The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California; the peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has 3,000 km of coastline and 65 islands; the total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 the same area as the country of Nepal. The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of the Colorado River. There are four main desert areas on the peninsula: the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert; the land of California existed as a myth among European explorers. The earliest known mention of the idea of California was in the 1510 romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; the book described the Island of California as being west of the Indies, "very close to the side of the Terrestrial Paradise.
Following Hernán Cortés' conquest of Mexico, the lure of an earthly paradise as well as the search for the fabled Strait of Anián, helped motivate him to send several expeditions to the west coast of New Spain in the 1530s and early 1540s. Its first expedition reached the Gulf of California and California, proved the Island of California was in fact a peninsula; the idea of the island persisted for well over a century and was included in many maps. The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula and lands to the north, including both Baja California and Alta California, the region that became parts of the present-day U. S. states of California, Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. 1532: Hernán Cortés sends three ships north along the coast of Mexico in search of the Island of California. The three ships disappear without a trace. 1533: Cortés sends a follow-up mission to search for the lost ships. Pilot Fortún Ximénez leads a mutiny and founds a settlement in the Bay of La Paz before being killed.
1539: Francisco de Ulloa explores both coasts. 1622: A map by Michiel Colijn of Amsterdam showed California as a peninsula rather than an island. Previous maps show the Gulf terminating in its correct location. 1690s–1800s: Spanish settlement and colonization in lower Las Californias, the first Spanish missions in Baja California are established by Jesuit missionaries. 1701: Explorations by Eusebio Kino expanded knowledge of the Gulf of California coast. Kino did not believe. 1767: Jesuits expelled. 1769: Franciscans go with the Portola expedition to establish new missions in Alta California. Control of the existing Baja missions passes to the Dominican Order. 1773: Francisco Palóu's line demarcates Franciscan and Dominican areas of mission control. 1804: Las Californias divided into Alta and Baja California, using Palóu's line. 1810–1821: Mexican War of Independence 1821: First Mexican Empire, Baja California Territory established, covering Baja California Peninsula. 1847: The Battle of La Paz and the Siege of La Paz occurs, as well as several other engagements.
1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Alta California to the United States. As a U. S. territory it receives the California Gold Rush, causing increased maritime traffic along the peninsula. 1850: California admitted to U. S. statehood. 1853: William Walker, with 45 men, captures the capital city of La Paz and declares himself President of the Republic of Lower California. Mexico forces him to retreat a few months later. 1930–31: The Territory of Baja California is further divided into Northern and Southern territories. 1952: The North Territory of Baja California becomes the 29th State of Mexico, Baja California. The southern portion, below 28°N, remains a federally administered territory. 1973: The 1,700 km long Trans-Peninsular Highway, is finished. It is the first paved road; the highway was built by the Mexican government to improve Baja California's economy and increase tourism. 1974: The South Territory of Baja California becomes the 31st state, Baja California Sur. The province of the Californias was united until 1804, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain, when it was divided into Alta and Baja California.
The two Californias division was kept after Mexican independence in 1821. The Spanish Baja California Province became Mexican Baja California Territory, remained a separate territory until 1836. In 1836, the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms reunited both Californias in the Departamento de las Californias. After 1848, the Baja California Peninsula again became a Mexican territory when Alta California was ceded to the United States. In 1931 Baja California Territory was divided into southern territories. In 1952, the "North Territory of Baja California" became the 29th State of Mexico as Baja California. In 1974, the "South Territory of Baja California" became the 31st state as Baja California Sur; the northern part is the state of Baja California. It is sometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte, to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula and the adjacent state Baja California Sur; the citizens of Baja California are named bajacalifornianos. Mex
The 2010 Minnesota Twins season was the 50th season for the franchise in Minnesota, the 110th overall in the American League. It was their first season in their new stadium, Target Field, which made its regular-season debut on April 12 as the Twins defeated the Boston Red Sox 5–2; this marked the return of outdoor professional baseball to the state of Minnesota for the first time since the end of the 1981 season, the last played at Metropolitan Stadium. 3,223,640 fans attended Twins games. The Twins clinched their sixth AL Central division championship in nine seasons on September 21 after a win against the Cleveland Indians and a Chicago White Sox loss, they were again swept by the New York Yankees in the American League Division Series to end the season. The Twins altered their uniforms for the 2010 season, their new home outfits as well as their alternate uniforms feature a redesigned primary wordmark, shown for the first time as a sign was hoisted into place atop the scoreboard at Target Field in May 2009.
The team's colors remained unchanged but the nameplate, in use since the 1980s on the uniforms was eliminated. The new road uniforms discards the navy pinstripes for a gray uniform with a script "Minnesota" on the front in navy with red and white trim; the franchise wore a 1961 throwback uniform as part of the team's 50th season on Opening Day and all Saturday dates. The team donned a special Inaugural Season patch for Target Field on all home uniforms, a Golden Anniversary season patch on their road outfits. Before spring training, the Twins parted ways with 2009 trade deadline acquisition Orlando Cabrera, who would go on to sign a free agent deal with the Cincinnati Reds. Leaving the team was backup catcher Mike Redmond. With Cabrera leaving, there were questions about the Twins infield. General Manager Bill Smith addressed these questions by trading center fielder Carlos Gómez to the Milwaukee Brewers for shortstop J. J. Hardy, signing free agent second baseman Orlando Hudson. Smith added some power to the bench by acquiring free agent and former White Sox and Indians designated hitter Jim Thome.
