Alur are an ethnic group who live in northwestern Uganda and northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. They are part of the larger Luo group. In Uganda, they live in the Nebbi and Arua districts, in the DRC, they reside north of Lake Albert. Most members of the group speak Alur, a language related to Dojunam Acholi and Adhola; some Alur speak Kebu. Alur language dialects vary considerably; the highland Alur speak a different dialect from the lowland Alur, it might be difficult to for a native highland Alur person to properly understand his lowland kinsman. The Alur Kingdom is the only one, unaffected by the Ugandan ban on traditional monarchies in 1966. All Alur Kings are referred to as "Rwoth", just like all Kings; the current Alur King is Rwoth Phillip Rauni Olarker, whose coronation was in 2010. When the Europeans arrived, the Alur people were organized in ten chiefdoms, namely: Angal, Jukoth, War Palara, Ukuru, Paidha and Panyikano. Based on the royal spear head bearing tradition, the Ubimu of Alur tribe H.
M Philip Olarker Rauni III is the supreme ruler of the entire Alur tribe, with his capital at Kaal Atyak Winam, Zombo district, Uganda. In Angal, the current chief is Rwoth Djalore Serge II, he took over from his late father Kamanda who died in 1998. All these sub tribes of the Alur descended directly from King Nyipir lineage; the largest Alur clan was the Ukuru clan, who counted ten thousand adult men in 1914, although Alur counted boys as young as fourteen years as men. The Ukuru clan was founded in 1630 when Ngira, a member of the Aryak family migrated with a number of young men including his younger brother Ijira, they took over the territory from the indigenous Bantu inhabitants. The region was alurized; the descendants of the original Bantu men now form the Abira family. Bantu maternal ancestry is common in Ukuru; the Ukuru clan grew in competition with other clans. Some other clans where taken over providing the Ukuru clan with more food resources and men to defend their territory. Other clans were dominated from afar.
In 1789 the Ukuru clan defeated the Panduru clan to become the most powerful Alur clan. For years the Ukuru clan was the most powerful and largest Alur clan. Meanwhile, in the Ukuru clan, the Atyak family was losing his importance. For generations the Atyak family provided Chief. Alur society is hierarchical. Men have a higher social standing women and the men themselves have a strict hierarchy. Social rank depended on a lot of things – assertiveness, number of friends and family, performance on male prestige tasks. Rank is in theory not heritability, but a men who had a high-ranking father had, as a rule, more brothers and family and was better able to attract allies. But overall every man could reach a high status with the right mix of qualities; every Alur men from sixteen years old could vote. Only a man, high-ranking could become a chief; the Alur have a tendency to choose young men as chiefs but if he is a good chief he stays chief for life. Alur clans are in fact a number of patrilineages living together.
Most clans have around five patrilineages but the Ukuru clan has 11 patrilineages. These patrilineages can include large numbers of all descendants of the same man; the Parombo family in the Ukuru clan, for example, include two thousand men in 1949. These patrilineages are not fictional; the Alur are serious about it and maintain a family tree. Of course, a certain level of flexibility has occurred but overall we can trust the picture the Alur paint over their patrilineages. By 1820 the other Patrilineages worked together to prevent an Atyak man from becoming Rwoth; this decline in Atyak power resulted in the rapid growth of other Patrilieages like the Parombo and The Aryek. In particular the Aryek family became politically important. High rank confers many advantages in Alur society. Expect respect and admiration high-ranking men had first choice in food prestige food like meat and beer. High-ranking men had a large number of cattle and since the Alur paid the bride price in cattle high-ranking men had the most wives and thus children.
The chief had the most children of every man in the clan. High-ranking men had three or more wives, average men two and low-ranking men one; as always there was flexibility since low-ranking men could be successful in tending cattle and thus acquiring wives but their rank rose. Men always stayed in the clan they were born in but women married men from other clans and moved there. Few women married men from their own clan since the Alur had strict rules about incest avoidances; every man from your Patrilineages was un-marriageable no matter how long ago the common ancestor was. Since Alur fathers arranged marriages for their daughters outside the own clan only a specific request from a man from the own clan could keep an Alur woman in her own clan. Traditionally, the Alur live in grass-thatched huts; the homesteads in Alur clans lay in the central part of their territory. This helps; the Alur were farmer-herders. The Alur grew millet, maize, sweet potatoes and pumpkins, they herded cattle and chickens.
