Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Shire of Toodyay
The Shire of Toodyay is a local government area in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, beyond the north-eastern limits of the Perth metropolitan area. The Shire covers an area of 1,694 square kilometres, its seat of government is the town of Toodyay. In 1871, the Toodyay Road District was gazetted, in 1877, the Municipality of Newcastle followed; the latter was abolished and merged in 1912, on 1 July 1961, Toodyay became a shire under the Local Government Act 1960. The Shire has been divided into 4 wards, since the Toodyay Road board meeting in June 1904. North Ward Central Ward West Ward East Ward Toodyay Bailup Bejoording Coondle Culham Dewars Pool Dumbarton Hoddys Well Julimar Moondyne Morangup Nardie Nunile Wattening West Toodyay List of heritage places in Shire of Toodyay Wikipedia:WikiTown/Toodyaypedia Official website
Eucalyptus marginata known as jarrah, djarraly in Noongar language and as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and large, more or less spherical fruit, its hard, dense timber is insect resistant. The timber has been utilised for cabinet-making and railway sleepers. Jarrah is a tree. Older specimens have a lignotuber and roots, it is a stringybark with rough, greyish-brown, vertically grooved, fibrous bark which sheds in long flat strips. The leaves are arranged alternately along the branches, narrow lance-shaped curved, 8–13 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, shiny dark green above and paler below. There is a distinct midvein, spreading a marginal vein separated from the margin; the stalked flower buds are arranged in umbels of between 4 and 8, each bud with a narrow, conical cap 5–9 mm long. The flowers 1–2 cm in diameter, with many white stamens and bloom in spring and early summer.
The fruit are spherical to barrel-shaped, 9–20 mm long and broad. Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". Smith did not provide an etymology for the epithet but did note that, compared to E. robusta "the margin is more thickened". Eucalyptus marginata occurs in the south-west corner of Western Australia where the rainfall isohyet exceeds 600 mm, it is found inland as far as Mooliabeenee and Narrogin and in the south as far east as the Stirling Range. Its northern limit is Mount Peron near Jurien Bay but there are outliers at Kulin and Tutanning in the Pingelly Shire; the plant takes the form of a mallee in places like Mount Lesueur and in the Stirling Range but it is a tree and in southern forests sometimes reaches a height of 40 metres.
It grows in soils derived from ironstone and is found within its range, wherever ironstone is present. Jarrah is an important element in its ecosystem, providing numerous habitats for animal life – birds and bees – while it is alive, in the hollows that form as the heartwood decays; when it falls, it provides shelter to ground-dwellers such as a carnivorous marsupial. Jarrah has shown considerable adaptation to different ecologic zones – as in the Swan Coastal Plain and further north, to a different habitat of the lateritic Darling Scarp. Jarrah is vulnerable to dieback caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. In large sections of the Darling Scarp there have been various measures to reduce the spread of dieback by washing down vehicles, restricting access to areas of forest not yet infected. Jarrah produces a dark, tasty honey, but its wood is its main use, it is a heavy wood, with a specific gravity of 1.1 when green. Its long, straight trunks of richly coloured and beautifully grained termite-resistant timber make it valuable for cabinet making, flooring and outdoor furniture.
The finished lumber has an attractive grain. When fresh, jarrah is quite workable but when seasoned it becomes so hard that conventional wood-working tools are near useless on it, it is used for cabinet making and furniture although in the past it was used in general construction, railway sleepers and piles. In the 19th century, famous roads in other countries were paved with jarrah blocks covered with asphalt. Jarrah wood is similar to that of Karri, Eucalyptus diversicolor. Both trees are found in the southwest of Australia, the two woods are confused, they can be distinguished by cutting an unweathered splinter and burning it: karri burns to a white ash, whereas jarrah forms charcoal. Most of the best jarrah has been logged in southwestern Australia. A large amount was exported to the United Kingdom, where it was cut into blocks and covered with asphalt for roads. One of the large exporters in the late nineteenth century was M. C. Davies who had mills from the Margaret River to the Augusta region of the southwest, ports at Hamelin Bay and Flinders Bay.
