Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
Karnataka Legislative Assembly
The Karnataka Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral legislature of Karnataka state in southern India. Karnataka is one of the seven states in India, where the state legislature is bicameral, comprising two houses; the two houses are the Vidhan Parishad. The members of the Vidhana Sabha are directly elected by people through adult franchise. There are the Legislative Assembly of Karnataka state. One member is a representative of the Anglo-Indian community nominated by the Governor of Karnataka; the state of Karnataka is divided into 224 constituencies used to elect the Legislative assembly members. Each constituency elects one member of the assembly. Members are popularly known as MLAs; the assembly is elected using "first past the post" electoral system. The elections are conducted by the Election Commission of India; the normal term of the members lasts for five years. In case of death, resignation or disqualification of a member, a by-election is conducted for constituency represented by the member.
The party, or coalition which has the majority becomes the ruling party. President's rule in the state At 11:00 am on 18 June 1952, the first session of the legislative assembly was held at the old public office building conference hall in Bangalore. On 16 December 1949 the maharaja of Mysore dissolved the representative assembly and the legislative assembly; the constituent assembly, constituted in 1947 became the provisional assembly of Mysore until the elections were held in 1952. The first assembly formed under the Constitution had one nominated member. In the first sitting of the assembly, V. Venkatappa was the honorary speaker who administered oath to the members including the Chief Minister Kengal Hanumanthaiah, he conducted election to the post of speaker, contested by socialist leader Shantaveri Gopalagowda, H. Siddaiah, where H. Siddaiah secured 74 votes and emerged victorious and the first CM of Karnataka state Kengal Hanumanthaiah delivered the speech. With the formation of Andhra state in 1953, parts of Bellary district from Madras State were added to Mysore state and the strength of the Assembly increased by five members.
After the re-organisation of state of Mysore came into being on 1 November 1956 with four districts from the former Bombay state, three districts of Hyderabad state, a district and a taluk of the old Madras state of Coorg and the princely state of Mysore. The state was renamed as Karnataka in 1973; the first sitting of the new assembly was held on 19 December 1956 in the newly built Vidhana Soudha. The strength of the assembly, 208 in 1957 increased to 216 in 1967 and to 224 plus a nominated member in 1978; the lone women Speaker of Karnataka assembly was K. S. Nagaratnamma from 24 March 1972 to 3 March 1978; the Budget Session and The Monsoon Session of the Legislature are held in Bengaluru. The Winter Session of the Legislature is held in Belagavi. H. D. Kumaraswamy second ministry Vidhana Soudha Government of KarnatakaThe Garden city of India Karnataka Legislative Council List of Chief Ministers of Karnataka List of Speakers of the Karnataka Legislature Karnataka Lok Sabha Election 2019 Result Website
Platt Brothers known as Platt Bros & Co Ltd, was a British company based at Werneth in Oldham, North West England. The company were iron founders and colliery proprietors. By the end of the 19th century, the company had become the largest textile machinery manufacturer in the world, employing more than 12,000 workers. Henry Platt was a blacksmith who in 1770 was manufacturing carding equipment, in Dobcross, Saddleworth, to the east of Oldham, his grandson Henry founded a similar business in Uppermill. In 1820, the grandson, Henry Platt moved to Huddersfield Road, Oldham and re-established his business there, he and Elijah Hibbert formed Platt. When his sons and John joined the company, it was renamed Hibbert Platt and Sons. Henry Platt died in 1842 and Elijah Hibbert in 1854. All the shares went to the Platt family and the company became Platt Brothers & Company. In 1844 Platt Brothers acquired the Hartford New Works in the Werneth area of Oldham. In 1868, they moved their headquarters from the'Old Works' to the'New Works' and took on limited liability status.
When John Platt died in 1872 the company employed 7,000 men and had established itself as the world's largest textile machinery manufacturer. In the 1890s it was estimated. Platts owned the Jubilee Colliery in Butterworth Hall Colliery in Milnrow. During World War I the company produced munitions, but afterwards resumed textile machinery manufacture and continued to expand. 1922 was a year of record profits and the firm became a public limited company. In 1929 Platt Brothers employed 12000 people, the New Works covered 65 acres. In 1931, the company took a controlling interest in Textile Machinery Makers Ltd, formed from other textile machine manufactures including Asa Lees & Co Ltd; the company name changed to Platt Bros. Ltd. Platt Bros. Ltd was spun off in 1946, when Sir Kenneth Preston joined the company from J. Stone Ltd. Platt International was formed in 1970 from the textile division of Stone Platt, it acquired the Saco Lowell Corporation in 1973 and became Platt-Saco-Lowell in 1975; the Oldham premises closed in the early 1980s.
