Pratap Singh I popularly known as Maharana Pratap, was the 13th Rajput king of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. Maharana Pratap was born in a Rajput family, he was born to Udai Singh Jaiwanta Bai. His younger brothers were Vikram Singh and Jagmal Singh. Pratap had 2 stepsisters: Chand Kanwar and Man Kanwar, he was married to Ajabde Punwar of Bijolia. He belonged to the Royal Family of Mewar, related to the Royal Family of Saurashtra, Gujarat. After the death of Udai Singh in 1572, Rani Dheer Bai wanted her son Jagmal to succeed him but senior courtiers preferred Pratap, as the eldest son, to be their king; the desire of the nobles prevailed. The bloody Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568 had led to the loss of the fertile eastern belt of Mewar to the Mughals. However, the rest of the wooded and hilly kingdom was still under the control of the Rana; the Mughal emperor Akbar was intent on securing a stable route to Gujarat through Mewar. When the Rana refused to submit to Akbar, war became inevitable.
The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 between Maharana Pratap and Akbar's forces led by Man Singh I of Amer. The Mughals were victorious and inflicted significant casualties among the Mewaris but failed to capture Maharana; the site of the battle was a narrow mountain pass at Haldighati near Gogunda, modern day Rajsamand in Rajasthan. Maharana Pratap fielded a force of 400 Bhil archers; the Mughals were led by Man Singh of Amber. After a fierce battle lasting more than three hours, Maharana found himself wounded and the day lost; the mughal were unable to capture him. He lived to fight another day; the casualties for Mewar was far more, 1600 men to 100 men of the Mughal army with another 350 wounded. Haldighati was a futile victory for the Mughals, as they were unable to capture Maharana Pratap, or any of his close family members in Udaipur; as soon as the empire's focus shifted north-west and his army came out of hiding and recaptured the western regions of his dominion. Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579 following rebellions in Bengal and Bihar and Mirza Hakim's incursion into the Punjab.
In 1582, Maharana Pratap occupied the Mughal post at Dewair. In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for the next twelve years watching the situation in the north-west. No major Mughal expedition was sent to Mewar during this period. Taking advantage of the situation, Pratap recovered Western Mewar including Kumbhalgarh and Gogunda. During this period, he built a new capital, near modern Dungarpur. Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident at Chavandon 19 January 1597, aged 56, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Amar Singh I. Historian Satish Chandra notes that Rana Pratap's defiance of the mighty Mughal empire alone and unaided by the other Rajput states, constitute a glorious saga of Rajput valour and the spirit of self sacrifice for cherished principles. Rana Pratap's methods of sporadic warfare was elaborated further by Malik Ambar, the Deccani general, by Shivaji Maharaj. 2012–2015: Jodha Akbar, broadcast on Zee TV, where he was played by Anurag Sharma 2013–2015: Bharat Ka Veer Putra – Maharana Pratap, broadcast by Sony Entertainment Television, where he was portrayed by Sharad Malhotra and Faisal Khan 2016: ABP News presented Bharatvarsha, in which episode 8 showcased the story of Maharana Pratap.
Sarkar, Jadunath. Military History of India. Orient Longmans. Pp. 75–81. Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124110669. Rana, Dr. Bhawan Singh, Maharana Pratap, Diamond Pocket Books, ISBN 9788128808258 Official Website for the Royal Family of Udaipur
The Bajaj Super was a two-stroke 150 cc motor scooter produced in India by Bajaj Auto between 1976 and 2006. Early models were a licensed reproduction of the Italian-made eight-inch-wheeled Vespa Super. Production continued after the licence agreement with Vespa expired in 1977. In response, Vespa's parent company Piaggio filed patent infringement suits to block Bajaj scooter sales in the United States, United Kingdom, West Germany, Hong Kong. Model Bajaj Supers appear to have incorporated various features of the Vespas: VNA, VNB, VBB, Super and Sprint. For instance, the 1981 model Bajaj Super has near-identical components: Vespa Super body, VNA/VNB/VBB 8-inch wheels, Vespa SS180 headlight. In its early days, there used to be a booking period of at least one year, until it was replaced by Bajaj Chetak; the Bajaj Super has a 150cc 6 BHP at 5500 RPM of engine, with excellent pick up and a top speed of 80 km/h in standard testing conditions
Chetak or Cetak is the name given in traditional literature to the horse ridden by Maharana Pratap at the Battle of Haldighati, fought on 21 June 1576 at Haldighati, in the Aravalli Mountains of Rajasthan, in western India. The horse is not named in historical sources.:45 Historical sources do not name the horse ridden by Maharana Pratap at the Battle of Haldighati on 21 June 1576, nor do they attribute any unusual feat or achievement to it.:45According to tradition, although wounded, carried Pratap safely away from the battle, but died of his wounds. The story is recounted in court poems of Mewar from the seventeenth century onwards; the horse is first named "Cetak" in an eighteenth-century ballad, Khummana-Raso.:45 The story was published in 1829 by Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod, a colonial officer, political officer to the Mewari court, in the first volume of his Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India.:46:339 His account was based on the Khummana-Raso, became the most followed version of the tale.:45 In it, the horse is named "Chytuc", is once referred to as the "blue horse".
