The Tuareg people are a large Berber ethnic confederation. They principally inhabit the Sahara in a vast area stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger and Burkina Faso. Traditionally nomadic pastoralists, small groups of Tuareg are found in northern Nigeria; the Tuareg speak the Tuareg languages. The Tuaregs have been called the "blue people" for the indigo-dye coloured clothes they traditionally wear and which stains their skin. A semi-nomadic Muslim people, they are believed to be descendants of the Berber natives of North Africa; the Tuaregs have been one of the ethnic groups that have been influential in the spread of Islam and its legacy in North Africa and the adjacent Sahel region. Tuareg society has traditionally featured clan membership, social status and caste hierarchies within each political confederation; the Tuareg have controlled several trans-Saharan trade routes and have been an important party to the conflicts in the Saharan region during the colonial and post-colonial era.
The origin and the meaning of the name Tuareg have long been debated, with various etymologies hypothesized. It would appear that Twārəg is derived from the broken plural of Tārgi, a name whose former meaning was "inhabitant of Targa", the Tuareg name of the Libyan region known as Fezzan. Targa in Berber means " channel". Another theory is that Tuareg is derived from the plural of the Arabic exonym Tariqi; the term for a Tuareg man is the term for a woman Tamajaq. Spellings of the appellation vary by Tuareg dialect. However, they all reflect the same linguistic root, expressing the notion of "freemen"; as such, the endonym refers only to the Tuareg nobility, not the artisanal client castes and the slaves. Two other Tuareg self-designations are Kel Tamasheq, meaning "speakers of Tamasheq", Kel Tagelmust, meaning "veiled people" in allusion to the tagelmust garment, traditionally worn by Tuareg men; the English exonym "Blue People" is derived from the indigo color of the tagelmust veils and other clothing, which sometimes stains the skin underneath.
Another term for the Tuareg is Imuhagh or Imushagh, a cognate to the northern Berber self-name Imazighen. The Tuareg today inhabit a vast area in the Sahara, stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger and Burkina Faso, their combined population in these territories exceeds 2.5 million, with an estimated population in Niger of around 2 million and in Mali of another 0.5 million (3% of inhabitants. The Tuareg are the majority ethnic group in the Kidal Region of northeastern Mali; the Tuareg traditionally speak the Tuareg languages known as Tamasheq, Tamashekin and Kidal. These tongues belong to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. According to Ethnologue, there are an estimated 1.2 million Tuareg speakers. Around half this number consists of speakers of the Eastern dialect; the exact number of Tuareg speakers per territory is uncertain. The CIA estimates that the Tuareg population in Mali constitutes 0.9% of the national population, whereas about 3.5% of local inhabitants speak Tuareg as a primary language.
In contrast, Imperato estimates. In antiquity, the Tuareg moved southward from the Tafilalt region into the Sahel under the Tuareg founding queen Tin Hinan, believed to have lived between the 4th and 5th century; the matriarch's 1,500 year old monumental Tin Hinan tomb is located in the Sahara at Abalessa in the Hoggar Mountains of southern Algeria. Vestiges of an inscription in Tifinagh, the Tuareg's traditional Libyco-Berber writing script, have been found on one of the ancient sepulchre's walls. External accounts of interaction with the Tuareg are available from at least the 10th century. Ibn Hawkal, El-Bekri, Ibn Batutah, Leo Africanus, all documented the Tuareg in some form as Mulatthamin or “the veiled ones.” Of the early historians, fourteenth century Arab scholar, Ibn Khaldûn has some of the most detailed commentary on the life and people of the Sahara, though he never met them. Some studies have linked the Tuareg to early ancient Egyptian civilization. At the turn of the 19th century, the Tuareg territory was organised into confederations, each ruled by a supreme Chief, along with a counsel of elders from each tribe.
