and as Chief Hubbard in the 1984 blockbuster Beverly Hills Cop. From 1940 to 1942, Elliott studied acting with Sanford Meisner at New York's Neighborhood Playhouse. After serving in World War II with the United States Merchant Marine, he started a successful career on Broadway with his debut in Shakespeare's The Tempest. In 1967, Elliott was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play for Marat/Sade. Two years he won the Drama Desk Award for A Whistle in the Dark. Additional Broadway credits include King Lear, The Miser, The Crucible, The Creation of the World and Other Business. Elliott's television credits include the role of Jane Wyman's first husband in Falcon Crest, General Padget in Columbo, Harold W. Smith in the 1988 television adaptation of Remo Williams, Texan millionaire attorney Scotty Demarest in Dallas, Judge Harold Aldrich in Chicago Hope.
He appeared in the "Murder! Murder!" Episode of The Eddie Capra Mysteries. In 1981 he had a short role as the newspapermagnate Randolph Hearst in the tv-serial "Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years". In 1981, Elliott played the role of Bail Organa, father of Princess Leia, in the radio drama adaptation of Star Wars. Elliott was born Elliott Pershing Stitzel in New York City, his marriage to Barbara Blaise was terminated by divorce in February 1947, according to The Kingston Daily Freeman, 4 October 1947, page 3. He married stage actress Nancy Chase on 9 October 1947 and divorced in 1960, they had two children and Jon. He married his third wife, actress Alice Hirson, whom he met on Broadway in 1964, he died in 2005 in California as result of congestive heart failure. Both Elliott and Hirson appeared in recurring roles on the television series Dallas. Stephen Elliott at the Internet Broadway Database Stephen Elliott on IMDb Stephen Elliott at Internet Off-Broadway Database Stephen Elliott at Find a Grave
Computer-generated imagery is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, television programs, commercials and simulators. The visual scenes may be dynamic or static and may be two-dimensional, though the term "CGI" is most used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films and television. Additionally, the use of 2D CGI is mistakenly referred to as "traditional animation", most in the case when dedicated animation software such as Adobe Flash or Toon Boom is not used or the CGI is hand drawn using a tablet and mouse; the term'CGI animation' refers to dynamic CGI rendered as a movie. The term virtual world refers to interactive environments. Computer graphics software is used to make computer-generated imagery for etc.. Availability of CGI software and increased computer speeds have allowed individual artists and small companies to produce professional-grade films and fine art from their home computers.
This has brought about an Internet subculture with its own set of global celebrities, clichés, technical vocabulary. The evolution of CGI led to the emergence of virtual cinematography in the 1990s where runs of the simulated camera are not constrained by the laws of physics. Not only do animated images form part of computer-generated imagery, natural looking landscapes are generated via computer algorithms. A simple way to generate fractal surfaces is to use an extension of the triangular mesh method, relying on the construction of some special case of a de Rham curve, e.g. midpoint displacement. For instance, the algorithm may start with a large triangle recursively zoom in by dividing it into four smaller Sierpinski triangles interpolate the height of each point from its nearest neighbors; the creation of a Brownian surface may be achieved not only by adding noise as new nodes are created but by adding additional noise at multiple levels of the mesh. Thus a topographical map with varying levels of height can be created using straightforward fractal algorithms.
Some typical, easy-to-program fractals used in CGI are the plasma fractal and the more dramatic fault fractal. A large number of specific techniques have been researched and developed to produce focused computer-generated effects — e.g. the use of specific models to represent the chemical weathering of stones to model erosion and produce an "aged appearance" for a given stone-based surface. Modern architects use services from computer graphic firms to create 3-dimensional models for both customers and builders; these computer generated. Architectural animation can be used to see the possible relationship a building will have in relation to the environment and its surrounding buildings; the rendering of architectural spaces without the use of paper and pencil tools is now a accepted practice with a number of computer-assisted architectural design systems. Architectural modeling tools allow an architect to visualize a space and perform "walk-throughs" in an interactive manner, thus providing "interactive environments" both at the urban and building levels.
Specific applications in architecture not only include the specification of building structures and walk-throughs but the effects of light and how sunlight will affect a specific design at different times of the day. Architectural modeling tools have now become internet-based. However, the quality of internet-based systems still lags behind that of sophisticated in-house modeling systems. In some applications, computer-generated images are used to "reverse engineer" historical buildings. For instance, a computer-generated reconstruction of the monastery at Georgenthal in Germany was derived from the ruins of the monastery, yet provides the viewer with a "look and feel" of what the building would have looked like in its day. Computer generated. However, organizations such as the Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute have developed anatomically correct computer-based models. Computer generated anatomical models can be used both for operational purposes. To date, a large body of artist produced medical images continue to be used by medical students, such as images by Frank H. Netter, e.g. Cardiac images.