The local poet Dryblower Murphy wrote a poem, "Comeanavajarrah", published in The Sunday Times of May 1904, about the potential to extract alcohol from jarrah timber. Jarrah has become more prized, supports an industry that recycles it from demolished houses. So, in 2004, old 4-by-2-inch recycled jarrah was advertised in Perth papers for under $1.50 per metre. Larger pieces of the timber were produced in the early history of the industry, from trees of great age, these are recovered from the demolition of older buildings. Offcuts and millends and fire-affected jarrah sell as firewood for those using wood for heating in Perth, 1-tonne loads can exceed $160 per load. Jarrah tends to work well in slow combustion stoves and closed fires and generates a greater heat than most other available woods. Jarrah is used for percussion instruments and guitar inlays; because of its remarkable resistance to rot, jarrah is used to make hot tubs. Eucalyptus margina
Shire of Mundaring
The Shire of Mundaring is a local government area in eastern metropolitan Perth, the capital of Western Australia. The Shire covers an area of 645 square kilometres and had a population of 38,000 as at the 2016 Census; the Greenmount Road District was created on 17 April 1903. On 29 March 1934, it was renamed Mundaring. On 1 July 1961, it became the Shire of Mundaring after enactment of the Local Government Act 1960. Mundaring Shire has published the following statistics for the period 1994-2006: Population: 35,097 Area: 643.32 km² Rateable area: 205.91 km² Rateable properties: 13,600 Revenue: A$17.4M Vested reserves: 104.60 km² Forests and National Parks: 238.30 km² The shire is divided into four wards. West Ward South Ward Central Ward East Ward The Shire contains three national parks and numerous nature reserves: Beelu National Park Greenmount National Park John Forrest National Park Lake Leschenaultia Mundaring Weir and Interpretation Precinct The Shire is recognised for its natural environment and has numerous walk and ride trails: Bibbulmun Track C Y O'Connor Trail Eagle View Walk Trail Forsyths Mill Mountain Bike Track Kep Track Lake Leschenaultia Trails Munda Biddi Trail Railway Reserves Heritage Trail Weir View Walk 2014 Perth Hills Bushfire Official website
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Avon Valley National Park
Avon Valley is a national park in Western Australia, 47 kilometres northeast of Perth. It was named after the Avon River; the area is an undulating plateau with the sides of the valley steeply sloping back to the river 200 metres below. The area contains granite outcrops and a mix of soil types including loams and lateritic sands, it was named on 15 October 1971. Jarrah and Wandoo trees are found in the park along with 90 different species of birds making it an ideal place for bird watching. Christmas trees and grasstrees are interspersed through the woodlands. In the springtime the park is visited by wildflower enthusiasts to view the a diverse range of flowers including dryandras, donkey orchids and lechenaultias. Other plants found in the area are Conostylis and the rare fringed lily are found within the park; the bushranger Moondyne Joe used the area as a hide-out with his cave and corral situated within the park boundaries. Both have since been damaged by a series of bushfires within the park.
The third route of the Eastern Railway is in parts the southern border of the park, on the southern side of the Avon River, provides - at times of bushfires and other emergencies - a track and point of access. Entry and camping fees apply for visitors to the park. Toilets, shaded areas and wood barbecues are available for use. Trail signage and an information shelter are located within the park and a dedicated ranger is on site
Eucalyptus wandoo known as wandoo or white gum, is a medium-sized tree distributed in southwest Western Australia. The Noongar names for the tree are Dooto, Warrnt or Wornt, it grows as a small to medium-sized tree up to 25 metres in height. It has smooth bark in mottled patches of white, light grey, light brown light yellow and pink. Old layers of bark come off in flakes and it is not uncommon for a few flakes to persist on the trunk for a long time. Young stems may be square in cross-section. Adult leaves are a greyish-green or greyish-blue, the same on both sides, lanceolate, 7.5 to 12.5 centimetres long, 1 to 2.8 cm wide, on a petiole one to two centimetres long. Flowers are white, appearing in clusters between March and April. Seed capsules remain on the tree until the following year and contain 275 seeds per gram; this is a lignotuberous species. Eucalyptus capillosa is a related and similar to E. wandoo. E. capillosa is found further inland than E. wandoo. This taxon was first published as Eucalyptus redunca var. elata by George Bentham in 1867.
In 1934 William Faris Blakely promoted it to species rank, since there was a species named Eucalyptus elata, renamed it Eucalyptus wandoo. The specific epithet "wandoo" comes from the Noongar name for the tree, it is placed in genus Eucalyptus, subgenus Symphyomyrtus, section Bisectae, subsection Glandulosae, series Levispermae, subseries Cubiformes. Two subspecies are recognised: E. wandoo subsp. Pulverea occurs only in the northern extreme of the species' distribution. Young branches of this subspecies have a waxy coating, rubbed off. E. wandoo subsp. Wandoo is the autonymis subspecies, the most common and distributed of the two. Branches are not coated, the bark is not powdery. Endemic to the Southwest Botanical Province of Western Australia, E. wandoo occurs from Geraldton to the south coast, from the west coast inland as far as Narembeen. It grows in undulating terrain. Decline of the habitat and reduction of the crown decline has been studied The wood of this species is dense, is used for a range of heavy duty construction purposes, including as railway sleepers and wood flooring.
There was once an industry in the extraction of tannin from the wood. These days the wood is not much available, as the wandoo forests are preserved for recreation and watershed protection. Wandoo is famous for the honey produced from its nectar. List of Eucalyptus species Hussey, B. M. J. Department of Conservation and Land Management, How to manage your wandoo woodlands, Dept. of Conservation and Land Management, ISBN 978-0-7309-6897-9 "Eucalyptus wandoo Blakely". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. "Eucalyptus wandoo Blakely". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government