An equestrian statue was placed in Moti Magri Park in Udaipur by Bhagwant Singh of Mewar.
Bajaj Auto Limited is a global two-wheeler and three-wheeler manufacturing company based in India. It manufactures motorcycles and auto rickshaws. Bajaj Auto is a part of the Bajaj Group, it was founded by Jamnalal Bajaj in Rajasthan in the 1940s. It is based in Pune, with plants in Chakan and Pantnagar in Uttarakhand; the oldest plant at Akurdi now houses the R&D centre'Ahead'. Bajaj Auto is the second-largest in India, it is the world's largest three-wheeler manufacturer. On May 2015, its market capitalisation was ₹640 billion, making it India's 23rd largest publicly traded company by market value; the Forbes Global 2000 list for the year 2012 ranked Bajaj Auto at 1,416. Bajaj Auto came into existence on 29 November 1944 as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Private Limited, it started off by selling imported two- and three-wheelers in India. In 1959, it obtained a license from the Government of India to manufacture two-wheelers and three-wheelers and obtained Licence from Piaggio to manufacture Vespa Brand Scooters in India and started making Vespa 150 scooters.
It became a public limited company in 1960. In 1970, it rolled out its 100,000th vehicle. In 1977, it sold 100,000 vehicles in a financial year. In 1985, it started producing at Waluj near Aurangabad. In 1986, it sold 500,000 vehicles in a financial year. In 1995, it rolled out its ten millionth vehicle and produced and sold one million vehicles in a year. With the launch of motorcycles in 1986, the company has changed its image from a scooter manufacturer to a two-wheeler manufacturer. In 2017 it was announced that Bajaj Auto and Triumph Motorcycles Ltd would form an alliance to build mid-capacity motorcycles. According to the authors of Globality: Competing with Everyone from Everywhere for Everything, Bajaj has operations in 50 countries creating a line of bikes targeted to the preferences of entry-level buyers. Bajaj manufactures and sells motorcycles, auto-rickshaws and most cars. Bajaj Auto is India's largest exporter of three-wheelers. Bajaj Auto's exports accounted for approx. 35% of its total sales.
47% of its exports are made to Africa. Boxer motorcycle is the largest selling single brand in Africa. Bajaj is the first Indian two-wheeler manufacturer to deliver 4-stroke commuter motorcycles with sporty performance for the Indian market, otherwise dominated by mileage-based products from Hero Honda and TVS Motors. Bajaj achieved this with the 150cc and 180cc Pulsar, giving Indians the first taste of performance biking; this was accompanied by innovative marketing techniques - by featuring its flagship product Pulsar 220 DTS-i in Pulsar MTV Stuntmania, India's first stunt biking reality show Motorcycles in production include the Platina, Pulsar, Dominar and CT 100. In FY 2012-13, it sold 3.76 million motorcycles which accounted for 31% of the market share in India. Of these 2.46 million motorcycles were sold in India and remaining 34% were exported. Bajaj is the world's largest manufacturer of auto rickshaws and accounts for 84% of India's three-wheeler exports. During the FY 2012-13, it sold approx.
480,000 three-wheelers, 57% of the total market share in India. Out of these 480,000 three-wheelers, 53% were exported and remaining 47% were sold in India. In Indonesia, Bajaj three-wheelers are "iconic" and "ubiquitous" to the point that the word bajaj is used to refer to auto rickshaws of any kind. In 2010, Bajaj Auto announced cooperation with Renault and Nissan Motor to develop a US$2,500 car, aiming at a fuel efficiency of 30 kilometres per litre, or twice an average small car, carbon dioxide emissions of 100 g/km. On 3 January 2012, Bajaj auto unveiled the Bajaj Qute, a mini car for intra-city urban transportation, classified as a quadricycle; the target customer group will be Bajaj's three-wheeler customers. According to its Managing Director Rajiv Bajaj, the RE60 powered by a new 200 cc rear mounted petrol engine will have a top speed of 70 kilometres per hour, a mileage of 35 kilometres per litre and carbon dioxide emissions of 60 g/km. Bajaj Auto bought a controlling stake in the Tempo Firodia company, renaming it "Bajaj Tempo".
