Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Vinaròs is a city located in eastern Spain and the capital of the Baix Maestrat. It's in the province of Castellón, so it's part of the Valencian Community. Vinaròs is a fishing tourist destination; the first historical record of Vinaròs is in 1233, when the Moorish hamlet of Binarlaros-Ibn Arus in eastern al-Andaluz was captured by King James I of Aragon. It was under rule of the Knights templar order between 1294 and 1311, of the order of Montesa during the 14th century; the town grew during the 16th and 17th centuries, when fortifications and navy yards were built, attained great prosperity during the following two centuries, due to its involvement in ship building and Valencian wine trade. The town suffered a strong decline in the early 20th century as a consequence of the spread of phylloxera in the regions vineyards, which devastated wine production. Today, the prosperity of Vinaròs is bound to tourism and fishing, it is renowned for its tasty prawns. Vinaròs is part of the Taula del Sénia free association of municipalities.
Sights in Vinaròs is the fortress-like Església Arxiprestal de l'Assumpció, built in the prevailing Renaissance architectural style during 1583-1596, with a'new' Baroque portal added during 1698–1702. The Carnival of Vinaròs take place during January, February or March; the Carnival has 33 troupes. Each troupe is represented by a queen. 1st day: in the Town Hall, Carnival starts by a performance decorated with the Carnival's topic and the "Carnestoltes" presentation. The Mayor and the queens open the Carnival's hutts enclosure. 2nd day: The Queen's Presentation, where they show their fantastic costumes to all the people. It's located on the old football pitch. 3rd day: Flour's battle and Disguised pets Competition in the Carnival's hutts enclosure, placed in the Fóra Forat Walk both. 4th day: elderlies' dinner. 5th day: some troupes fight for win the Karaoke Song Contest. 6th day: people dress up with thematic costumes that are suitable with the Carnival's Topic and they enjoy the night at the Carnival's hutts enclosure.
7th day: all people dress up with pyjamas and enjoy the night at the Carnival's hutts enclosure. 8th day: people dress up costumes and enjoy the night at the Carnival's hutts enclosure. 9th day and 10th day: on Saturday and Sunday, troupes parade around the main streets in a closed route. 11th day: Carnival ends at the Town Hall and the "Carnestoltes" is burned in the beach or in a waste ground. Moreover, in August there's the Summer Carnival with The Queen's Presentation to show the tourists how Carnival is like in Vinaròs. In the 2007 Spanish local elections, the People's Party obtained 10 city councillors, the PSPV-PSOE 7, the Partit de Vinaròs Independent 3 and the Valencian Nationalist Bloc 1. In the 2011 Spanish local elections, the People's Party obtained an absolute majority with 11 councillors elected; the PSPV-PSOE obtained 6 city councillors, the Valencian Nationalist Bloc 2. The PVI lost two seats, obtaining just one councillor while Republican Left of the Valencian Country obtained 1 city councillor.
In the 2015 Spanish local elections, the People's Party lost three city councillors, obtaining 8 seats. The PSPV-PSOE lost two city councillors, receiving 4; the electors association Each and every one are Vinaròs got 5 city councillors and the other political parties obtained the same number of councillors. The PSPV-PSOE, Commitment Coalition and Each and every one are Vinaròs signed the "Stables Covenant" in order to form a government with absolute majority, with 11 city councillors. In this document, they agreed that the leader of the most voted list would be the mayor, Mr. Enric Pla Vall, the other leaders would be the first and second deputy mayors depending on the elected city councillors they had. So the first deputy mayor was Mr. Guillem Alsina Gilabert from the PSPV-PSOE and the second one was Mr. Domènec Fontanet from Compromís. Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendôme, marshal in the War of the Spanish Succession fighting on the side of the Bourbons, he died at Vinaròs from indigestion after eating a serving of king prawns.
Vicent Guilló Barceló, Baroque painter. Maria Conesa actress in México as "la gatita blanca". Carles Santos Ventura, composer, painter and performer. Leopoldo Querol: pianist and professor at the National Conservatory of Music. Joan Elies Adell i Pitarch: poet José María Salaverría: writer. Official Vinaròs website
La Salzadella is a municipality located in the province of Castellón, Valencian Community, Spain
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Santa Magdalena de Polpís
Santa Magdalena de Polpís is a town and municipality in the Baix Maestrat comarca, province of Castelló, Valencian Community, Spain. The town is located inland in a flat valley between the two mountain ranges of Serra d'Irta and Serra de les Talaies, it is a rural dryland farming town with only marginal industrial activity, where the main cultivation is olive and carob trees, as well as some orange trees in irrigated patches. There is no river in the valley, instead the water emerges in natural ponds known as basses; the main celebration in Santa Magdalena de Polpís is the Festes patronals in honor of Saint Mary Magdalene. Like neighboring Alcalà de Xivert its castle was an important bulwark in Moorish times and a village developed at the feet of the castle giving origin to the present-day town. Santa Magdalena de Polpís suffered much during the Spanish Civil War when the fascist troops tried to split the Spanish Republican government territory in two and reach the Mediterranean coast cutting across the Talaies.
Web de Santa Magdalena de Polpís Polpís, terra cremada - The Civil War in Santa Magdalena de Polpís, political and historical context Institut Valencià d'Estadística. Portal de la Direcció General d'Administració Local de la Generalitat
Xert is a municipality in the comarca of Baix Maestrat in the Valencian Community, Spain. The mountains known as Moles de Xert rise above the town and are included in its administrative area. On the hill known as Mola Murada there are remains of an ancient Iberian village of the Bronze Age. During the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania Xert was a Saracene town depending from Cervera. After 1233 it was taken over by the Knights Hospitaller in 1319 the Order of Montesa took over until the 19th century saw the end of manorialism. In 1836 there were pitched battles between Liberals in the mountain areas near Xert. In the past Xert had its own lligallo; the village of La Barcella was abandoned in 1609 and Fontanals during the time of the Spanish Maquis in mid 20th century. Enroig, 51 La Barcella, 0 Fontanals, 0 Paco González Ramírez, País Valencià, poble a poble, comarca a comarca Institut Valencià d'Estadística. Portal de la Direcció General d'Administració Local de la Generalitat