The drawings and rights to the Platt Ginning Machines are owned by HSL Engineering in Leeds West Yorkshire. Textile manufacturing involves converting of three types of fibre into yarn fabric textiles; these are fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. Cotton was the most important natural fibre, but there was a sizeable Worsted industry in neighbouring West Yorkshire. Cotton was harvested and transported Britain in bales. At the factories the bales were broken open, the fibres were willowed and scrutched before being carded; the carded fibres were combed, drawn and roved before they were ready to be spun. Spinning was done on a spinning mule. Before mechanisation each process was done by hand, but as 19th progressed mechanization was introduced. From 1857, Platts supplied the complete range of weaving machinery, it surpassed Dobson & Barlow of Bolton in size in 1854. Platts constructed looms for export from 1857. Platts introduced successive models of carding machines, roving frames and self-acting mules in 1868, 1886 and 1900.
The self-acting mule was the basis of the company's success being faster and more productive than those of their rivals. Workmen in Platts became shareholders in the Oldham Limiteds mills on the late 1860s ensuring Platt machinery was purchased. After a record year in 1896, the company faced competition from new ring spinning frames, an alternative technology suited to coarse counts, their competitors were Smalley of Rochdale. Platts supplied plans for mills and the fitters to install them. Shortly before the First World War the company reached its peak, with its workforce numbering more than 15,000 people, Hartford Works at Werneth covering more than 85 acres of land was the largest employer in Oldham and the largest maker of cotton-processing machinery in Lancashire and the world; the works were visited by George V and Queen Mary on the first day of their eight-day 1913 Royal Tour of Lancashire on 7 July 1913. In years the company's fortunes mirrored those of the Lancashire cotton industry, the company began a slow, decline.
The company's home market disappeared as large numbers of Lancashire cotton mills began to close, in export markets the company faced tough competition from foreign companies. The end of its Oldham operations came in 1982. Having been taken over in the 1960s, Platt Saco Lowell had grave financial problems, was put into administration by its parent company, Hollingsworth; the Platt name continues. A link between Platt Brothers and the Toyota company of Japan was made in 1929 when the company paid £100,000 for the patent rights for an innovative automatic weaving loom designed by Sakichi Toyoda; the Toyoda Model G loom had mechanical sensors that automatically shut down the loom if a warp thread snapped. The thinking behind this feature was jidoka. Workers were freed from monitoring automatic looms and mill owners achieved a dramatic increase in labour productivity with one worker able to operate up to 30 machines. Money from the sale of rights provided the start-up capital for the Toyota automobile endeavour.
The name change was done for phonetic reasons so although Toyota is now best known as an automotive company, it began as Toyoda the textile machinery manufacturer. John Platt, was Oldham's leading Liberal, he campaigned, in the 1840s, for a municipal charter
A cotton gin is a machine that and separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used for textiles like clothing; the separated seeds may be used to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in the Indian subcontinent since at earliest AD 500 and in other regions; the Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented sometime around the 16th century, according to Lakwete, remained unchanged up to the present time. A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793 and patented in 1794. Whitney's gin used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams, it revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers increased.
The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Modern automated cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws, offer far higher productivity than their hand-powered precursors. Eli Whitney invented his cotton gin in 1793, he began to work on this project after moving to Georgia in search of work. Given that farmers were searching for a way to make cotton farming profitable, a woman named Catharine Greene provided Whitney with funding to create the first cotton gin. Whitney created two cotton gins: a small one that could be hand-cranked and a large one that could be driven by a horse or water power. A single-roller cotton gin came into use in India by the 5th century. An improvement invented in India was the two-roller gin, known as the "churka", "charki", or "wooden-worm-worked roller". Cotton fibers are produced in the seed pods of the cotton plant where the fibers in the bolls are interwoven with seeds. To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, a task, performed manually, with production of cotton requiring hours of labor for the separation.
Many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale. The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood and a flat piece of stone or wood. Evidence for this type of gin has been found in Africa and North America; the first documentation of the cotton gin by contemporary scholars is found in the fifth century AD, in the form of Buddhist paintings depicting a single-roller gin in the Ajanta Caves in western India. These early gins required a great deal of skill. A narrow single roller was necessary to expel the seeds from the cotton without crushing the seeds; the design was similar to that of a mealing stone, used to grind grain. The early history of the cotton gin is ambiguous, because archeologists mistook the cotton gin's parts for other tools. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century.
This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The worm gear roller gin, invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th to 14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire sometime around the 16th century, is still used in the Indian subcontinent through to the present day. Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared sometime during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire; the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin led to expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce 250 pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as 750 people did formerly.