Goat and chicken were important sources of meat. Other important resources were salt and wild animals all who were protected from other clans. In the drought season fishing was important; this sound paradox, but the large herds of animals the Alur hunt as secondary sources of meat as not to exhau
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo known as DR Congo, the DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes anachronistically referred to by its former name of Zaire, its official name between 1971 and 1997, it is, by area, the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated Francophone country, the fourth-most-populated country in Africa, the 16th-most-populated country in the world. Eastern DR Congo is the scene of ongoing military conflict in Kivu, since 2015. Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90,000 years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber, from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became the Belgian Congo; the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo. Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory; the provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, South Kasai attempted to secede.
After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis, the U. S. and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko came into power through a coup d'état. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire; the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. On 17 May 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President after Mobutu fled to Morocco, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days as President by his son Joseph; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. In 2016, DR Congo's level of human development was ranked 176th out of 187 countries by the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, around 600,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries from conflicts in the centre and east of the DRC. Two million children risk starvation, the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, COMESA; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River, which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's second largest river by discharge; the Comité d'études du haut Congo, established by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1876, the International Association of the Congo, established by him in 1879, were named after the river. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people, when they encountered them in the 16th century; the word Kongo comes from the Kongo language. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson "It is probable that the word'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga,'to gather'."
The modern name of the Kongo people, Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, the Repub
The Makere are an ethnic group of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, living near the Bima River in the Northern part of the country. They speak the Mangbetu language. Media related to Makere people at Wikimedia Commons
Avukaya is an ethnic group of South Sudan. Some members of this ethnic have fled to the Democratic Republic of the Congo due to persecution. About 50,000 members of this ethnic group live in South Sudan. Many members of this ethnic group belong to the Christian minority of South Sudan; the Avukaya traditionally live in a rain-forest area in Equatoria close to the Democratic Republic of Congo in Southern Sudan. The Avokaya people are in Maridi town, Bahr-Olo and Amaki. Besides Maridi, the Avukaya people are found in Tore Payam of Yei river County, Yei town, Bangolo Payam in Mundri County and other towns of the Sudan too; the Avokaya are the group of ethnic tribes that combined with the Moru on the mountains to put an end to the King Gbudwe of the Azande invasion of their territory. They are known for a dance called socialisation with other tribes. Many speak languages in addition to Avokaya; the Avukaya enjoy Pirinda with Nyasa. They like some wild fruits Omi and Kaniki) and yams. Overview of Avukaya on gurtong.net
The Kongo people are a Bantu ethnic group defined as the speakers of Kikongo. They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well-organized Kingdom of Kongo, but is now a part of three countries, their highest concentrations are found south of Pointe-Noire in the Republic of the Congo, southwest of Pool Malebo and west of the Kwango River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Luanda, Angola. They are the largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries they are found in. In 1975, the Kongo population was reported as 4,040,000; the Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE, began converting to Catholicism in the late 15th century. They were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century.
The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th century. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance, they now occupy influential positions in the politics and business operations in the three countries they are most found in. The origin of the name Kongo is unclear, several theories have been proposed. According to the colonial era scholar Samuel Nelson, the term Kongo is derived from a local verb for gathering or assembly. According to Alisa LaGamma, the root may be from the regional word N'kongo which means "hunter" in the context of someone adventurous and heroic. Douglas Harper states that the term means "mountains" in the Bantu language, the root of the name of the countries and river that flows through the mountains of Congo region.
The Kongo people have been referred to by various names in the colonial French and Portuguese literature, names such as Esikongo, Mesikongo and Moxicongo. Christian missionaries in the Caribbean applied the term Bafiote to the slaves from the Vili or Fiote coastal Kongo people, but this term was used to refer to any "black man" in Cuba, St Lucia and other colonial era Islands ruled by one of the European colonial interests; the group is identified by speaking a cluster of mutually intelligible dialects rather than by large continuities in their history or in culture. The term “Congo” was more deployed to identify Kikongo-speaking people enslaved in the Americas. Since the early twentieth century, Bakongo has been used in areas north of the Congo river, to refer to the Kikongo-speaking community, or more broadly to speakers of the related Kongo languages; this convention is based on the Bantu languages. The prefix "mu -" and "ba -" refer to "people", plural respectively; the ancient history of the Kongo people has been difficult to ascertain.