These confederations are sometimes called "Drum Groups" after the Amenokal's symbol of authority, a drum. Clan elders, called Imegharan, are chosen to assist the chief of the confederation. There have been seven major confederations: Kel Ajjer or Azjar: centre is the oasis of Aghat. Kel Ahaggar, in Ahaggar mountains. Kel Adagh, or Kel Assuk: Kidal, Tin Buktu Iwillimmidan Kel Ataram, or Western Iwillimmidan: Ménaka, Azawagh region Iwillimmidan Kel Denneg, or Eastern Iwillimmidan: Tchin-Tabaraden, Teliya Azawagh. Kel Ayr: Assodé, Agadez, In Gal and Ifrwan. Kel Gres: Zinder and Tanut and south into northern Nigeria. Kel Owey: Aïr Massif, seasonally south to Tessaoua In the late 19th century, the Tuareg resisted the French colonial invasion of their Central Saharan homelands and annihilated a French expedition led by Paul Flatters in 1881. However, in the long run Tuareg broadswords were no match for the more advanced weapons of French
Cercles of Mali
A cercle is the second level administrative unit in Mali. Mali is divided into one capital district; these subdivisions bear the name of their principal city. During French colonial rule in Mali, a cercle was the smallest unit of French political administration, headed by a European officer. A cercle consisted of several cantons. In 1887 the Cercle of Bafoulabé was the first cercle to be created in Mali. In most of former French West Africa, the term cercle was changed to Prefecture or Department after independence, but this was not done in Mali; some cercles were, prior to the 1999 local government reorganisation, further divided into Arrondissements in urban areas or the vast northern regions, which consisted of a collection of Communes. Since these reforms, cercles are now directly subdivided into rural and urban communes, which in turn are divided in Quartiers which have elected councils at each level. There are 36 urban communes and 667 rural communes; the cercles are listed below. Bamako Ansongo Cercle Bourem Cercle Gao Cercle Menaka Cercle Bafoulabé Cercle Diema Cercle Kita Cercle Kéniéba Cercle Kayes Cercle Nioro du Sahel Cercle Yélimané Cercle Abeibara Cercle Kidal Cercle Tessalit Cercle Tin-Essako Cercle Banamba Cercle Dioila Cercle Kangaba Cercle Koulikoro Cercle Kolokani Cercle Kati Cercle Nara Cercle Bandiagara Cercle Bankass Cercle Djenné Cercle Douentza Cercle Koro Cercle Mopti Cercle Tenenkou Cercle Youwarou Cercle Bla Cercle Barouéli Cercle Macina Cercle Niono Cercle Ségou Cercle San Cercle Tominian Cercle Bougouni Cercle Kolondieba Cercle Kadiolo Cercle Koutiala Cercle Sikasso Cercle Yanfolila Cercle Yorosso Cercle Diré Cercle Goundam Cercle Gourma-Rharous Cercle Niafunke Cercle Timbuktu Cercle Arrondissements of Mali Regions of Mali MATCL - Ministère de l'Administration Territoriale et des Collectivités Locales: government of the Republic of Mali.
Mali Maplibrary: vector maps of national subdivisions of Mali. Regions and Places in Mali, African Development Information Services Database. Contains listing of Arrondissements under each Cercle page, as well as some Communes and places of interest in each Cercle. Benton, Lauren: Colonial Law and Cultural Difference: Jurisdictional Politics and the Formation of the Colonial State in Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 41, No. 3 Crowder, Michael: West Africa Under Colonial Rule Northwestern Univ. Press ASIN: B000NUU584 Crowder, Michael: Indirect Rule: French and British Style Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 34, No. 3 Mortimer, Edward France and the Africans, 1944–1960, A Political History Jean Suret-Canele. French Colonialism in Tropical Africa 1900-1945. Trans. Pica Press
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease and disability in the US and internationally. The CDC focuses national attention on applying disease control and prevention, it focuses its attention on infectious disease, food borne pathogens, environmental health, occupational safety and health, health promotion, injury prevention and educational activities designed to improve the health of United States citizens. In addition, the CDC researches and provides information on non-infectious diseases such as obesity and diabetes and is a founding member of the International Association of National Public Health Institutes; the Communicable Disease Center was founded July 1, 1946, as the successor to the World War II Malaria Control in War Areas program of the Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities.
Preceding its founding, organizations with global influence in malaria control were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation supported malaria control, sought to have the governments take over some of its efforts, collaborated with the agency; the new agency was a branch of the U. S. Public Health Service and Atlanta was chosen as the location because malaria was endemic in the Southern United States; the agency changed names before adopting the name Communicable Disease Center in 1946. Offices were located on the sixth floor of the Volunteer Building on Peachtree Street. With a budget at the time of about $1 million, 59 percent of its personnel were engaged in mosquito abatement and habitat control with the objective of control and eradication of malaria in the United States. Among its 369 employees, the main jobs at CDC were entomology and engineering. In CDC's initial years, more than six and a half million homes were sprayed with DDT.