The Indian roller cotton gin, known as the churka or charkha, was introduced to the United States in the mid-18th century, when it was adopted in the southern United States. The device was adopted for cleaning long-staple cotton, but was not suitable for the short-staple cotton, more common in certain states such as Georgia. Several modifications were made to the Indian roller gin by Mr. Krebs in 1772 and Joseph Eve in 1788, but their uses remained limited to the long-staple variety, up until Eli Whitney's development of a short-staple cotton gin in 1793. Eli Whitney applied for a patent of his cotton gin on October 28, 1793. Whitney's patent was assigned patent number 72X. There is slight controversy over whether the idea of the modern cotton gin and its constituent elements are attributed to Eli Whitney; the popular image of Whitney inventing the cotton gin is attributed to an article on the subject written in the early 1870s and reprinted in 1910 in The Library of Southern Literature. In this article, the author claimed Catharine Littlefield Greene suggested to Whitney the use of a brush-like component instrumental in separating out the seeds and cotton.
To date, Greene's role in the invention of the gin has not been verified independently. Whitney's cotton gin model was capable of clea
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
The Chalukya dynasty was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three individual dynasties; the earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan, they ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century; these Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani until the end of the 12th century. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.
The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers; the rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions; the 11th century saw the patronage of Telugu literature under the Eastern Chalukyas. While opinions vary regarding the early origins of the Chalukyas, the consensus among noted historians such as John Keay, D. C. Sircar, Hans Raj, S. Sen, Kamath, K. V. Ramesh and Karmarkar is that the founders of the empire at Badami were native to the modern Karnataka region. A theory that they were descendants of a 2nd-century chieftain called Kandachaliki Remmanaka, a feudatory of the Andhra Ikshvaku was put forward.
This according to Kamath has failed to explain the difference in lineage. The Kandachaliki feudatory call themselves Vashisthiputras of the Hiranyakagotra; the Chalukyas, address themselves as Harithiputras of Manavyasagotra in their inscriptions, the same lineage as their early overlords, the Kadambas of Banavasi. This makes them descendants of the Kadambas; the Chalukyas took control of the territory ruled by the Kadambas. A record of Eastern Chalukyas mentions the northern origin theory and claims one ruler of Ayodhya came south, defeated the Pallavas and married a Pallava princess, she had a child called Vijayaditya, claimed to be the Pulakeshin I's father. However, according to the historians K. V. Ramesh and Sastri, there are Badami Chalukya inscriptions that confirm Jayasimha was Pulakeshin I's grandfather and Ranaraga, his father. Kamath and Moraes claim it was a popular practice in the 11th century to link South Indian royal family lineage to a Northern kingdom; the Badami Chalukya records.
While the northern origin theory has been dismissed by many historians, the epigraphist K. V. Ramesh has suggested that an earlier southern migration is a distinct possibility which needs examination. According to him, the complete absence of any inscriptional reference of their family connections to Ayodhya, their subsequent Kannadiga identity may have been due to their earlier migration into present day Karnataka region where they achieved success as chieftains and kings. Hence, the place of origin of their ancestors may have been of no significance to the kings of the empire who may have considered themselves natives of the Kannada speaking region; the writing of 12th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana suggests the Chalukya family belonged to the Shudra caste while other sources claim they were Kshatriyas. The historians Jan Houben and Kamath, the epigraphist D. C. Sircar note the Badami Chalukya inscriptions are in Sanskrit. According to the historian N. L. Rao, their inscriptions call them Karnatas and their names use indigenous Kannada titles such as Priyagallam and Noduttagelvom.
The names of some Chalukya princes end with the pure Kannada term arasa. The Rashtrakuta inscriptions call the Chalukyas of Badami Karnatabala, it has been proposed by the historian S. C. Nandinath that the word "Chalukya" originated from Salki or Chalki, a Kannada word for an agricultural implement. Inscriptions in Sanskrit and Kannada are the main source of information about Badami Chalukya history. Among them, the Badami cave inscriptions of Mangalesha, Kappe Arabhatta record of c. 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakeshin II, the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple inscription and Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple inscription of Vikramaditya II provide more evidence of the Chalukya language. The Badami cliff inscription of Pulakeshin I, the Mahakuta Pillar inscription of Mangalesha and the Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin II are examples of important Sanskrit inscriptions written in old Kannada script; the reign of the Chalukyas saw the arrival of Kannada as the predominant language of inscriptions along with Sanskrit, in areas of the Indian peninsula outside what is known as Tamilaham.
