Barrios of Puerto Rico
The barrios of Puerto Rico are the primary legal divisions of the seventy-eight municipalities of Puerto Rico. Each of Puerto Rico's 78 municipios is divided into geographical sections called barrios; the history of the creation of the barrios of Puerto Rico can be traced to the 19th century when historical documents start mentioning them. Historians have speculated their creation may have been related to the Puerto Rican representation at the Cádiz Cortes; the names of barrios in Puerto Rico come from various sources from Spanish or Indian origin. One barrio in each municipality is identified as the barrio-pueblo, the area that represented the seat of the municipal government at the time Puerto Rico formalized the municipio and barrio boundaries in the late 1940s. From time to time barrios are broken up, or merged; the United States Census Bureau recognizes 901 barrios in Puerto Rico. As components of each municipality, each municipality has one or more barrios; every municipality has at least one barrio called barrio Pueblo, home to the largest urban area of the municipality, the political seat of the municipality.
Most municipalities have a single barrio named barrio Pueblo while others, most prominently the larger municipalities like the municipality of Ponce, may have a barrio Pueblo, made of several barrios. Florida is the municipality with the least number of barrios, while Ponce, at 31, has the largest number; the US Census Bureau further breaks down some barrios in Puerto Rico into subbarrios. An example is barrio Segundo in Ponce which consists of subbarrios "Clausells" and "Baldorioty de Castro". With over 24 square miles, barrio Lapa in the northeast area of the municipality of Salinas, has the largest territorial area of any barrio in Puerto Rico, it is so large, it is larger than 10 of Puerto Rico's municipalities. While in the past barrios in Puerto Rico did have political authority, each with their own elected mayor and barrio "councils" barrios in Puerto Rico are no longer vested with any political authority, their purpose was for the collection of taxes, but during the 1800s any political authority barrios had was centralized in the municipal governments.
In 1880 Spain's Nomenclature of its Territories publication it is stated that the municipalities were subdivided, as needed, to facilitate voting and to ease the administration of each municipality. An analysis of the 1899 Puerto Rican and Cuban census, published by the War Department and Inspector General of the United States in 1900 listed the census population numbers by barrios of Puerto Rico. Barrio names continue to be an essential point of reference for purposes of municipal and state government property management, including land surveying and property sale and ownership. Land and property deeds and surveys are all performed with barrio names as a mandatory reference. For example, official legal matters dealing with land and property issues are heard on the basis of municipal locations relative to the recognized barrios and barrio boundaries; the 901 barrios of Puerto Rico represent established primary legal divisions of the seventy-eight municipalities that contain unique and permanent geographical land boundaries.
Puerto Rico Act 68 of 7 May 1945, ordered the commonwealth's Planning Board to prepare a map of each of the municipalities and each of the barrios within said municipalities and the corresponding barrio names. Said map and list of barrio names constitute the established primary legal barrio divisions; however the word "barrio" is used in Puerto Rico in an unofficial manner to represent a populated sector within a barrio, in this latter case the name of the sector can be—and most is—different from the official barrio where it is located. An example of this non-official usage is the reference to Puerto Rican nationalist Don Pedro Albizu Campos as having been born in barrio Tenerias in Ponce yet, there has never been a barrio Tenerias in Ponce; the problem is that populated places have been adopting names for themselves that do not appear in the official government maps, because such maps have not been updated, there is no system in place for such updates. Puerto Rico barrio boundaries were established using landmarks such as "the top of a mountain", "the lot owned by Franscico Mattei", "the peak of a mountain ridge", "an almond tree", "to origin of Río Loco river".
As these descriptors may lend themselves to ambiguity and other problems, there is now an initiative to describe boundaries using GPS technology. List of communities in Puerto Rico List of Barrios of Ponce Pueblo
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
Arecibo is a municipality on the northern coast of Puerto Rico, on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, located north of Utuado and Ciales. It is about 50 miles west of the capital city. Arecibo is the largest municipality in Puerto Rico by area, is part of the San Juan and Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is spread over Arecibo Pueblo. Its population in 2010 was 96,440; the Arecibo Observatory, which until July 2016 was the world's largest radio telescope, is located here. Arecibo is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arecibo; when the Spanish arrived, they found the area occupied by the indigenous Taíno, led by Xamaica Arasibo, Cacique of the yucayeque named Abacoa. Spanish colonists settled Arecibo in 1556, it was their third settlement on the island, after Caparra, San German. Arecibo was founded as a city by the Spanish crown on May 1, 1616, under the governorship of Captain Felipe de Beaumont y Navarra, when the King of Spain granted the land to Lope Conchillos; this gave the city its nickname The Villeage of Captain Correo.
For some time the island was competed for by other European powers. On August 5, 1702, Captain Antonio de los Reyes Correa, a member of the Spanish Army defended Arecibo from a British Navy invasion led by rear-admiral William Whetstone. Commanding two British Navy ships and 40 men, Whetstone tried to take control of the city. Correa ambushed his forces, driving them off; the Spanish defenders suffered three wounded soldiers. In 1778, Arecibo, by royal decree, was awarded the "Villa" status, though it was not integrated as such until 1802. In 1850 it was awarded the "Muy Leal". Over time, large part of its territory became separate municipalities; these include Manati, Florida, Jayuya, Camuy and Isabela. In 1982, it was promoted to city status, though it continued to be affectionately by its previous nickname. Arecibo is located in the Northern Coastal Plain region of Puerto Rico, extending inland into the Karst region, it lies south of the Atlantic Ocean. The city occupies an area of 127 square miles.