However, a number of online anatomical models are becoming available. A single patient X-ray is not a computer generated image if digitized. However, in applications which involve CT scans a three-dimensional model is automatically produced from a large number of single slice x-rays, producing "computer generated image". Applications involving magnetic resonance imaging bring together a number of "snapshots" to produce a composite, internal image. In modern medical applications, patient-specific models are constructed in'computer assisted surgery'. For instance, in total knee replacement, the construction of a detailed patient-specific model can be used to plan the surgery; these three-dimensional models are extracted from multiple CT scans of the appropriate parts of the patient's own anatomy. Such models can be used for planning aortic valve implantations, one of the common procedures for treating heart disease. Given that the shape and position of the coronary openings can vary from patient to patient, the extraction of a model that resembles a patient's valve anatomy can be beneficial in planning the procedure.
Models of cloth fall
Alderaan is a fictional planet featured in the Star Wars franchise. It is blue-green in appearance, depicted as a terrestrial planet with humanoid inhabitants, characterized by a peaceful culture, it is the home planet of one of the lead characters in the film series. In the original 1977 film, Alderaan is destroyed by the Death Star; the destruction of Alderaan is considered by some as an artistic depiction of the danger of nuclear weapons during the Cold War and some claim it is used as a pop-culture example of inadequate political and military action leading to negative effects. Early drafts of the Star Wars story include references to at least two planets which evolved into the concept of Alderaan. Star Wars author George Lucas included; the draft script opens with a scene in which an "eerie blue-green" planet called Aquilae is threatened by an armed space fortress. In Lucas's 1975 draft, Adventures of the Starkiller as taken from the Journal of the Whills, Saga I: The Star Wars, the capital planet of Alderaan is described as a floating city in the clouds, "suspended in a sea of cirrus methane".
A planet described in Lucas's draft script as being "under siege by the Imperial Legions of Alderaan" and, destroyed is named as Ogana Major. Early sketches commissioned by Lucas from conceptual illustrator Ralph McQuarrie show a design which closely resembles Cloud City, as featured in the sequel, The Empire Strikes Back. In Lucas's third draft, the Imperial City of Alderaan has become the home world of the Sith Lords, Darth Vader holds Princess Leia captive here. Lucas continued to hone his script, aided by screenwriters Willard Gloria Katz; the on-screen depictions of Alderaan in the Star Wars films are scant. Alderaan was featured in the first film, Star Wars, released in 1977; the opening scene depicts the capture of a small spaceship from Alderaan, the Tantive IV, by the Galactic Empire, introduces the character of Princess Leia Organa, a princess of the Royal House of Alderaan, played by Carrie Fisher. Alderaan appears in a scene in the film, but is only shown on-screen in a distant view from space as the Empire's gigantic space station, the Death Star, moves into orbit around the planet.
The battle station's commander, the Grand Moff Tarkin orders the Death Star's superweapon to be fired at the planet. Alderaan explodes in a ball of fire, it is shown that the shattered planet has been reduced to a cloud of asteroids as the Millennium Falcon spaceship attempts to visit the planet. The destruction of Alderaan meant that it was not depicted in subsequent Star Wars films until the series of prequel films was produced; the planet made its first on-screen appearance since 1977 in Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, appearing at the end of the film. The adopted father of Princess Leia, Bail Organa is seen piloting a starship to the planet's surface, shown as a mountainous, alpine region covered in snow. Landing his ship in a citadel among the mountains, he brings the newborn Princess Leia into his royal palace; the backdrop for these scenes was created by compositing landscape footage of Grindelwald in Switzerland with CGI images of the city. The planet is not featured in the 2016 film Rogue One, but the character Bail Organa makes an appearance, stating that he will return to Alderaan to wait for his daughter, Leia, to bring the Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi.
This precedes the narrative of A New Hope. In an episode of the animated television series Star Wars: The Clone Wars entitled "Assassin", Ahsoka Tano has premonitions of Padmé's death on Alderaan; the comic series Star Wars: Princess Leia deals with Princess Leia and Evan, rescuing survivors from Alderaan's destruction. It features a brief flashback to Leia's childhood on the planet and her relationship with her adoptive father Senator Bail Organa. Alderaan is mentioned and serves as a location in several works in the Star Wars Expanded Universe, the collection of books and other material considered outside official canon, now branded Star Wars Legends. In various stories, Alderaan is presented as the home of the characters Tycho Celchu, of Ulic Qel Droma who fought in the Great Sith War in 4000 BBY. During the fall of the Empire, New Alderaan was named after Alderaan for the 60,000 survivors to start rebuilding the beauty of the original planet, it was said that the planet was colonized just after the formation of the Rakatan Infinite Empire.
In Michael A. Stackpole's 1998 novel, I, Alderaan features as the sanctuary of the Caamasi when their home world of Caamas is devastated by the Galactic Empire. Alderaan is featured in Graveyard of Alderaan, it describes how, after the Clone Wars, Alderaan's massive war machine was dismantled, the weapons were placed aboard an armory warship called Another Chance. The ship was programmed to continually jump through hyperspace until called home by the Alder