The region is close to East Africa, considered to be a key to the prehistoric human migrations. This geographical proximity, states Jan Vansina, suggests that the Congo river region, home of the Kongo people, was populated thousands of years ago. Ancient archeological evidence linked to Kongo people has not been found, glottochronology – or the estimation of ethnic group chronologies based on language evolution – has been applied to the Kongo. Based on this, it is the Kongo language and Gabon-Congo language split about 950 BCE; the earliest archeological evidence related to this region, where the Kongo people are concentrated, is from Tchissanga, a site dated to about 600 BCE. However, the site does not prove; the Kongo people had settled into the area well before the fifth century CE, begun a society that utilized the diverse and rich resources of region and developed farming methods. According to James Denbow, social complexity had been achieved by the second century CE. Small kingdoms and Kongo principalities appeared in the current region by the 1200 CE, but documented history of this period of Kongo people if it existed has not survived into the modern era.
Detailed and copious description about the Kongo people who lived next to the Atlantic ports of the region, as a sophisticated culture and infrastructure, appear in the 15th century, written by the Portuguese explorers. Anthropological work on the Kongo of the region come from the colonial era writers the French and Belgians, but this too is limited and does not exhaustively cover all of the Kongo people; the evidence suggests, states Vansina, that the Kongo people were advanced in their culture and socio-political systems with multiple kingdoms well before the arrival of first Portuguese ships in the late 15th century. Archaeological evidence, Portuguese documents and Kongo oral tradition suggest that the Kingdom of Kongo was founded in the 14th century; the kingdom was modeled not on hereditary succession as was common in Europe, but based on an election by the court nobles from the Kongo people. This required the king to win his legitimacy by a process of recognizing his peers, consensus building as well as regalia and religious ritualism.
The kingdom had many trading centers both
Iyaelima people are an ethnic group with a population of about 2,500 that live in eight settlements in the southern part of the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They belong to the Mongo group of Bantu peoples. Although they practice slash-and-burn agriculture and hunt for bushmeat, they have little impact on the environment; the Iyaelima never kill bonobos, an ape related to humans whose population is much higher in Iyaelima territory than elsewhere. The Salonga National Park was established as the Tshuapa National Park in 1956, gained its present boundaries with a 1970 presidential decree by President Mobutu Sese Seko, it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. Most of the Salonga National Park is accessible only via river; the region in the southwest of the park occupied by the Iyaelima is accessible via the Lokoro River, which flows through the center. The Lokolo River defines Lula River the south; when the SNP was established, most of the inhabitants were expelled but the Iyaelima managed to remain.
The Iyaelima had gained a reputation as ferocious warriors. They were allowed to stay under a law that categorizes them as "wildlife"; the park structure is based on the American National Park model in which wilderness areas are cleared of their indigenous inhabitants. The World Wildlife Fund has been pressing to do the same with the Iyaelima, the last remaining residents of the SNP; the Iyaelima are hostile to the park, to Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature personnel who manage it and to the park guards. They have not been informed of park laws, for example prohibiting trade in wild animals, interact with ICCN personnel over legal problems. Only one of the Iyaelima is employed by the park; the Iyaelima are patriarchal, with the men hunting and women farming and doing most of the housework. Few of them leave their territory, other than a small number of coffee traders. A family will live in a one-room mud hut. A typical farm is a half-acre in size, cleared by slash-and-burn, on which they grow cassava and rice.
Mangabeys, colobus and forest elephant graze in the secondary forest surrounding the Iyaelima settlements. All of these are hunted for food; the Iyaelima use spears or bows and arrows, are assisted by trained hunting dogs. The preferred prey includes various types of duiker and hogs. However, bonobos are never killed; the etoschi, a council of wise men, make the decisions in a village. Sorcerers provide protection through witchcraft. Although they cannot destroy an evil spirit they can prevent it from doing harm; the villagers engage in sacred hunts, slaughtering the animals they catch in a sacred ritual on a public altar. They bury their dead underneath the family hut; until they practiced cannibalism to feed their ancestors. Contrary to the views of the WWF and other NGOs, a survey by Jo Thompson of the independent Lukuru Wildlife Research Project concluded that the Iyaelima were helping conserve the environment; the Iyaelima recognise that some sites are magical, inhabited by water or forest spirits or by their ancestral spirits.