Germany's Daimler-Benz, a long-time collaborator with Firodia because of their ownership of the original Tempo works in Germany, owned 16% of Bajaj Tempo. Daimler sold their stake back to the Firodia group in 2001, meaning that they once again held a controlling interest, with BAL retaining 24% of the shares, it was agreed that Bajaj Tempo would phase out the use of the "Tempo" brand name, as it still belonged to Mercedes-Benz. The name of the company was changed to Force Motors in May 2005, dropping "Bajaj" as well as "Tempo", over the objections of Bajaj Auto with whom the company shares a long history as well as a compound wall. Bajaj and Kawasaki have ended their 33-year alliance in India following deepening of ties between the former and its Austrian partner KTM. Bajaj Auto had an alliance with Kawasaki's Motorcycle division for the sale and after sales service of Kawasaki motorcycles through its Probiking, a premium bike dealership network, since 2009; these Probiking dealerships were converted to KTM dealerships.
Bajaj Auto Ltd. made a technical assistance agreement with Kawasaki Japan in 1984, since it had cooperated to expand production and sales of motorcycles in India. The demerger of Bajaj Auto Ltd into three corporate entities—Bajaj Finserv Ltd, Bajaj Auto Ltd, Bajaj Holdings and Investment Ltd —was completed with the shares listing on 26 Ma
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion, most accomplished by means of friction. Most brakes use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, which may be stored for use. Other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert kinetic energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail, converted into heat. Still other braking methods transform kinetic energy into different forms, for example by transferring the energy to a rotating flywheel. Brakes are applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid.
Some vehicles use a combination of braking mechanisms, such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute, or airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised into the air during landing. Since kinetic energy increases quadratically with velocity, an object moving at 10 m/s has 100 times as much energy as one of the same mass moving at 1 m/s, the theoretical braking distance, when braking at the traction limit, is 100 times as long. In practice, fast vehicles have significant air drag, energy lost to air drag rises with speed. All wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp. Most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage; some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight. Notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era; these allow the aircraft to maintain a safe speed in a steep descent.
The Saab B 17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake. Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually; when traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake. When the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down.. Brakes electromagnetics. One brake may use several principles: for example, a pump may pass fluid through an orifice to create friction: Frictional brakes are most common and can be divided broadly into "shoe" or "pad" brakes, using an explicit wear surface, hydrodynamic brakes, such as parachutes, which use friction in a working fluid and do not explicitly wear; the term "friction brake" is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes though hydrodynamic brakes use friction.
Friction brakes are rotating devices with a stationary pad and a rotating wear surface. Common configurations include shoes that contract to rub on the outside of a rotating drum, such as a band brake. Other brake configurations are less often. For example, PCC trolley brakes include a flat shoe, clamped to the rail with an electromagnet. A drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum; the drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub. Drum brakes can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles. Compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat; the disc brake is a device for stopping the rotation of a road wheel. A brake disc made of cast iron or ceramic, is connected to the wheel or the axle. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads is forced mechanically, pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc.
Friction attached wheel to slow or stop. Pumping brakes are used where a pump is part of the machinery. For example, an internal-combustion piston motor can have the fuel supply stopped, internal pumping losses of the engine create some braking; some engines use a valve override called a Jake brake to increase pumping losses. Pumping brakes can dump energy as heat, or can be regenerative brakes that recharge a pressure reservoir called a hydraulic accumulator. Electromagnetic brakes are often used where an electric motor is part of the machinery. For example, many hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles use the electric motor as a generator to charge electric batteries and as a regenerative brak
A scooter is a type of motorcycle with a step-through frame and a platform for the rider's feet. Elements of scooter design were present in some of the earliest motorcycles, scooters have been made since 1914 or earlier. Scooter development continued in the United States between the World Wars; the global popularity of motor scooters dates from the post-World War II introductions of the Vespa and Lambretta models in Italy. These scooters were intended to provide economical personal transportation; the original layout is still used in this application. Maxi-scooters, with larger engines from 250 to 850 cc have been developed for Western markets. Scooters are popular for personal transportation due to being more affordable, easy to operate, more convenient to park and store than a car. Licensing requirements for scooters are easier and cheaper than for cars in most parts of the world, insurance is cheaper; the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary defines a motor scooter is a motorcycle similar to a kick scooter with a seat, a floorboard, small or low wheels.