With regular closer Joe Nathan out for the season after elbow surgery, Gardenhire named Jon Rauch the closer to begin the season. The Twins traded catcher Wilson Ramos and Joe Testa to the Washington Nationals to acquire Matt Capps to bolster the bullpen. Other pitching changes included the late additions of Randy Flores. On March 22, catcher Joe Mauer signed a contract extension for eight years; the $184 million contract, paying him $23 million each year, is the richest for the Twins, the fourth largest in major league history. The Twins win a stadium opener at home. They'd lost the Home Openers at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. At Target Field on April 12 this year, DH Jason Kubel drove in two runs and hit the stadium's first home run in a 5-2 win over Boston. On April 28, third baseman Luke Hughes hit a home run in his first-ever major league at bat, joining four other Twins who've accomplished the feat: Rick Renick, Dave McKay, Gary Gaetti and Andre David, they were joined by Eddie Rosario in 2015.
On July 3, new Twin Jim Thome homered in the first inning for his 574th career home run. With that four-bagger, he passed Twins legend Harmon Killebrew's 573 on the all-time career home run list. July 13: At Angel Stadium of Anaheim, Joe Mauer and Justin Morneau represented the Twins at the All-Star Game. Mauer was the starting AL catcher and Morneau was not used as a reserve. Kevin Slowey's win on September 12 was the club's 4,000th win, dating back to win no. 1 on April 11, 1961. Ron Gardenhire was named American League Manager of the Year. Pitcher Francisco Liriano, who'd missed all of 2007 following Tommy John surgery, saw limited action in 2008 and 2009 due to injuries. In 2010, he threw the second-most innings of any pitcher for the Twins, led the team in ERA, allowed the fewest home runs per nine innings of any pitcher in the AL, he was voted the American League's Comeback Player of the Year. Joe Mauer won his fourth Silver Slugger Award and his third Gold Glove Award. Note: G = Games played.
8:30 p.m. at Target Field in Minneapolis, Minnesota 6:00 p.m. at Target Field in Minneapolis, Minnesota 8:30 p.m. at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, New York Calvin R. Griffith Award – Joe Mauer Joseph W. Haynes Award – Carl Pavano Bill Boni Award – Danny Valencia Charles O. Johnson Award – Delmon Young Dick Siebert Award – Joe Mauer Bob Allison Award – Michael Cuddyer Mike Augustin Award – Michael Cuddyer The above awards are voted on by the Twin Cities chapter of the BBWAA Carl R. Pohlad Award – Jesse Crain Sherry Robertson Award – Joe Benson Jim Rantz Award – Kyle Gibson Kirby Puckett Award –
Charles-Louis Baugniet was a Belgian painter and aquarellist. His name remains attached to the lithographing of portraits of famous and lesser-known figures from Belgium and England, they are politicians, senior officials, prominent clergy, both from the Roman Catholic and Anglican Church, professors, musicians and people from the vaudeville world. He was born in Brussels and attended the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels during 1827–29, where he studied under Joseph Paelinck and Florent Willems, his first attempts lithography date from 1827, his reputation grew with the appearance of his first portraits in the magazine L'Artiste in 1833. He collaborated with Louis Huard from 1835 until 1842 in producing a series of portraits of the Belgian House of Representatives. Louis Huard finished Baugniet doing the remainder; this was followed in 1836 by a series of 30 portraits of contemporary artists—"Les Artistes Contemporains". Included were portraits of Louis Jéhotte, Louis Gallait, Nicaise De Keyser, Jean-Baptiste Madou, Eugène Simonis, Charles-Louis Verboeckhoven, Horace Vernet, Paul Delaroche and Hippolyte Bellangé.
He was commissioned to do portraits of the Belgian Royal Family, this led to his appointment as court painter in 1841. In 1843 he moved to London where he became a leading society portrait painter, creating a portrait of Prince Albert in 1851, he returned to London to do portraits of celebrities such as Charles Dickens and the French composer Hector Berlioz. Baugniet designed the first Belgian postage stamp brought into circulation on 1 July 1849; the stamp depicted Leopold I of Belgium after a painting by Liéven De Winne. Baugniet settled in Paris in 1860. Overnight the invention and development of photography strangled the traditional market of lithographic portraits, forcing many of Baugniet's colleagues to become professional photographers. Baugniet however concentrated on producing paintings and portraits which displayed the studied elegance of the Second French Empire, a genre that enjoyed great popularity, he died in Sèvres in 1886. Knight in the Order of Christ. Knight in the Saxe-Ernestine House Order.
Knight in the Order of Isabella the Catholic. Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 3, Leipzig, 1909, p. 74-75. Benezit E. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, dessinateurs et graveurs, Librairie Gründ, 1976, tome I, p. 525. Rouir Eugène, 150 ans de gravure en Belgique, Bruxelles, C. G. E. R./Meddens, 1980, p. 8. Berko P. & V. Dictionnaire des peintres belges nés entre 1750 & 1875, Laconti, 1981, p. 34. Jacobs Alain, dans Le Dictionnaire des Peintres belges du XIVe siècle à nos jours depuis les premiers maîtres des anciens Pays-bas méridionaux et de la Principauté de Liège jusqu'aux artistes contemporains, Bruxelles, La Renaissance du Livre, 1995, p. 56. Https://web.archive.org/web/20131216204114/http://charlesbaugniet.be/ Portraits by Charles Baugniet