In 1946, there were only seven medical officers on duty and an early organization chart was drawn, somewhat fancifully, in the shape of a mosquito. Under Joseph Walter Mountin, the CDC continued to advocate for public health issues and pushed to extend its responsibilities to many other communicable diseases. In 1947, the CDC made a token payment of $10 to Emory University for 15 acres of land on Clifton Road in DeKalb County, still the home of CDC headquarters today. CDC employees collected the money to make the purchase; the benefactor behind the “gift” was Robert W. Woodruff, chairman of the board of The Coca-Cola Company. Woodruff had a long-time interest in malaria control, a problem in areas where he went hunting; the same year, the PHS transferred its San Francisco based plague laboratory into the CDC as the Epidemiology Division, a new Veterinary Diseases Division was established. An Epidemic Intelligence Service was established in 1951 due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War.
The mission of CDC expanded beyond its original focus on malaria to include sexually transmitted diseases when the Venereal Disease Division of the U. S. Public Health Service was transferred to the CDC in 1957. Shortly thereafter, Tuberculosis Control was transferred to the CDC from PHS, in 1963 the Immunization program was established, it became the National Communicable Disease Center effective July 1, 1967. The organization was renamed the Center for Disease Control on June 24, 1970, Centers for Disease Control effective October 14, 1980. An act of the United States Congress appended the words "and Prevention" to the name effective October 27, 1992. However, Congress directed; the CDC focus has broadened to include chronic diseases, injury control, workplace hazards, environmental health threats, terrorism preparedness. CDC combats emerging diseases and other health risks, including birth defects, West Nile virus, avian and pandemic flu, E. coli, bioterrorism, to name a few. The organization would prove to be an important factor in preventing the abuse of penicillin.
In May 1994 the CDC admitted having sent several biological warfare agents to the Iraqi government from 1984 through 1989, including Botulinum toxin, West Nile virus, Yersinia pestis and Dengue fever virus. On April 21, 2005, then–CDC Director Julie Gerberding formally announced the reorganization of CDC to "confront the challenges of 21st-century health threats"; the four Coordinating Centers—established under the G. W. Bush Administration and Gerberding—"diminished the influence of national centers under umbrella", were ordered cut under the Obama Administration in 2009. Today, the CDC's Biosafety Level 4 laboratories are among the few that exist in the world, serve as one of only two official repositories of smallpox in the world; the second smallpox store resides at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in the Russian Federation. The CDC revealed in 2014 that it had discovered several misplaced smallpox samples and that lab workers had been infected with anthrax.
The CDC is organized into "Centers and Offices", with each organizational unit implementing the agency's activi
Mali the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres; the population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako; the sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on mining; some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.
In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad; the conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire. The name was derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning "hippopotamus", but it came to mean "the place where the king lives"; the word carries the connotation of strength. Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali. One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name; this name could have been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means "New Mali."Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus "Manden" shifts to /Mali/.
Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and other precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had rigid ethnic identities; the earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people. The empire expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids; the Mali Empire formed on the upper Niger River, reached the height of power in the 14th century. Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning; the empire declined as a result of internal intrigue being supplanted by the Songhai Empire. The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria; the Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule. In the late 14th century, the Songhai gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.
The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha. The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance. One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', in 1738–1756, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts killed half the population of Timbuktu." Mali fell under the control of France during the late 19th century. By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. In early 1959, French Sudan and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation; the Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960.
Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanes
Gao is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region. The city is located on the River Niger, 320 km east-southeast of Timbuktu on the left bank at the junction with the Tilemsi valley. For much of its history Gao was an important commercial centre involved in the trans-Saharan trade. In the 9th century external Arabic writers described Gao as an important regional power and by the end of the 10th century, the local ruler was said to be a Muslim. Towards the end of the 13th century Gao became part of the Mali Empire, but in first half of the 15th century the town regained its independence and with the conquests of Sunni Ali it became the capital of the Songhai Empire; the Empire collapsed after the Moroccan invasion in 1591 and the invaders chose to make Timbuktu their capital. By the time of Heinrich Barth's visit in 1854, Gao had declined to become an impoverished village with 300 huts constructed from matting. In 2009, the urban commune had a population of 86,633. On 31 March 2012, Gao was captured from Malian government forces by National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad and Ansar Dine rebels.