The United States Department of Transportation defines a scooter as a motorcycle that has a platform for the operator's feet or has integrated footrests, has a step-through architecture. The classic scooter design features a flat floorboard for the rider's feet; this design is possible because most scooter engines and drive systems are attached to the rear axle or under the seat. Unlike a conventional motorcycle, in which the engine is mounted on the frame, most modern scooters allow the engine to swing with the rear wheel, while most vintage scooters and some newer retro models have an axle-mounted engine. Modern scooters starting from late-1980s use a continuously variable transmission, while older ones use a manual transmission with the gearshift and clutch control built into the left handlebar. Scooters feature bodywork, including a front leg shield and body that conceals all or most of the mechanicals. There is some integral storage space, either under the seat, built into the front leg shield, or both.
Scooters have varying engine displacements and configurations ranging from 50 cc single-cylinder to 850 cc twin-cylinder models. Traditionally, scooter wheels are smaller than conventional motorcycle wheels and are made of pressed steel or cast aluminum alloy, bolt on and are interchangeable between front and rear; some scooters carry a spare wheel. Many recent scooters use conventional front forks with the front axle fastened at both ends. Most jurisdictions do not differentiate between motorcycles. For all legal purposes in the United States of America, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recommends using the term motorcycle for all of these vehicles. However, while NHTSA excludes the term motor scooter from legal definition, it proceeds, in the same document, to give detailed instructions on how to import a small motor scooter; the emissions of mopeds and scooters have been the subject of multiple studies. Studies have found that two-stroke 50 cc mopeds and without catalytic converters, emit ten to thirty times more hydrocarbons and particulate emissions than the outdated Euro 3 automobile standards.
In the same study, four-stroke mopeds and without catalytic converters, emitted three to eight times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions than the Euro 3 automobile standards. Approximate parity with automobiles was achieved with NOx emissions in these studies. Emissions performance was unaffected by fuel economy. In 2011 the United States Environmental Protection Agency allowed motorcycles and mopeds with engine displacements less than 280 cc to emit ten times the NOx and six times the CO than the median Tier II bin 5 automobile regulations. An additional air quality challenge can arise from the use of moped and scooter transportation over automobiles, as a higher density of two-wheeled vehicles can be supported by existing transportation infrastructure. Scooter-like traits began to develop in motorcycle designs around the 1900s. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller in Munich, Germany produced the first motorcycle, available for purchase, their motorcycle had a step-through frame, with its fuel tank mounted on the down tube, its parallel two-cylinder engine mounted low on the frame, its cylinders mounted in line with the frame.
It had a radiator built into the top of the rear fender. It became the first mass-produced and publicly sold powered two-wheel vehicle, among the first powered by its engine rather than foot pedals. Maximum speed was 40 km/h; the rear wheel was driven directly by rods from the pistons in a manner similar to the drive wheels of steam locomotives. Only a few hundred such bikes were built, the high price and technical difficulties made the venture a financial failure for both Wolfmüller and his financial backer, Hildebrand. In France, the Auto-Fauteuil was introduced in 1902; this was a step-through motorcycle with an armchair instead of a traditional saddle. Production continued until 1922. Predecessors to the scooter The Motoped entered production in 1915, is believed to be the first motor scooter, they were followed that year by the Autoped, whose engine was engaged by pushing the handlebar column forward and whose brake was engaged by pulling the column back. Autopeds were made in Long Island, New York from 1915 to 1921, were made under licence by Krupp in Germany from 1919 to 1922, following World War I.
The number of scoot
Stella is a model of a vintage-style motor scooter imported into the United States by Chicago-based Genuine Scooters since 2003 and manufactured by Lohia Machinery Limited in Kanpur, India. In 1986, LML began a joint venture with scooter manufacturer Piaggio, through which the Italian company sold its Vespa PX model to the Indian market; this model lacks an automatic lubrication system thus two-stroke oil must be pre-mixed with petrol. An upgraded version of this scooter was called the LML Select 2. Production of the LML NV and LML Select 2 ended in 2004. Up until 2004, Bajaj Chetak was its chief competitor in its segment in the Indian market; the company revised production in 2007 and now selling two-stroke and four-stroke models. There was another model produced by LML, called Vespa A1; the driver's seat had another separate seat for pillion. The Stella and Vespa P-series scooters share much of their design and engineering and many of their parts are interchangeable. Genuine Scooters was formed to import the scooter to the United States market.
Production was interrupted by a labor strike from 2005 to mid-2006 but resumed once the dispute was settled. The Stella features a 150 cc two-stroke engine. Like "vintage" European scooters, it operates with a four-speed "twist-grip" manual transmission. Other traditional features include a steel frame, spare tire, styling; the 2007 and 2008 models include better quality paint, a redesigned headlight. The two-stroke version of the scooter is authorized through Genuine Scooters dealers throughout most of the United States, but not in California due to state regulations. In 2011, Genuine developed a four-stroke version of the Stella which meets California emission standards