They do not occupy these locations or hunt in them, in return the spirits provide protection. They thus create natural animal sanctuaries. Lake Nkantotsha is a spirit lake of this type. Hunters are careful to leave areas of forest undisturbed to allow animal populations to regenerate. Based on aerial photography, the impact of the Iyaelima on the forest is minimal; the Salonga National Park is home to an unusually large group of bonobos, a species of ape that shares 98% of their DNA with humans and are thus our closest non-human relatives. The Iyaelima have a harmonious relationship with the bonobos, whose population is much higher in Iyaelima territory than elsewhere in the park; the Iyaelima recognize that bonobos are similar in many ways to humans, see them as intelligent, but have no feeling of kinship with them and are insulted by the suggestion that they are relatives. However, they avoid bonobos when they meet them in the forest, thinking the bonobos may beat them up or kill them, just as other ethnic groups might.
For this reason, they do not kill bonobos for fear of stirring up conflict with them. The ICCN is understaffed in Salonga, with just 137 guards for the entire area, many near retirement age, where at least 1,000 would be needed to enforce conservation laws effectively; the Iyaelima, with their profound local knowledge and track record of conservation may be an effective alternative to guards
The Lugbara are an ethnic group who live in the West Nile region of Uganda and in the adjoining area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They speak the Lugbara language, a Central Sudanic language similar to the language spoken by the Madi, with whom they share many cultural similarities, they are found in South Sudan where they are known as Mundu and other names. The cultural symbol of the Lugbara is a leopard. Traditionally, the Lugbara are farmers who rear some livestock and poultry Guineafowl locally known as'ope', they are the predominant keepers of guinea fowl in Uganda. Lugbara occupy the West Nile region of Uganda and Arua, Maracha and Koboko districts of Uganda to be specific; the Lugbara are divided into many dialects which are understandable to each other. These include. Tribes related to the Lugbara in dialect include Kakwa. In the early days, the Lugbara were a chiefdom based community, they did not have kings presiding over them as like other ethnic groups in Uganda. They had chiefs who were their leaders.
They formed friendly alliances with neighbouring chiefdoms so as to ensure their security against attacks from other ethnic groups. The earlier Lugbara did not have an army in their chiefdoms; every able bodied man had the duty to protect his village hence all able bodied men were automatically considered a soldier though this was not a permanent duty. The Lugbara were animists as their mythology attests; however Christianity is now the predominant religion amongst them today with Islam another major religion. They are settled subsistence farmers. Cassava is now the traditional staple, they grow millet, legumes, pigeon peas and a variety of root crops. Before cassava was introduced to the Lugbara to manage famine when the cereal failed due to drought in the 1960s, millet and sorghum used to be their staple food. Chicken, goats, at higher elevations, cattle are important. Groundnuts, chick peas and sweet potatoes are grown. Maize is grown for brewing beer, tobacco is an important cash crop. New emerging crops are avocado and mangoes.
In early days of 1874 the North Eastern side of the Democratic Republic of Congo, a faction of the Lugbara were called "The Naked People", due to their attitude towards clothing. Most women did not wear shirts and many of them did not wear dresses, but they were covered with grass skirts or leaves. Taller than many Congolese, the Lugbara men are great hunters as well, using powerful bows with long arrows that have fishing hooks type tips; this ethnic group straddles the common border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo with the majority of their population in the Congo side of the border. Some live in South Sudan. Famous and well known Lugbara include Dorcus Inzikuru, the 3000-metre steeple chase world champion in Helsinki 2005 and Jackson Asiku, the previous Commonwealth boxing light-weight champion. Another important Lugbara is an international boxer. Idi Amin Dada's mother Aisha Aate is said to belong to the Okapi/Lenya Clan of the Lugbara tribe in the D R Congo. Lugbara cuisine Lugbara language Lugbara mythology Lugbara proverbs Middleton, J..
The Lugbara of Uganda. Case studies in cultural anthropology. New York: Holt and Winston. 2nd edition published 1992, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, ISBN 978-0-15-500622-5. Lugbara entry from Ethnologue