The Rio Grande de Arecibo is the main river in the municipality, running through the middle of it. South of the municipality, in the karst region, it forms the Dos Bocas Lake, a primary source of water for Northern Puerto Rico. Several rivers feed the Rio Grande, including the Tanama River. East of the river, lies Caño Tiburones, an important marshland area that provides habitat for many kinds of birds and wildlife. Arecibo has two forest reserves. Cambalache State Forest is located along the Barceloneta city limits, while Rio Abajo State Forest is located between Arecibo and Utuado. Caves include Cueva Ventana, which overlooks a valley formed by the Rio Grande de Arecibo, La Cueva del Indio, where paintings made by prehistoric indigenous peoples have been seen. Environmental impact studies have been done to consider remedies for flooding that occurs in Arecibo. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Arecibo is subdivided into barrios. Tropical monsoon climate also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate in climate classification, is a rare type of climate.
The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Am".. Arecibo HarborThe Arecibo Harbor is managed by the Puerto Rico Ports Authority. Cathedral of Saint Philip the Apostle Arecibo is one of the oldest colonial towns in Puerto Rico. Among its historic buildings is the Cathedral of Saint Phillip Apostle, built beginning in the late 18th century; the first church, built in the middle of the 17th century, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1787. Construction of its replacement began soon after, although it was not completed until 1846. Four days after its dedication, an earthquake damaged it. Repairs were not completed until 1882; the 1918 earthquake damaged the vault so badly. The cathedral of Arecibo is Puerto Rico's second-largest church after the Cathedral of San Juan; the plan is rectangular with three naves. The apse is semicircular, has an unusual half-dome covering it; the facade is a triangular composition of three stages. The top stage, a short central tower, is a addition, according to local architects and historians.
Neoclassic ornamentation is used in an academic fashion on the lowest stage, but the other two show a less traditional use of bands and pilasters. The Renaissance-style windows are uncommon in Puerto Rican churches, but the central tower over the entrance is a common motif used throughout the island. City Hall The City Hall, built in 1866, served as jail to revolutionaries of El Grito de Lares in 1868. In the 1918 earthquake, the frontal section of the building was destroyed; when repairs were made, a tower and clock were added to the building. In 1978, the building was restored to its original form; the City Hall of Arecibo is typical of these regional seats of government. It is modest in size, of stuccoed masonry, with an academically correct composition, having a pedimented center pavilion w
Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the federal government. They differ from U. S. Native American tribes, which have limited sovereignty; the territories are classified by incorporation and whether they have an "organized" government through an organic act passed by Congress. The U. S. has sixteen territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Five are permanently-inhabited, unincorporated territories. Of the eleven, only one is classified as an incorporated territory. Two territories are defacto administered by Colombia. Territories were created to administer newly-acquired land, most attained statehood. Others, such as the Philippines, the Marshall Islands and Palau became independent. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959; the first were the Northwest and Southwest territories, the last were the Alaska and Hawaii Territories. Thirty-one territories became states. In the process, some less-developed or -populous areas of a territory were orphaned from it after a statehood referendum.
When a portion of the Missouri Territory became the state of Missouri, the remainder of the territory became an unorganized territory. Territorial telecommunications and other infrastructure is inferior to that of the U. S. mainland, American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries. Poverty rates are higher in the territories than in the states; the U. S. has had territories since its beginning. According to federal law, the term "United States" means "the continental United States, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands". Since 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands have been considered part of the U. S. A 2007 executive order included American Samoa in the U. S. "geographical extent", as reflected in the Federal Register. All territories are except for American Samoa and Jarvis Island; the U. S. has five permanently-inhabited territories, two of which are known as "commonwealths": Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea. About four million people in these territories are U.
S. citizens, citizenship at birth is granted in four of the five territories. American Samoa has about 32,000 non-citizen U. S. nationals. Under U. S. law, "only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals" in its territories. American Samoans are under U. S. protection, can travel to the rest of the U. S. without a visa. American Samoans must become naturalized citizens, like foreigners. Unlike the other four inhabited territories, Congress has passed no legislation granting birthright citizenship to American Samoans; each territory is self-governing with three branches of government, including a locally-elected governor and a territorial legislature. It elects a non-voting member to the U. S. House of Representatives, they "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives". They can vote in their appointed House committees on all legislation presented to the House, they are included in their party count for each committee, they are equal to senators on conference committees.
Depending on the Congress, they may vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. In January 2017, the members of Congress from the territories were Gregorio Sablan, Madeleine Bordallo, Amata Coleman Radewagen, Jenniffer González and Stacey Plaskett; the District of Columbia has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, U. S. territories do not have voting representation in Congress and have no representation in the Senate. Every four years, U. S. political parties nominate presidential candidates at conventions which include delegates from the territories. U. S. citizens living in the territories cannot vote in the general presidential election, non-citizen nationals in American Samoa cannot vote for president. The territorial capitals are Pago Pago, Hagåtña, San Juan and Charlotte Amalie, their governors are Lolo Matalasi Moliga, Eddie Baza Calvo, Ralph Torres, Ricardo Rosselló and Kenneth Mapp. American Samoa – Territory since 1900; the U. S. controlled the eastern half of the islands.
In 1900, the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila took effect. The Manuʻa islands became part of American Samoa in 1904, Swains Island became part of American Samoa in 1925. Congress ratified American Samoa's treaties in 1929. American Samoa is locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967. People born in American Samoa are U. S. nationals. A