Several coins of the Badami Chalukyas with Kannada legends have been found. All this indicates. Travelogues of contemporary foreign travellers have provided useful information about the Chalukyan
Belgaum is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka located in its northern part along the Western Ghats. It is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Belgaum Belgaum district; the Government of Karnataka has proposed making Belgaum the second capital of Karnataka, hence a second state administrative building Suvarna Vidhana Soudha was inaugurated on 11 October 2012. Belgaum has been selected in first phase out of 20 cities, as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Belgaum was founded in late 12th century AD by the Ratta dynasty. A Ratta official called Bichiraja built a Jain temple dedicated to Neminatha in 1204, which came to be called Kamalabasti. Pillars found inside Belgaum fort have Kannada inscriptions in Nagari scripts, one from 1199 by Ratta King Kartaveerya IV; the city original name was Venugrama, a Sanskrit word which means "village of bamboo". Alternatively, it is referred to as Venupura in early Indian texts, which means "city of bamboo".
Belgaum became a part of the Yadava dynasty kingdom in early 13th century. An inscription from 1261 of King Krishna belonging to the Yadava dynasty attests to this; the region was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi Sultanate in 14th century. Shortly thereafter, the Vijayanagara Empire was founded, Belgaum came under the rule of Vijayanagara. In 1474, the Bahmani Sultanate conquered Belgaum with an army led by Mahamood Gawan; the Belgaum fort was strengthened by the Adil Shah dynasty Sultans and they built the Safa Mosque. A Persian inscription states that the mosque was built by a Bijapur Commander. In 1518, the Bahamani sultanate splintered into five small states and Belgaum became part of the Bijapur Sultanate; the Adilshahis extended their control to the port of Goa, but retreated after the arrival and wars with the Portuguese. In 1686, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb overthrew the Bijapur sultanate and Belgaum passed nominally to the Mughals, who called it "Azamnagar". However, the Mughal empire control collapsed after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707.
The Maratha confederacy took control of the area during the rule of the Peshwas. In 1776, the region was overrun by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan after Hyder Ali's coup in the Kingdom of Mysore; the Peshwa regained Belgaum. In 1818, the British annexed the region in the control of the Peshwa. Kitturu Chennamma was the queen of the princely state of Kittur in Karnataka and in 1824 she led an unsuccessful armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse. Belgaum was chosen as the venue of the 39th session of the Indian National Congress in December 1924 under the presidency of Mahatma Gandhiji; the city served as a major military installation for the British Raj due to its proximity to Goa, a Portuguese territory. Once the British left India, the Indian government continued and still continues to have armed forces installations in Belgaum. In 1961, the Indian government, under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, used forces from Belgaum to end Portuguese rule of Goa; when India became independent in 1947, Belgaum and its district were part of Bombay State.
In 1956, the Indian states were reorganised along linguistic lines by the States Reorganisation Act and Belgaum District was transferred to Mysore State, renamed Karnataka in 1972. In 2006, the Government of Karnataka announced that Belgaum would be made the state's second capital, that the city would be a permanent venue for the annual 15-day session of the state legislature. Earlier known as venugram, from the Sanskrit Velugrama, for Venugrama, i.e. "Bamboo village". Of late, the city has carved itself a new name as "Kunda nagari" because of its famous sweet dish, made with milk and spices; the city is known as the "Sugar Bowl of Karnataka", the district as the "Sugar District" because of the enormous scope of its sugarcane cultivation and production facilities. On 1 November 2014, the city's name was changed from Belgaum to Belagavi by the Karnataka government, with approval of the Central government of India along with 12 other cities. Belgaum is located at 15.87°N 74.5°E / 15.87. It has an average elevation of 751 metres.
The city is in the northwestern parts of Karnataka and lies at the border of two states and Goa on the western ghats. It is one of the oldest towns in the state, lying 502 km from Bangalore, 515 km from Hyderabad,500 km from Mumbai, 75; the district comprises 1278 villages with an area of 13,415 km² and a population of around 4.8 million according to the census of 2011. Belgaum district is the biggest district of Karnataka. Situated near the foothills of the Sahyadri mountain range at an altitude of about 779 m, 100 km from the Arabian Sea with the Markandeya river flowing nearby, Belgaum exhibits swift and kaleidoscopic changes in topography and climate. Belgaum has a tropical savanna climate, it is known for its pleasant year-round climate. Belgaum is at its coldest in winter and it experiences continuous monsoon rains from June through September. Belgaum sometimes receives hail storms during April; as per the provisional 2011 India census, the population of Belgaum is 588,292, its urban / metropolitan population is 610,189.
Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Belgaum has an average literacy rat