After the additional captures of Kidal and Timbuktu, on 6 April, the MNLA declared the region independent of Mali as the nation of Azawad and named Gao its capital. The MNLA lost control to Islamist militias after the Battle of Gao on 26 and 27 June 2012. On 26 January 2013, the city was recaptured by French military forces as part of Opération Serval. Gao is located on the eastern bank of the Niger River at the junction with the Tilemsi Valley; the sprawling town is the largest in eastern Mali. It is connected to Bamako at the western end of Mali, by 1200 km of paved road. In 2006, the Wabaria bridge was inaugurated to replace the ferry service across the Niger; the bridge was constructed by the China State Construction Engineering Corporation and financed by the Islamic Development Bank and the Malian government. The town is strategically located with road links to the desert Kidal Region to the north and to Niamey, the capital of Niger, to the south; the road to the south runs along the left bank of the river.
The town of Ansongo is 103 km from Gao. The border with Niger is just south of the village of Labbezanga, a distance of 204 km. There are seasonal ferry services on the Niger River. A service between Gao and Koulikoro, a distance of 1380 km, is managed by the Compagnie Malienne de Navigation, it operates from the end of July, after the annual rains when there is sufficient water in the river, until mid November. Smaller boats are able to operate for a longer season between Ansongo; the town is expanding rapidly. In the 1998 census, the population of the urban commune was 52,201. By the census in 2009 this had increased to a 4.7 % annual growth rate. For administrative purposes, the commune is divided into nine quartiers: Gadeye, Farandjiré, Djoulabougou, Sosso Koïra, Boulgoundjé, Château, Djidara; the urban commune is bounded to the north by the commune of Soni Ali Ber, to the east by the commune of Anchawadi and to the south and west by the commune of Gounzoureye. Gao features an arid climate under Köppen's climate classification.
Gao's climate is dry, with the only rainfall occurring between June and September. August is the wettest month; the average annual rainfall is only 220 mm. May is the hottest month, with an average maximum temperature of 43 °C. December and January are the coolest months, with minimum temperatures of 15 °C. From October to March during the dry period, the north-easterly Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara; when it blows the dust-laden wind reduces visibility and creates a persistent haze. With the low rainfall the vegetation away from the river is sparse and consists of various species of Acacia and Balanites aegyptiaca; the herbaceous plants are dominated by Panicum laetum. All the local agriculture depends on river water for irrigation; the annual flood of the Niger River is a result of the heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Niger and Bani rivers in Guinea and the northern Ivory Coast. The rainfall in the headwater areas peaks in August but the flood water takes time to pass down the river system, through the Inner Niger Delta region and arrive at Gao.
At Koulikoro the flood peaks in September, while in Gao the flood lasts longer and reaches a maximum in December. There is a large year-to-year variation in the extent of the flooding; the existing and proposed dams upstream of Gao reduce the overall flow of the river and could have a large effect on the local agriculture. When in flood the river is 4 km wide at Gao but during the dry season a number of islands appear in the river. There is little flow, only 5% of the maximum, in June and July; the history of the Gao Empire precedes that of the Songhay Empire in the region of the Middle Niger. Both empires had the town of Gao as their capital. Apart from some Arabic epitaphs on tombstones discovered in 1939 at the cemetery of Gao-Saney there are no surviving indigenous written records that date from before the middle of the 17th century. Our knowledge of the early history of the town relies on the writings of Arabic geographers living in Morocco and Andalusia, most of whom never visited the region.
These authors referred to the town as Kuku. The two key 17th century chronicles, the Tarikh al-Sudan and the Tarikh al-fattash, provide information on the town at the time of the Songhay Empire but they contain little on the social and economic history; the chronicles do not, in general, acknowledge their s
Gao Cercle is an administrative subdivision of the Gao Region of north-eastern Mali. The administrative center is the town of Gao. During the Northern Mali conflict in 2012, the main Tuareg rebel group, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad lost the region to the Islamist groups Ansar Dine, Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. In 2013, the Islamists lost most of the region to French and Malian soldiers; the cercle is divided into seven communes: Anchawadi Gabero Gao Gounzoureye N'Tillit Sony Aliber Tilemsi